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Maternal Thinking: Towards a Politics of Peace

The Women's Press (1989)

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  1. The Early Relationship of Mother and Pre‐Infant: Merleau‐Ponty and Pregnancy.Francine Wynn - 2002 - Nursing Philosophy 3 (1):4-14.
    This paper critically evaluates current conceptions of pregnancy as a possession of either mother or infant. In opposition to the more common stance that marks birth as the beginning of intercorporeality and perception, pregnancy is instead phenomenologically delineated as a chiasmic relationship between mother and her pre‐infant from a Merleau‐Pontian perspective. This paper maintains that during pregnancy a mother‐to‐be and her pre‐infant are deepened and modified through their intertwining.
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  • Rehabilitating Self-Sacrifice: Care Ethics and the Politics of Resistance.Amanda Cawston & Alfred Archer - 2018 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 26 (3):456-477.
    How should feminists view acts of self-sacrifice performed by women? According to a long-standing critique of care ethics such acts ought to be viewed with scepticism. Care ethics, it is claimed, celebrates acts of self-sacrifice on the part of carers and in doing so encourages women to choose caring for others over their own self-development. In doing so, care ethics frustrates attempts to liberate women from the oppression of patriarchy. Care ethicists have responded to this critique by noting limits on (...)
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  • Moral Distress in Health Care: When is It Fitting?Lisa Tessman - 2020 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 23 (2):165-177.
    Nurses and other medical practitioners often experience moral distress: they feel an anguished sense of responsibility for what they take to be their own moral failures, even when those failures were unavoidable. However, in such cases other people do not tend to think it is right to hold them responsible. This is an interesting mismatch of reactions. It might seem that the mismatch should be remedied by assuring the practitioner that they are not responsible, but I argue that this denies (...)
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  • Leaving Gift-Giving Behind: The Ethical Status of the Human Body and Transplant Medicine.Paweł Łuków - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (2):221-230.
    The paper argues that the idea of gift-giving and its associated imagery, which has been founding the ethics of organ transplants since the time of the first successful transplants, should be abandoned because it cannot effectively block arguments for markets in human body parts. The imagery suggests that human bodies or their parts are transferable objects which belong to individuals. Such imagery is, however, neither a self-evident nor anthropologically unproblematic construal of the relation between a human being and their body. (...)
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  • The Sensible Health Care Professional: A Care Ethical Perspective on the Role of Caregivers in Emotionally Turbulent Practices.Vivianne Baur, Inge van Nistelrooij & Linus Vanlaere - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (4):483-493.
    This article discusses the challenging context that health care professionals are confronted with, and the impact of this context on their emotional experiences. Care ethics considers emotions as a valuable source of knowledge for good care. Thinking with care ethical theory and looking through a care ethical lens at a practical case example, the authors discern reflective questions that shed light on a care ethical approach toward the role of emotions in care practices, and may be used by practitioners and (...)
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  • Self-Sacrifice and Self-Affirmation Within Care-Giving.Inge van Nistelrooy - 2014 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 17 (4):519-528.
    According to the ethics of care, practices of care are sources of moral knowledge that take human relatedness into account. However, caregivers may also find themselves in situations that demand sacrifices, even to the point where their own self is at stake. This may not only be cause for concern about the risks of caregivers, the result of an unequal distribution of power, but it may as well be a chance for affirmation of one’s identity, of self-attestation. As Ricoeur argues, (...)
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  • Gender Justice or Gendered Justice? Female Defendants in International Criminal Tribunals.Natalie Hodgson - 2017 - Feminist Legal Studies 25 (3):337-357.
    Recent scholarship has given increasing attention to studying women’s involvement in conflict and mass violence. However, there is comparatively less discussion of the experiences of women as actors and perpetrators in conflict, and limited discussion of women as defendants in international criminal tribunals. This article explores this under-researched area. By analysing legal materials from the cases of six female defendants, this article investigates the extent to which legal discourses are shaped by stereotypes regarding femininity, conflict and peace. It identifies three (...)
