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  1. Postdiction: Its Implications on Visual Awareness, Hindsight, and Sense of Agency.Shinsuke Shimojo - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • Context-Dependent Brightness Priming Occurs Without Visual Awareness.Marjan Persuh & Tony Ro - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):177-185.
    Our visual systems account for stimulus context in brightness perception, but whether such adjustments occur for stimuli that we are unaware of has not been established. We therefore assessed whether stimulus context influences brightness processing by measuring unconscious priming with metacontrast masking. When a middle-gray disk was presented on a darker background, such that it could be consciously perceived as brighter via simultaneous brightness contrast , reaction times were significantly faster to a bright annulus than to a dark annulus. We (...)
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  • Common Fronto-Parietal Activity in Attention, Memory, and Consciousness: Shared Demands on Integration?Hamid Reza Naghavi & Lars Nyberg - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (2):390-425.
    Fronto-parietal activity has been frequently observed in fMRI and PET studies of attention, working memory, and episodic memory retrieval. Several recent fMRI studies have also reported fronto-parietal activity during conscious visual perception. A major goal of this review was to assess the degree of anatomical overlap among activation patterns associated with these four functions. A second goal was to shed light on the possible cognitive relationship of processes that relate to common brain activity across functions. For all reviewed functions we (...)
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  • A New Empirical Challenge for Local Theories of Consciousness.Matthias Michel & Adrien Doerig - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    Local theories of consciousness state that one is conscious of a feature if it is adequately represented and processed in sensory brain areas, given some background conditions. We challenge the core prediction of local theories based on recently discovered long-lasting postdictive effects demonstrating that features can be represented for hundreds of milliseconds in perceptual areas without being consciously perceived. Unlike previous empirical data aimed against local theories, proponents of local theories cannot explain these effects away by conjecturing that subjects are (...)
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  • EEG Differentiation Analysis and Stimulus Set Meaningfulness.Armand Mensen, William Marshall & Giulio Tononi - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
    A set of images can be considered as meaningfully different for an observer if they can be distinguished phenomenally from one another. Each phenomenal difference must be supported by some neurophysiological differences. Differentiation analysis aims to quantify neurophysiological differentiation evoked by a given set of stimuli to assess its meaningfulness to the individual observer. As a proof of concept using high-density EEG, we show increased neurophysiological differentiation for a set of natural, meaningfully different images in contrast to another set of (...)
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  • Rescuing Stimuli From Invisibility: Inducing a Momentary Release From Visual Masking with Pre-Target Entrainment.Kyle E. Mathewson, Monica Fabiani, Gabriele Gratton, Diane M. Beck & Alejandro Lleras - 2010 - Cognition 115 (1):186-191.
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  • Relationship Between Visual Binding, Reentry and Awareness.Mika Koivisto & Juha Silvanto - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1293-1303.
    Visual feature binding has been suggested to depend on reentrant processing. We addressed the relationship between binding, reentry, and visual awareness by asking the participants to discriminate the color and orientation of a colored bar and to report their phenomenal awareness of the target features. The success of reentry was manipulated with object substitution masking and backward masking. The results showed that late reentrant processes are necessary for successful binding but not for phenomenal awareness of the bound features. Binding errors (...)
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  • The Electrophysiological Correlates of Stimulus Visibility and Metacontrast Masking.Henry Railo & Mika Koivisto - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (3):794-803.
    There are conflicting views concerning the electrophysiological correlates of visual consciousness. Whereas one view considers a relatively late positive deflection as a primary correlate of consciousness, another model links consciousness with earlier negativity . The present experiment utilized metacontrast masking in investigating the electrophysiological correlates of visual consciousness. The participants were presented with target-mask sequences in three stimulus onset asynchronies. The target stimuli were followed by either a metacontrast mask or a similar-looking, but ineffective pseudomask. The results showed that the (...)
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  • Using Brain Stimulation to Disentangle Neural Correlates of Conscious Vision.Tom A. de Graaf & Alexander T. Sack - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • TMS Effects on Subjective and Objective Measures of Vision: Stimulation Intensity and Pre- Versus Post-Stimulus Masking.Tom A. de Graaf, Sonja Cornelsen, Christianne Jacobs & Alexander T. Sack - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1244-1255.
