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Oneself as Another

University of Chicago Press (1992)

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  1. On Seizing the Source: Toward a Phenomenology of Religious Violence.Michael Staudigl - 2016 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (5):744-782.
    In this paper I argue that we need to analyze ‘religious violence’ in the ‘post-secular context’ in a twofold way: rather than simply viewing it in terms of mere irrationality, senselessness, atavism, or monstrosity – terms which, as we witness today on an immense scale, are strongly endorsed by the contemporary theater of cruelty committed in the name of religion – we also need to understand it in terms of an ‘originary supplement’ of ‘disengaged reason’. In order to confront its (...)
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  • Philosophical Reflections on the Shaping of Identity in Fundamentalist Religious Communities.Christina M. Gschwandtner - 2016 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 24 (5):704-724.
    This paper employs Ricoeur’s hermeneutic approach to examine how fundamentalist religious communities shape personal and social identity. His biblical hermeneutics is used to analyze how narrative texts of various genres open a ‘fundamentalist’ world, while also challenging his monolithic emphasis on written texts. I argue that a wider variety of texts as well as rituals and other media must be examined, which all inform and display the fundamentalist world in important ways. Second, I employ his analysis of the formation of (...)
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  • To Die Well: The Phenomenology of Suffering and End of Life Ethics.Fredrik Svenaeus - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (3):335-342.
    The paper presents an account of suffering as a multi-level phenomenon based on concepts such as mood, being-in-the-world and core life value. This phenomenological account will better allow us to evaluate the hardships associated with dying and thereby assist health care professionals in helping persons to die in the best possible manner. Suffering consists not only in physical pain but in being unable to do basic things that are considered to bestow meaning on one’s life. The suffering can also be (...)
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  • Wittgenstein as Exile: A Philosophical Topography1.Michael A. Peters - 2008 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (5):591-605.
    This paper argues that Wittgenstein considered himself an exile and indeed was a self‐imposed exile from his native Vienna; that this condition of exile is important for understanding Wittgenstein the man and his philosophy; and that exile as a condition has become both a central characteristic condition of late modernity and emblematic of literary modernism. The paper employs the notion of ‘exhilic thought’ as a central trope for understanding Wittgenstein and the topography or geography of his thought and suggests that (...)
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  • Afghan-Americans’ Awareness of Business Ethics: A Study Based on Gender, Age, and Education.Bahaudin G. Mujtaba & Belal A. Kaifi - 2010 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 29 (1-4):33-61.
    High ethical standards have always been at the core of the Afghan culture throughout the country. Unfortunately, over the past few years in Afghanistan, bribery and corruption have become more widespread throughout the government offices as employees attempt to serve their customers. This quantitative study of 98 male and 116 female Afghan-American respondents analyzes their perceptions regarding the recognition of dilemmas related to ethics and bribery. The 214Afghan-American responses are compared with the average scores of 602 American respondents from the (...)
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  • An Inquiry Into the Concept of the African Personality (Person) as a Social-Self.Stephen Chijioke Chukwujekwu & Peter Chukwuemeka Iloanya - 2020 - Philosophy Study 10 (12).
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  • Quotations in Qualitative Studies : Reflections on Constituents, Custom, and Purpose.Ann Catrine Eldh, Liselott Arestedt & Carina Berterö - 2020 - International Journal of Qualitative Methods 19.
    Qualitative studies are often found to be accompanied by quotations from interviews or similar data sources. As with any methodological tradition, it is essential to critically explore the general principle of including quotations in scientific papers: what is the purpose and justification for including quotations? Are there standards and, in that case, what are they and what are their scientific positioning? This paper presents an overview of the somewhat diverse guidance found in the literature in reference to the representation of (...)
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  • Two-Dimensional Time.Michael Kowalik - manuscript
    Philosophical views about the logical structure of time are typically divided between proponents of A and B theories, based on McTaggart's A and B series. Drawing on Paul Ricoeur's hermeneutic phenomenology, I develop and defend McTaggart's thesis that the C series and the A series working together give a consistent description of temporal experience, provided that the two series are treated as distinct dimensions internal to time. In the proposed two-dimensional model, the C series expresses a nesting order of the (...)