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  • Other Mothers: Toward an Ethic of Postmaternal Practice.Meredith W. Michaels - 1996 - Hypatia 11 (2):49 - 70.
    This essay attempts a deliberately perverse interpretation of the new reproductive practices (e.g., contract pregnancy, in vitro fertilization, etc.) in an effort to rethink maternal subjectivity and the bodies that might accompany it.
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  • Cooperative Intuitionism.Stephen Ingram - 2020 - The Philosophical Quarterly 70 (281):780-799.
    According to pluralistic intuitionist theories, some of our moral beliefs are non-inferentially justified, and these beliefs come in both an a priori and an a posteriori variety. In this paper I present new support for this pluralistic form of intuitionism by examining the deeply social nature of moral inquiry. This is something that intuitionists have tended to neglect. It does play an important role in an intuitionist theory offered by Bengson, Cuneo, and Shafer-Landau (forth), but whilst they invoke the social (...)
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  • The Evolutionary Ecology of Attachment Organization.James S. Chisholm - 1996 - Human Nature 7 (1):1-37.
  • Feminist Perspectives on the Body.Kathleen Lennon - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  • Feminist Social Epistemology.Heidi Grasswick - 2006 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Feminist Perspectives on Class and Work.Ann Ferguson - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Pacifism.Andrew Fiala - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • Feminist Bioethics.Anne Donchin - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  • A Lay Ethics Quest for Technological Futures: About Tradition, Narrative and Decision-Making.Simone van der Burg - 2016 - NanoEthics 10 (3):233-244.
    Making better choices about future technologies that are being researched or developed is an important motivator behind lay ethics interventions. However, in practice, they do not always succeed to serve that goal. Especially authors who have noted that lay ethicists sometimes take recourse to well-known themes which stem from old, even ‘archetypical’ stories, have been criticized for making too little room for agency and decision-making in their approach. This paper aims to contribute to a reflection on how lay ethics can (...)
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  • Reasonable Responses: The Thought of Trudy Govier.Hundleby Catherine (ed.) - 2017 - Windsor: University of Windsor.
    This tribute to the breadth and influence of Trudy Govier’s philosophical work begins with her early scholarship in argumentation theory, paying special attention to its pedagogical expression. Most people first encounter Trudy Govier’s work and many people only encounter it through her textbooks, especially A Practical Study of Argument, published in many editions. In addition to the work on argumentation that has continued throughout her career, much of Govier’s later work addresses social philosophy and the problems of trust and response (...)
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  • Negotiating ‘Surrogate Mothering’ and Women’s Freedom.Zairu Nisha - 2022 - Asian Bioethics Review 14 (3):271-285.
    Surrogacy is one of the desired reproductive technologies for family formation, yet surrogate mothers are subjected to unethical treatments and unbalanced power relations in India. Such treatment obscures women’s free decision-making and can be detrimental to their maternal self. Recently, the Surrogacy Act, 2021, has received the President’s approval to regulate surrogacy practices by limiting them for the altruistic motives which have again provoked the burning debates regarding reproductive technologies, women’s emancipation and procreative labour. The paper thus explores women’s agency, (...)
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  • Care Ethics and Confucianism: Caring Through Li.Kelly M. Epley - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (4):881-896.
    The role of li, or ritual, in Confucianism is a perceived impediment to interpreting Confucianism to share a similar ethical framework with care ethics because care ethics is a form of moral particularism. I argue that this perception is false. The form of moral particularism promoted by care ethicists does not entail the abandonment of social conventions such as li. On the contrary, providing good care often requires employing systems of readily recognizable norms in order to ensure that care is (...)
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  • Post-Communist Canine: A Feminist Approach to Women and Dogs in Canine Performance Sports in Poland.Justyna Wlodarczyk - 2016 - Society and Animals 24 (2):129-152.
