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  1. Ethical Understandings of Proxy Decision Making for Research Involving Adults Lacking Capacity: A Systematic Review of Empirical Research.Victoria Shepherd, Kerenza Hood, Mark Sheehan, Richard Griffith, Amber Jordan & Fiona Wood - forthcoming - Ajob Empirical Bioethics:1-20.
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  • The is and Ought of the Ethics of Neuroenhancement: Mind the Gap.Cynthia Forlini & Wayne Hall - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Trust Increases Euthanasia Acceptance: A Multilevel Analysis Using the European Values Study.Vanessa Köneke - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):86.
    This study tests how various kinds of trust impact attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public. The indication that trust might have an impact on euthanasia attitudes is based on the slippery slope argument, which asserts that allowing euthanasia might lead to abuses and involuntary deaths. Adopting this argument usually leads to less positive attitudes towards euthanasia. Tying in with this, it is assumed here that greater trust diminishes such slippery slope fears, and thereby increases euthanasia acceptance.
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  • Research Across the Disciplines: A Road Map for Quality Criteria in Empirical Ethics Research.Marcel Mertz, Julia Inthorn, Günter Renz, Lillian Geza Rothenberger, Sabine Salloch, Jan Schildmann, Sabine Wöhlke & Silke Schicktanz - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):17.
    Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE (...)
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  • The Values and Ethical Commitments of Doctors Engaging in Macroallocation: A Qualitative and Evaluative Analysis.Siun Gallagher, Miles Little & Claire Hooker - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):75.
    In most socialised health systems there are formal processes that manage resource scarcity and determine the allocation of funds to health services in accordance with their priority. In this analysis, part of a larger qualitative study examining the ethical issues entailed in doctors’ participation as technical experts in priority setting, we describe the values and ethical commitments of doctors who engage in priority setting and make an empirically derived contribution towards the identification of an ethical framework for doctors’ macroallocation work. (...)
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  • Standards of Practice in Empirical Bioethics Research: Towards a Consensus.Jonathan Ives, Michael Dunn, Bert Molewijk, Jan Schildmann, Kristine Bærøe, Lucy Frith, Richard Huxtable, Elleke Landeweer, Marcel Mertz, Veerle Provoost, Annette Rid, Sabine Salloch, Mark Sheehan, Daniel Strech, Martine de Vries & Guy Widdershoven - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):68.
    Background This paper reports the process and outcome of a consensus finding project, which began with a meeting at the Brocher Foundation in May 2015. The project sought to generate and reach consensus on standards of practice for Empirical Bioethics research. The project involved 16 academics from 5 different European Countries, with a range of disciplinary backgrounds. Methods The consensus process used a modified Delphi approach. Results Consensus was reached on 15 standards of practice, organised into 6 domains of research (...)
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  • Ethics by Opinion Poll?: The Functions of Attitudes Research for Normative Deliberations in Medical Ethics.Sabine Salloch, Jochen Vollmann & Jan Schildmann - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (9):597-602.
    Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical (...)
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  • Research Participants’ Perceptions and Views on Consent for Biobank Research: A Review of Empirical Data and Ethical Analysis.Flavio D'Abramo, Jan Schildmann & Jochen Vollmann - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):60.
    Appropriate information and consent has been one of the most intensely discussed topics within the context of biobank research. In parallel to the normative debate, many socio-empirical studies have been conducted to gather experiences, preferences and views of patients, healthy research participants and further stakeholders. However, there is scarcity of literature which connects the normative debate about justifications for different consent models with findings gained in empirical research. In this paper we discuss findings of a limited review of socio-empirical research (...)
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  • An Update on the “Empirical Turn” in Bioethics: Analysis of Empirical Research in Nine Bioethics Journals.Tenzin Wangmo, Sirin Hauri, Eloise Gennet, Evelyn Anane-Sarpong, Veerle Provoost & Bernice S. Elger - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):6.
    A review of literature published a decade ago noted a significant increase in empirical papers across nine bioethics journals. This study provides an update on the presence of empirical papers in the same nine journals. It first evaluates whether the empirical trend is continuing as noted in the previous study, and second, how it is changing, that is, what are the characteristics of the empirical works published in these nine bioethics journals. A review of the same nine journals was conducted (...)
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  • The Normative Background of Empirical-Ethical Research: First Steps Towards a Transparent and Reasoned Approach in the Selection of an Ethical Theory.Sabine Salloch, Sebastian Wäscher, Jochen Vollmann & Jan Schildmann - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):20.