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  • Admiration Over Time.Alfred Archer & Benjamin Matheson - 2020 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 101 (4):669-689.
    In this paper, we investigate the diachronic fittingness conditions of admiration – that is, what it takes for a person to continue or cease to be admirable over time. We present a series of cases that elicit judgements that suggest different understandings of admiration over time. In some cases, admirability seems to last forever. In other cases, it seems that it can cease within a person’s lifetime if she changes sufficiently. Taken together, these cases highlight what we call the puzzle (...)
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  • Extending the Embodied Semiotic Square: A Cultural-Semantic Analysis of “Follow Your Arrow”.Daniel Candel - 2020 - Semiotica 2020 (236-237):275-295.
    Pelkey’s anchoring of the semiotic square in embodiment is excellent news for cognitive literary theory, a dynamic field still in search of itself. However, his validation of the square, though theoretically unexceptionable, suffers in the execution, for his interpretation of the country song “Follow your Arrow” is less successful. The present article benefits from Pelkey’s validation as it organizes a tool of cultural-semantic analysis as a ‘deviant’ semiotic square. The article then shows how this particular semiotic square allows us to (...)
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  • Review of Another Paradise.Btihaj Ajana - 2009 - Identity in the Information Society 2 (3):319-325.
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  • Recombinant Identities: Biometrics and Narrative Bioethics.Btihaj Ajana - 2010 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (2):237-258.
    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in finding stronger means of securitising identity against the various risks presented by the mobile globalised world. Biometric technology has featured quite prominently on the policy and security agenda of many countries. It is being promoted as the solution du jour for protecting and managing the uniqueness of identity in order to combat identity theft and fraud, crime and terrorism, illegal work and employment, and to efficiently govern various domains and services (...)
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  • Globalizing Women’s Rights: Overcoming the Apartheid.María Pía Lara - 2004 - Thesis Eleven 78 (1):61-84.
    This article deals with the empirical example of how social subjects, in this case women, have appropriated the language of rights in order to demand social inclusion. Since there are many different points of view in feminist theory with regard to how to deal with the idea of women’s rights, this article is divided into three sections. In the first section, I focus on how some important normative contents about democracy and rights have already been accepted by many different theorists (...)
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  • Castoriadis and Autopoiesis.Suzi Adams - 2007 - Thesis Eleven 88 (1):76-91.
    Castoriadis’s encounter with autopoiesis was a decisive factor for his philosophical trajectory. Its influence can be seen on four interconnected levels of his thought: his reconsideration of Greek sources for his later interpretation of trans-regional being as self-creating; his rethinking of objective knowledge; his ventures into philosophical cosmology; and his re-evaluation of the living being, especially in light of his dialogue with Varela. In brief, Castoriadis’s engagement with autopoiesis was significant for his shift towards an ontology of radical physis. His (...)
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  • Beyond Compliance and Resistance: Polish Catholic Nuns Negotiating Femininity.Marta Trzebiatowska - 2013 - European Journal of Women's Studies 20 (2):204-218.
    This article examines the production of consecrated femininity in contemporary Polish convents. Drawing on qualitative data from 35 interviews in five religious communities the article explores the type of female agency which transforms the dominant model of Polish femininity instead of resisting it. Following Lois McNay’s concept of narrative identity, the article argues that female agency does not necessarily emerge out of subversion of the male-dominated Polish Catholic Church. Rather than simply being placed within discursive structures, Catholic nuns reflexively alter (...)
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  • The Capability Approach and the Politics of a Social Conception of Wellbeing.J. Allister McGregor & Séverine Deneulin - 2010 - European Journal of Social Theory 13 (4):501-519.
    The capability approach constitutes a significant contribution to social theory but its potential is diminished by its insufficient treatment of the social construction of meaning. Social meanings enable people to make value judgements about what they will do and be, and also to evaluate how satisfied they are about what they are able to achieve. From this viewpoint, a person’s state of wellbeing must be understood as being socially and psychologically co-constituted in specific social and cultural contexts. In this light, (...)