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used to mask visual stimuli, disrupting visual task performance or preventing visual awareness. While TMS masking studies generally fix stimulation intensity, we hypothesized that varying the intensity of TMS pulses in a masking paradigm might inform several ongoing debates concerning TMS disruption of vision as measured subjectively versus objectively, and pre-stimulus versus post-stimulus TMS masking. We here show that both pre-stimulus TMS pulses and post-stimulus TMS pulses could strongly mask visual stimuli. We found no dissociations (...)
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  • Early Visual Processing Allows for Selective Behavior, Shifts of Attention, and Conscious Visual Experience in Spite of Masking.Sébastien M. Crouzet, Lyudmyla Y. Kovalenko, Simon Hviid del Pin, Morten Overgaard & Niko A. Busch - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 54:89-100.
  • Examining the Role of Feedback in TMS-Induced Visual Suppression: A Cautionary Tale.Evan G. Center, Ramisha Knight, Monica Fabiani, Gabriele Gratton & Diane M. Beck - 2019 - Consciousness and Cognition 75:102805.
  • A Comparison of Masking by Visual and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Implications for the Study of Conscious and Unconscious Visual Processing.Bruno G. Breitmeyer, Tony Ro & Haluk Ogmen - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (4):829-843.
    Visual stimuli as well as transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used: to suppress the visibility of a target and to recover the visibility of a target that has been suppressed by another mask. Both types of stimulation thus provide useful methods for studying the microgenesis of object perception. We first review evidence of similarities between the processes by which a TMS mask and a visual mask can either suppress the visibility of targets or recover such suppressed visibility. However, we then (...)
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  • Attention Attenuates Metacontrast Masking.Jennifer Boyer & Tony Ro - 2007 - Cognition 104 (1):135-149.
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  • Keeping Postdiction Simple.Valtteri Arstila - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 38:205-216.
    abstract Postdiction effects are phenomena in which a stimulus influences the appearance of events taking place before it. In metacontrast masking, for instance, a masking stimulus can ren- der a target stimulus shown before the mask invisible. This and other postdiction effects have been considered incompatible with a simple explanation according to which (i) our perceptual experiences are delayed for only the time it takes for a distal stimulus to reach our sensory receptors and for our neural mechanisms to process (...)
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  • A Unified Cognitive Model of Visual Filling-In Based on an Emergic Network Architecture.David Pierre Leibovitz - 2013 - Dissertation, Carleton University
    The Emergic Cognitive Model (ECM) is a unified computational model of visual filling-in based on the Emergic Network architecture. The Emergic Network was designed to help realize systems undergoing continuous change. In this thesis, eight different filling-in phenomena are demonstrated under a regime of continuous eye movement (and under static eye conditions as well). -/- ECM indirectly demonstrates the power of unification inherent with Emergic Networks when cognition is decomposed according to finer-grained functions supporting change. These can interact to raise (...)
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  • The Electromagnetic Field Theory of Consciousness.Susan Pockett - 2012 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (11-12):191-223.
    The electromagnetic field theory of consciousness proposes that conscious experiences are identical with certain electromagnetic patterns generated by the brain. While the theory has always acknowledged that not all of the electromagnetic patterns generated by brain activity are conscious, until now it has not been able to specify what might distinguish conscious patterns from non-conscious patterns. Here a hypothesis is proposed about the 3D shape of electromagnetic fields that are conscious, as opposed to those that are not conscious. Seven predictions (...)
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  • The Emergence of Emotions.Richard Sieb - 2013 - Activitas Nervosa Superior 55 (4):115-145.
    Emotion is conscious experience. It is the affective aspect of consciousness. Emotion arises from sensory stimulation and is typically accompanied by physiological and behavioral changes in the body. Hence an emotion is a complex reaction pattern consisting of three components: a physiological component, a behavioral component, and an experiential (conscious) component. The reactions making up an emotion determine what the emotion will be recognized as. Three processes are involved in generating an emotion: (1) identification of the emotional significance of a (...)
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  • Four-Dimensional Consciousness.Richard Allen Sieb - 2017 - Activitas Nervosa Superior 59 (2):(43-60).
    Conscious experience is the direct observation of conscious events. Human conscious experience is four-dimensional. Conscious events are linked (associated) by spacetime intervals to produce a coherent conscious experience. This explains why conscious experience appears to us the way it does. Conscious experience is an orientation in space and time, an understanding of the position of the observer in space and time. Causality, past-future relations, learning, memory, cognitive processing, and goal-directed actions all evolve from four-dimensional conscious experience. A neural correlate for (...)
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