    The article attempts to present the complexity of relationships between women, capitalism, democracy, and competitive dog training in post-communist Poland. The article documents the correlation between increased involvement of women in competitive canine sports in Poland after 1989, changes in the methods of dog training, and the transformation in politics from totalitarianism to democracy. The correlation suggests that in the early years of democracy in Poland women were more open to shaping their bonds with companion animals and to taking into (...)
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  • Infinite Responsibility in the Bedpan: Response Ethics, Care Ethics, and the Phenomenology of Dependency Work.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (4):779-794.
    Drawing upon the practice of caregiving and the insights of feminist care ethics, I offer a phenomenology of caregiving through the work of Eva Feder Kittay and Emmanuel Lévinas. I argue that caregiving is a material dialectic of embodied response involving moments of leveling, attention, and interruption. In this light, the Levinasian opposition between responding to another's singularity and leveling it via parity-based principles is belied in the experience of care. Contra much of response ethics’ and care ethics’ respective literatures, (...)
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  • Experimental Design: Ethics, Integrity and the Scientific Method.Jonathan Lewis - 2020 - In Ron Iphofen (ed.), Handbook of Research Ethics and Scientific Integrity. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 459-474.
    Experimental design is one aspect of a scientific method. A well-designed, properly conducted experiment aims to control variables in order to isolate and manipulate causal effects and thereby maximize internal validity, support causal inferences, and guarantee reliable results. Traditionally employed in the natural sciences, experimental design has become an important part of research in the social and behavioral sciences. Experimental methods are also endorsed as the most reliable guides to policy effectiveness. Through a discussion of some of the central concepts (...)
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  • Groundwork for Transfeminist Care Ethics: Sara Ruddick, Trans Children, and Solidarity in Dependency.Amy Marvin - 2019 - Hypatia 34 (1):101-120.
    This essay considers the dependency of trans youth by bridging transgender studies with feminist care ethics to emphasize a trans wisdom about solidarity through dependency. The first major section of the essay argues for reworking Sara Ruddick's philosophy of mothering in the context of trans and gender‐creative youth. This requires, first, stressing a more robust interaction among her divisions of preservative love, nurturance for growth, and training for acceptability, and second, creating a more nuanced account of “nature” in relation to (...)
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  • “Maternal Thinking” and the Concept of “Vulnerability” in Security Paradigms, Policies, and Practices.Carol Cohn - 2014 - Journal of International Political Theory 10 (1):46-69.
    This article takes as its starting point Sara Ruddick’s discussion of “vulnerability” in her 1989 groundbreaking book Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace. It examines the kind of thinking about vulnerability that Ruddick describes as developed through maternal practice and uses it as a heuristic device for rethinking the conceptions of and responses to vulnerability that permeate national and international security discourses. It explores the specific forms of practice and reason that are implicated by these different stances toward vulnerability (...)
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  • Revisiting Ruddick: Feminism, Pacifism and Non-Violence.Elizabeth Frazer & Kimberly Hutchings - 2014 - Journal of International Political Theory 10 (1):109-124.
    This article explores feminist contentions over pacifism and non-violence in the context of the Greenham Common Peace Camp in the 1980s and later developments of feminist Just War Theory. We argue that Sara Ruddick’s work puts feminist pacifism, its radical feminist critics and feminist just war theory equally into question. Although Ruddick does not resolve the contestations within feminism over peace, violence and the questions of war, she offers a productive way of holding the tension between them. In our judgment, (...)
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  • States as Social Entities: Re-Examining the Assumption of Mutual Disinterest in Rawls’ Law of Peoples.Amy E. Eckert - 2015 - Journal of International Political Theory 11 (2):224-238.