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  • Solidarity and Social Cohesion in Late Modernity: A Question of Recognition, Justice and Judgement in Situation.Søren Juul - 2010 - European Journal of Social Theory 13 (2):253-269.
    The aim of this article is to contribute to the formulation of a non-excluding concept of solidarity which is of relevance to contemporary society. The assumption is that in the present individualized and culturally diverse society there is an urgent need for a new form of solidarity to create social cohesion. The central theme is that contemporary solidarity is about recognition and a fair distribution of chances for recognition. This ideal may function as a normative standard for critical research and (...)
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  • A Future for Critique?: Positioning, Belonging and Reflexivity.Tim May - 2000 - European Journal of Social Theory 3 (2):157-173.
    The principal aim of this article is to examine the relations between positioning and belonging in terms of the potential for critique of existing social conditions. The underlying purpose is to inform social scientific engagement with social life in order to illuminate the potential for social transformation via reflexivity. These discussions will be informed by the division of reflexivity into two dimensions: endogenous and referential. It is argued that this enables the social scientist to highlight the pre-reflexive world and render (...)
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  • Introduction: Blood Donation, Bioeconomy, Culture.Jacob Copeman - 2009 - Body and Society 15 (2):1-28.
    This article explores nationalist interpretations of blood donation activity, examining how some Indians read integrative messages into the practical procedures through which blood is donated and distributed. The first post-Independence Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, proclaimed the need for `national integration' as a bulwark against a myriad of linguistic, caste and ethnic agitations that threatened to disrupt the unity of the newly formed nation-state. This article shows that a striking manifestation of the Nehruvian ideology of national integration possesses a (...)
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  • Women's Bodies, Women's Selves: Illness Narratives and the `Andean' Body.Ann Miles - 1998 - Body and Society 4 (3):1-19.
    Using the phenomenological perspective provided by the concept of embodiment, this article shows that in Cuenca, Ecuador, knowledge about the body is fluid and during illness women can seek reassurance and explanations from multiple knowledge systems, including locally understood subordinate ones. Employing the concept of `character', as described by Ricoeur, as an explanation for why some women are more vulnerable to illness than others, the author argues that gender ideologies and notions of self-identity intersect in Ecuadorian conceptions of weakness and (...)
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  • Children's Imaginings and Narratives: Inhabiting Complexity.Amal Treacher - 2006 - Feminist Review 82 (1):96-113.
    Drawing on two studies of children aged between seven and 10 years this article explores their narratives of themselves, families, sibling and peer relationships. Their narratives were full of push-pull and contradictory processes. The children moved towards knowledge as well as a disavowal of ‘reality’ about their families and material conditions. Critically they revealed profound wishes for something better alongside the knowledge that ‘this is it’. This article focuses on theorizing children's understandings of and relationships to social and material life (...)
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  • Derrida and the Promise of Community.Lawrence Burns - 2001 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 27 (6):43-53.
    This paper offers a critique of Derrida's deconstruction of the promise on the grounds that it does not adequately account for the ethical constitution of the promise in the pragmatic context of face-to-face dialogue. Instead, Derrida focuses on the way in which the promise opens the horizon of interpretation or readability for an indefinite community of readers. Derrida's view is explicated at length, drawing on Limited Inc, Le monolinguisme de l'autre: ou, la prosthèse d'origine, and 'Avances', the Preface to Serge (...)
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  • Discourse, Reflection and Commitment.Swindal James - 2003 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 29 (2):147-161.
    In response to William Rehg’s and Barbara Fultner’s criticisms, I clarify and extend some arguments found in my book Reflection Revisited. I first redescribe how Hegel’s critique of Kant’s theory of reflection opens up the possibility for an intersubjective reflection. Habermas, I argue, can exploit such a theory of reflection since it is immune from the problems attendant on a ‘theory of consciousness’. Second, I address how by means of meta-discourses temporal claims can be formalized for the pragmatics Habermas is (...)
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  • Reconstructing the Subject of Human Rights.Cheryl L. Hughes - 1999 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 25 (2):47-60.
