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Rieke van der Graaf & Johannes J. M. van Delden (2012). On Using People Merely as a Means in Clinical Research.

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  1.  19
    Surrogate Consent to Non-Beneficial Research: Erring on the Right Side When Substituted Judgments May Be Inaccurate.Mats Johansson & Linus Broström - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (2):149-160.
    Part of the standard protection of decisionally incapacitated research subjects is a prohibition against enrolling them unless surrogate decision makers authorize it. A common view is that surrogates primarily ought to make their decisions based on what the decisionally incapacitated subject would have wanted regarding research participation. However, empirical studies indicate that surrogate predictions about such preferences are not very accurate. The focus of this article is the significance of surrogate accuracy in the context of research that is not expected (...)
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  2.  17
    Involving Children in Non-Therapeutic Research: On the Development Argument. [REVIEW]Linus Broström & Mats Johansson - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (1):53-60.
    Non-therapeutic research on children raises ethical concerns. Such research is not only conducted on individuals who are incapable of providing informed consent. It also typically involves some degree of risk or discomfort, without prospects of medically benefiting the participating children. Therefore, these children seem to be instrumentalized. Some ethicists, however, have tried to sidestep this problem by arguing that the children may indirectly benefit from participating in such research, in ways not related to the medical intervention as such. It has (...)
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