    In The Law of Peoples, John Rawls modeled peoples as being independent and mutually disinterested. This is an assumption that mirrors his treatment of individual persons in the domestic context. This article argues that this assumption does not translate to the international context. While individual persons do not require the existence of other persons, states cannot exist independently of other states. Because statehood is a social construct, states require the recognition of other states, and they are incapable of being considered (...)
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  • The Gift Paradigm in Early Childhood Education.Genevieve Vaughan & Eila Estola - 2007 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (3):246–263.
    This paper promotes a philosophy derived from the direct distribution of goods to needs that occur in mothering and invisibly in many other aspects of life. Such a philosophy is suggested as an alternative to market based values, which currently permeate society. It is important to bring alternative values to consciousness and validate them for both teachers and children so that the orientation towards the other that characterizes the gift paradigm will not be lost in the fight for survival endemic (...)
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  • Home and Identity: In Memory of Iris Marion Young.Allison Weir - 2008 - Hypatia 23 (3):pp. 4-21.
    Drawing on Iris Marion Young’s essay, “House and Home: Feminist Variations on a Theme,” Weir argues for an alternative ideal of home that involves: (1) the risk of connection, and of sustaining relationship through conflict; (2) relational identities, constituted through both relations of power and relations of mutuality, love, and flourishing; (3) relational autonomy: freedom as the capacity to be in relationships one desires, and freedom as expansion of self in relationship; and (4) connection to past and future, through reinterpretive (...)
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  • Responding to Children's Needs: Amplifying the Caring Ethic.Joan F. Goodman - 2008 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 42 (2):233-248.
    According to care theory the good parent confronting a helpless child has an unmediated impulse to relieve his distress; that impulse grows into a prescriptive ethic of relatedness, often contrasted to the more individualistic ethic of justice. If, however, a child's nature is understood as assertive and competent as well as fragile and dependent; if, in addition, he acquires needs through socialisation and is the beneficiary of inferred needs determined by others, then an ethic of need-gratification is insufficient. Caring theory, (...)
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  • Moral Education in an Age of Globalization.Nel Noddings - 2010 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 42 (4):390-396.
    Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.
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  • On the Harmony of Feminist Ethics and Business Ethics.Janet L. Borgerson - 2007 - Business and Society Review 112 (4):477-509.
    If business requires ethical solutions that are viable in the liminal landscape between concepts and corporate office, then business ethics and corporate social responsibility should offer tools that can survive the trek, that flourish in this well-traveled, but often unarticulated, environment. Indeed, feminist ethics produces, accesses, and engages such tools. However, work in BE and CSR consistently conflates feminist ethics and feminine ethics and care ethics. I offer clarification and invoke the analytic power of three feminist ethicists 'in action' whose (...)
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  • Seeking Solidarity.Sally J. Scholz - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (10):725-735.
    Using relations of solidarity in global contexts, this article explores some of the debates about what constitutes solidarity. Three primary forms of solidarity are discussed, with particular attention to the different nature of the solidaristic relations and their moral obligations.
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  • The Personal is Philosophical is Political: A Philosopher and Mother of a Cognitively Disabled Person Sends Notes From the Battlefield.Eva Feder Kittay - 2009 - Metaphilosophy 40 (3-4):606-627.
  • Rethinking Ruddick and the Ethnocentrism Critique of Maternal Thinking.Jean Keller - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (4):834-851.
    In the early 1990s, Sara Ruddick's Maternal Thinking was criticized for harboring a latent ethnocentrism. Ruddick responded to these critiques in the 1995 edition of her book, but her response has not yet been addressed in the feminist philosophical literature. This essay addresses this lacuna in the scholarship on Ruddick. In the last installment of this critique, Alison Bailey and Patrice DiQuinzio suggested that the only way for Ruddick to avoid the ethnocentrism charge would require her near-universalistic claims about mothering (...)
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  • Asymmetrical Genders: Phenomenological Reflections on Sexual Difference.Silvia Stoller & Translated By Camilla R. Nielsen - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (2):7-26.