    Recent philosophical criticisms of individual rights and the postmodern deconstruction of the sovereign subject raise serious questions for the defense of universal human rights. This paper critically examines Paul Ricoeur's effort to reconstruct a viable notion of the human subject as the bearer of human rights. Ricoeur's analysis of the narrative structure of human experiences and action takes account of the recent philosophical criticisms of sovereign subjectivity; it avoids both the fiction of the atomistic individual of liberal political philosophy and (...)
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  • Introduction.Michel Ferrari - 2010 - History of the Human Sciences 23 (3):1-14.
    The history of the science of consciousness is difficult to trace because it involves an ongoing debate over the aims involved in the study of consciousness that historically engaged people working in a variety of different, often overlapping, philosophical projects. At least three main aims of these different projects can be identified: (1) providing an ultimate foundation for natural science; (2) providing an empirical study of experience; and (3) promoting human well-being by relieving suffering and encouraging human flourishing. Each of (...)
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  • Wundt, Vygotsky and Bandura: A Cultural-Historical Science of Consciousness in Three Acts.Michel Ferrari, David K. Robinson & Anton Yasnitsky - 2010 - History of the Human Sciences 23 (3):95-118.
    This article looks at three historical efforts to coordinate the scientific study of biological and cultural aspects of human consciousness into a single comprehensive theory of human development that includes the evolution of the human body, cultural evolution and personal development: specifically, the research programs of Wilhelm Wundt, Lev Vygotsky and Albert Bandura. The lack of historical relations between these similar efforts is striking, and suggests that the effort to promote cultural and personal sources of consciousness arises as a natural (...)
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  • The Story of The Devil and Daniel Webster as a Post–Modern Allegory to Individualism in Negotiation.Mary Lindsay - 2005 - Journal of Human Values 11 (2):117-122.
    This article considers why individuals take beyond their own needs at the cost of others. Within the context of negotiations, a story is employed in framing an examination of the advancement of self–interest over connections of interdependence and civic membership. Forces of natural predisposition and environment are juxtaposed to formulate an understanding of the struggle involved in acting ethically. Notions of distributive and procedural justice are discussed with respect to claims of American citizenship, religious right, and the centrality of happiness, (...)
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  • First Among Equals: Christian Theology and Modern Philosophy.Paul Woods - 2017 - Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies 34 (3):165-175.
    Christian theology can and should interact with modern philosophical trends and ideas to remain relevant to contemporary society. The roots of critical engagement between theology and philosophy are ancient, going back to the nature of the Triune God and the Bible itself and his broad kingdom redemptive commission to the Church. Scripture is finite, anchored in space and time, but the truths within it can generate responses to new situations. Theology sits alongside other disciplines in a relationship of ‘first among (...)
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  • Personal Identity and Self-Interpretation & Natural Right and Natural Emotions.Gabor Boros, Judit Szalai & Oliver Toth (eds.) - 2020 - Budapest: Eötvös University Press.
  • For a Psychosocial Approach to Decent Work.Jacques Pouyaud - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • The Psychic Envelopes in Psychoanalytic Theories of Infancy.Denis Mellier - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Portrait of an Artist as Collaborator: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of an Artist.Ian Hocking - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Becoming in Resistance: The (Un)Creative Relation Between Non-Heterosexual Identity and Psychological Suffering.Sebastián Collado & Carolina Besoain - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
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  • The Complexity of Respecting Together: From the Point of View of One Participant of the 2012 Vancouver Naaci Conference.Susan T. Gardner - 2012 - Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 33 (1):1-12.
    Dedication: I would like to dedicate this essay to Mort Morehouse, whose intelligence, warmth, and good humour sustains NAACI to this day. I would like, too, to dedicate this essay to Nadia Kennedy who, in her paper “Respecting the Complexity of CI,” suggests that respect for the rich non-reductive emergent memories and understandings that evolve out of participating in the sort of complex communicative interactions that we experienced at the 2012 NAACI conference requires “a turning around and looking back so (...)
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  • Two Senses of Narrative Unification.Mary Jean Walker - 2018 - Philosophical Explorations 22 (1):78-93.
    In this paper I seek to clarify the role of narrative in personal unity. Examining the narrative self-constitution view developed by Marya Schechtman, I use a case of radical personal change to identify a tension in the account. The tension arises because a narrative can be regarded either to capture a continuing agent with a loosely coherent, consistent self-conception – or to unify over change and inconsistency. Two possible ways of responding, by distinguishing senses of identity or distinguishing identity and (...)
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  • Beyond Precedent Autonomy and Current Preferences: A Narrative Perspective on Advance Directives in Dementia Care.Guy Widdershoven, Rien Janssens & Yolande Voskes - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (8):104-106.
    Volume 20, Issue 8, August 2020, Page 104-106.
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  • Defining Ourselves: Personal Bioinformation as a Tool of Narrative Self-Conception.Emily Postan - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (1):133-151.
    Where ethical or regulatory questions arise about an individual’s interests in accessing bioinformation about herself, the value of this information has traditionally been construed in terms of its clinical utility. It is increasingly argued, however, that the “personal utility” of findings should also be taken into account. This article characterizes one particular aspect of personal utility: that derived from the role of personal bioinformation in identity construction. The suggestion that some kinds of information are relevant to identity is not in (...)
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  • Should Teachers Be Authentic?Lauren Bialystok - 2015 - Ethics and Education 10 (3):313-326.
    Authenticity is often touted as an important virtue for teachers. But what do we mean when we say that a teacher ought to be ‘authentic’? Research shows that discussions of teacher authenticity frequently refer to other character traits or simply to teacher effectiveness, but authenticity is a unique concept with a long philosophical history. Once we understand authenticity as an ethical and metaphysical question, the presumed connection between authenticity and teaching appears less solid. While being true to oneself may render (...)
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  • Encountering Depression In-Depth : An Existential-Phenomenological Approach to Selfhood, Depression, and Psychiatric Practice.Patrick Seniuk - 2020 - Dissertation, Södertörn University
    This dissertation in Theory of Practical Knowledge contends that depression is a disorder of the self. Using the existential-phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, I argue that if we want to disclose the basic structure of depressed experience, then we must likewise disclose how selfexperience is inseparable from depressed experience. However, even though depression is a contemporary psychiatric category of illness, it is nevertheless a historically and heterogenous concept. To make sense of depression in the context of contemporary psychiatric practice, I show (...)
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  • The Future of Value Sensitive Design.Batya Friedman, David Hendry, Steven Umbrello, Jeroen Van Den Hoven & Daisy Yoo - 2020 - Paradigm Shifts in ICT Ethics: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference ETHICOMP 2020.
    In this panel, we explore the future of value sensitive design (VSD). The stakes are high. Many in public and private sectors and in civil society are gradually realizing that taking our values seriously implies that we have to ensure that values effectively inform the design of technology which, in turn, shapes people’s lives. Value sensitive design offers a highly developed set of theory, tools, and methods to systematically do so.
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  • Development of Cultural Consciousness: From the Perspective of a Social Constructivist.Gregory M. Nixon - 2015 - International Journal of Education and Social Science 2 (10):119-136.
    In this condensed survey, I look to recent perspectives on evolution suggesting that cultural change likely alters the genome. Since theories of development are nested within assumptions about evolution (evo-devo), I next review some oft-cited developmental theories and other psychological theories of the 20th century to see if any match the emerging perspectives in evolutionary theory. I seek theories based neither in nature (genetics) nor nurture (the environment) but in the creative play of human communication responding to necessity. This survey (...)
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  • Intentionality and Narrativity in Phenomenological Psychological Research: Reflections on Husserl and Ricoeur.Marc H. Applebaum - 2014 - Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 14 (2):1-19.
    According to Husserlian scholars such as Mohanty, description and interpretation coexist within Husserl’s work and are envisioned as complementary rather than mutually exclusive approaches to inquiry. This paper argues that exploring the implications of this philosophical complementarity for psychological research would require distinguishing between both the multiple meanings of “interpretation” and the differing modes of interpretation within qualitative data. Husserl’s model of passive and active intentionality and Ricoeur’s theory of narrativity are examined in order to explore their relevance for research. (...)
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  • Codes of Ethics and Teachers’ Professional Autonomy.Marina Schwimmer & Bruce Maxwell - 2017 - Ethics and Education 12 (2):141-152.