    One of the most fundamental premises of feminist philosophy is the assumption of an invidious asymmetry between the genders that has to be overcome. Parallel to this negative account of asymmetry we also find a positive account, developed in particular within the context of so-called feminist philosophies of difference. I explore both notions of gender asymmetry. The goal is a clarification of the notion of asymmetry as it can presently be found in feminist philosophy. Drawing upon phenomenology as well as (...)
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  • The "Nanny" Question in Feminism.Joan C. Tronto - 2002 - Hypatia 17 (2):34-51.
    : Are social movements responsible for their unfinished agendas? Feminist successes in opening the professions to women paved the way for the emergence of the upper middle-class two-career household. These households sometimes hire domestic servants to accomplish their child care work. If, as I shall argue, this practice is unjust and furthers social inequality, then it poses a moral problem for any feminist commitment to social justice.
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  • Dismantling the Self/Other Dichotomy in Science: Towards a Feminist Model of the Immune System.Lisa Weasel - 2001 - Hypatia 16 (1):27-44.
    : Despite the development of a vast body of literature pertaining to feminism and science, examples of how feminist philosophies might be applied to scientific theories and practice have been limited. Moreover, most scientists remain unfamiliar with how feminism pertains to their work. Using the example of the immune system, this paper applies three feminist epistemologies--feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and feminist postmodernism--to assess competing claims of immune function within a feminist context.
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  • Abortion, Killing, and Maternal Moral Authority.Soran Reader - 2008 - Hypatia 23 (1):132-149.
    : A threat to women is obscured when we treat "abortion-as-evacuation" as equivalent to "abortion-as-killing." This holds only if evacuating a fetus kills it. As technology advances, the equivalence will fail. Any feminist account of abortion that relies on the equivalence leaves moral room for women to be required to give up their fetuses to others when it fails. So an account of the justification of abortion-as-killing is needed that does not depend on the equivalence.
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  • Millett's Rationalist Error.Ross Elliot Eddington - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (3):193-211.
    : This article examines Millett's condemnation of Ruskin in Sexual Politics (1977) to demonstrate that Ruskin's views on women are the product of a specific mode of experience—one that precludes his views being representative of traditional Victorian patriarchy. The article uses Oakeshott's philosophical framework of different modes of experience to illustrate that Millett narrowly interprets Ruskin's statements on women from her own modal perspective without considering his broader belief in the imaginative over the rational faculty.
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  • Can Politics Practice Compassion?Elisabeth Porter - 2001 - Hypatia 21 (4):97-123.
    : On realist terms, politics is about power, security, and order, and the question of whether politics can practice compassion is irrelevant. The author argues that a politics of compassion is possible and necessary in order to address human security needs. She extend debates on care ethics to develop a politics of compassion, using the example of asylum seekers to demonstrate that politics can practice compassion with attentiveness to the needs of vulnerable people who are suffering, an active listening to (...)
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  • Simone de Beauvoir and the Ambiguous Ethics of Political Violence.Kimberly Hutchings - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (3):111-132.
    : In this essay, Hutchings contends that Simone de Beauvoir's argument in The Ethics of Ambiguity provides a valuable resource for feminists currently addressing the question of the legitimacy of political violence, whether of the state or otherwise. The reason is not that Beauvoir provides a definitive answer to this question, but rather because of the ways in which she deconstructs it. In enabling her reader to appreciate what is presupposed by a resistant politics that adopts violence as its instrument, (...)
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  • Care Ethics and Virtue Ethics.Raja Halwani - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (3):161-192.
    : The paper argues that care ethics should be subsumed under virtue ethics by construing care as an important virtue. Doing so allows us to achieve two desirable goals. First, we preserve what is important about care ethics (for example, its insistence on particularity, partiality, emotional engagement, and the importance of care to our moral lives). Second, we avoid two important objections to care ethics, namely, that it neglects justice, and that it contains no mechanism by which care can be (...)