    This article considers the value of adopting a code of professional ethics for teachers. After having underlined how a code of ethics stands to benefits a community of educators – namely, by providing a mechanism for regulating autonomy and promoting a shared professional ethic – the article examines the principal arguments against codes of ethics. Three arguments are presented and analyzed in light of the codes of teacher ethics in place elsewhere in Canada. We conclude that a code of ethics (...)
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  • The Political Importance of Voluntary Work.Harry Kunneman - 2016 - Foundations of Science 21 (2):413-432.
    This paper aims to develop a complex articulation of the civic meaningfulness of voluntary work that clarifies its political importance as a countervailing narrative pointing beyond dominant neoliberal and consumptive articulations of a good life. To start with, it sketches a hermeneutic perspective on civic meaningfulness based on the work of Paul Ricoeur. Subsequently, it introduces the ideas of ‘ethical complexity’, ‘epistemological complexity’ and ‘diapoiesis’, building on insights from critical complexity thinking and relational biology. It argues that these notions can (...)
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  • The Other From an Educational Perspective: Beyond Fear, Dependence.Miriam Prieto - 2015 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 34 (3):297-309.
    In this article I explore the implications of the educational use of diversity in current discourse and practice. I argue that the current recognition of differences through the emphasis on social identity is just the continuity of the logic that traditionally has responded to otherness through suppression or possession. The central idea is that the category of diversity, even if it is used in the educational sphere as a purveyor of recognition of otherness, hides in reality a fear of the (...)
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  • Themata in Science and in Common Sense.Ivana Marková - 2017 - Kairos 19 (1):68-92.
    Human thinking is heterogeneous, and among its different forms, thinking in dyadic oppositions is associated with the concept of themata. Gerald Holton characterises themata as elements that lie beneath the structure and development of physical theories as well as of non-scientific thinking. Themata have different uses, such as a thematic concept, or a thematic component of the concept; a methodological thema; and a propositional thema. Serge Moscovici has placed the concept of themata in the heart of his theory of social (...)
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  • Body and Self: An Entangled Narrative.Priscilla Brandon - 2016 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 15 (1):67-83.
    In the past three decades a number of narrative self-concepts have appeared in the philosophical literature. A central question posed in recent literature concerns the embodiment of the narrative self. Though one of the best-known narrative self-concepts is a non-embodied one, namely Dennett’s self as ‘a center of narrative gravity’, others argue that the narrative self should include a role for embodiment. Several arguments have been made in support of the latter claim, but these can be summarized in two main (...)
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  • Strategies of Perception of Europe and Their Reception in Lithuania.Povilas Aleksandravičius - 2019 - Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia 14 (1):161-177.
    This article analyses strategies of perception of Europe that fit into a triple structure. The traditional division into philosophical, cultural, and political Europe is intersected with more fundamental European perceptions determined by different ways of thinking. In this article, these ways are referred to as the closed, the open and the hollow ones. Thus, three different conceptions of Europe arise: the closed Europe characterized by essentialism, ethnocentrism, and monologic consciousness; the open Europe based on the standpoint that protection of one’s (...)
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  • Religious Education or Education About Religion?Joris Vlieghe - 2019 - Ethics and Education 14 (2):241-246.
    ABSTRACTIn this reply to Agbaria’s reflections on religious authority I first make a distinction between three forms of authority: theological, sociological and educational. Defending the need for a purely educational account of authority, I develop with Arendt a thing-centered approach towards education. This allows me to transcend the traditional opposition between teacher – and student-centered views in education. From this perspective I argue for making a further distinction, viz. between religious education and education about religion. I will defend the last (...)
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  • Embodied Agents, Narrative Selves.Catriona Mackenzie - 2014 - Philosophical Explorations 17 (2):154-171.
    Recent work on diachronic agency has challenged the predominantly structural or synchronic approach to agency that is characteristic of much of the literature in contemporary philosophical moral psychology. However, the embodied dimensions of diachronic agency continue to be neglected in the literature. This article draws on phenomenological perspectives on embodiment and narrative conceptions of the self to argue that diachronic agency and selfhood are anchored in embodiment. In doing so, the article also responds to Diana Meyers' recent work on corporeal (...)
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