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  • On the Lap of Necessity: A Mythic Reading of Teresa Brennan's Energetics Philosophy.Jane Caputi - 2001 - Hypatia 16 (2):1-26.
    : In several works Teresa Brennan examines how, contrary to social notions of the separate and contained self, all that exists in the natural world is connected energetically. She identifies a "foundational fantasy" whereby the ego comes into existence and is maintained by the notion that it controls the mother. The effects of this fantasy are socially oppressive and, in the technological era, environmentally disastrous. My examination of narratives and images in ancient myth, popular culture, literature, and art suggest ways (...)
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  • The Legacy of White Supremacy and the Challenge of White Antiracist Mothering.Rebecca Aanerud - 2007 - Hypatia 22 (2):20-38.
    : Aanerud's project is to develop an account of white antiracist mothering, using a model of maternal duty to raise antiracist white children. The author sets this project in the context of historic constructions of white mothering in the twentieth century and then contrasts the need for an exploration of white mothers raising white children against the literature of white mothers' raising children of color and mothers of color raising their own children, Once this distinction is made, Aanerud uses Collins's (...)
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  • That Many of Us Should Not Parent.Lisa Cassidy - 2001 - Hypatia 21 (4):40-57.
    : In liberal societies (where birth control is generally accepted and available), many people decide whether or not they wish to become parents. One key question in making this decision is, What kind of parent will I be? Parenting competence can be ranked from excellent to competent to poor. Cassidy argues that those who can foresee being poor parents, or even merely competent ones, should opt not to parent.
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  • Is Empathy Gendered and, If So, Why? An Approach From Feminist Psychological Anthropology.Claudia Strauss - 2004 - Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 32 (4):432-457.
  • Perpetual Struggle.Kathryn J. Norlock - 2018 - Hypatia 34 (1):6-19.
    Open Access: What if it doesn’t get better? Against more hopeful and optimistic views that it is not just ideal but possible to put an end to what John Rawls calls “the great evils of human history,” I aver that when it comes to evils caused by human beings, the situation is hopeless. We are better off with the heavy knowledge that evils recur than we are with idealizations of progress, perfection, and completeness; an appropriate ethic for living with such (...)
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  • Adoption, ART, and a Re‐Conception of the Maternal Body: Toward Embodied Maternity.Sarah-Vaughan Brakman & Sally J. Scholz - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (1):54-73.
    We criticize a view of maternity that equates the natural with the genetic and biological and show how such a practice overdetermines the maternal body and the maternal experience for women who are mothers through adoption and ART . As an alternative, we propose a new framework designed to rethink maternal bodies through the lens of feminist embodiment. Feminist embodied maternity, as we call it, stresses the particularity of experience through subjective embodiment. A feminist embodied maternity emphasizes the physical relations (...)
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  • Mothering, Diversity, and Peace Politics.Alison Bailey - 1994 - Hypatia 9 (2):188-198.
    The most popular uniting theme in feminist peace literature grounds women's peace work in mothering. I argue if maternal arguments do not address the variety of relationships different races and classes of mothers have to institutional violence and/or the military, then the resulting peace politics can only draw incomplete conclusions about the relationships between maternal work/thinking and peace. To illustrate this I compare two models of mothering: Sara Ruddick's decription of "maternal practice" and Patricia Hill Collins's account of racial-ethnic women's (...)
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  • Constructing Maternal Thinking.Jean P. Rumsey - 1990 - Hypatia 5 (3):125-131.
    Sara Ruddick's Maternal Thinking represents a great contribution to moral philosophy—in particular, by bringing women's “private” virtues into the public sphere. However, there remain problems in the analysis which need to be addressed: How can one possibly generalize about the practice of mothering from one, necessarily limited, perspective, given the facts of cultural diversity? Is Ruddick's normative account of mothering congruent with the reflective judgments of others? Is her account of the transformation of parochial mothering into feminist peace work viable? (...)
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