    Empirical-ethical research constitutes a relatively new field which integrates socio-empirical research and normative analysis. As direct inferences from descriptive data to normative conclusions are problematic, an ethical framework is needed to determine the relevance of the empirical data for normative argument. While issues of normative-empirical collaboration and questions of empirical methodology have been widely discussed in the literature, the normative methodology of empirical-ethical research has seldom been addressed. Based on our own research experience, we discuss one aspect of this normative (...)
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  • Illness and Disease: An Empirical-Ethical Viewpoint.Anna-Henrikje Seidlein & Sabine Salloch - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):5.
    The concepts of disease, illness and sickness capture fundamentally different aspects of phenomena related to human ailments and healthcare. The philosophy and theory of medicine are making manifold efforts to capture the essence and normative implications of these concepts. In parallel, socio-empirical studies on patients’ understanding of their situation have yielded a comprehensive body of knowledge regarding subjective perspectives on health-related statuses. Although both scientific fields provide varied valuable insights, they have not been strongly linked to each other. Therefore, the (...)
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  • On Classifying the Field of Medical Ethics.Kristine Bærøe, Jonathan Ives, Martine de Vries & Jan Schildmann - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):30.
    In 2014, the editorial board of BMC Medical Ethics came together to devise sections for the journal that would give structure to the journal help ensure that authors’ research is matched to the most appropriate editors and help readers to find the research most relevant to them. The editorial board decided to take a practical approach to devising sections that dealt with the challenges of content management. After that, we started thinking more theoretically about how one could go about classifying (...)
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  • Was ist ein ethisches Problem und wie finde ich es? Theoretische, methodologische und forschungspraktische Fragen der Identifikation ethischer Probleme am Beispiel einer empirisch-ethischen Interventionsstudie.Sabine Salloch, Peter Ritter, Sebastian Wäscher, Jochen Vollmann & Jan Schildmann - 2016 - Ethik in der Medizin 28 (4):267-281.
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  • Translational Ethics: An Analytical Framework of Translational Movements Between Theory and Practice and a Sketch of a Comprehensive Approach.Kristine Bærøe - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):71.
    Translational research in medicine requires researchers to identify the steps to transfer basic scientific discoveries from laboratory benches to bedside decision-making, and eventually into clinical practice. On a parallel track, philosophical work in ethics has not been obliged to identify the steps to translate theoretical conclusions into adequate practice. The medical ethicist A. Cribb suggested some years ago that it is now time to debate ‘the business of translational’ in medical ethics. Despite the very interesting and useful perspective on the (...)
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  • The Use of Empirical Research in Bioethics: A Survey of Researchers in Twelve European Countries.Tenzin Wangmo & Veerle Provoost - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):79.
    The use of empirical research methods in bioethics has been increasing in the last decades. It has resulted in discussions about the ‘empirical turn of bioethics’ and raised questions related to the value of empirical work for this field, methodological questions about its quality and rigor, and how this integration of the normative and the empirical can be achieved. The aim of this paper is to describe the attitudes of bioethics researchers in this field towards the use of empirical research, (...)
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  • How Experience Makes a Difference: Practitioners' Views on the Use of Deferred Consent in Paediatric and Neonatal Emergency Care Trials.Kerry Woolfall, Lucy Frith, Carrol Gamble & Bridget Young - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):45.
    In 2008 UK legislation was amended to enable the use of deferred consent for paediatric emergency care (EC) trials in recognition of the practical and ethical difficulties of obtaining prospective consent in an emergency situation. However, ambiguity about how to make deferred consent acceptable to parents, children and practitioners remains. In particular, little is known about practitioners’ views and experiences of seeking deferred consent in this setting.
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  • “Ceteris Paribus” and Morally Relevant Facts.Jan Schildmann, Florian Bruns & Alexander Kremling - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (3):66-67.
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  • The Acceptability of Online Consent in a Self-Test Serosurvey of Responders to the 2014–2016 West African Ebola Outbreak. [REVIEW]Catherine R. McGowan, Catherine F. Houlihan, Patricia Kingori & Judith R. Glynn - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (2):201-212.
    Online participation in research is used increasingly to recruit geographically dispersed populations. Obtaining online consent is convenient, yet we know little about the acceptability of this practice. We carried out a serostudy among personnel returning to the UK/Ireland following deployment to West Africa during the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic. We used an online procedure for consenting returnees and designed a small descriptive study to understand: how much of the consent material they read, how informed they felt and if they preferred online (...)
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  • Knowledge, Experiences and Views of German University Students Toward Neuroenhancement: An Empirical-Ethical Analysis.Cynthia Forlini, Jan Schildmann, Patrik Roser, Radim Beranek & Jochen Vollmann - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (2):83-92.
    Across normative and empirical disciplines, considerable attention has been devoted to the prevalence and ethics of the non-medical use of prescription and illegal stimulants for neuroenhancement among students. A predominant assumption is that neuroenhancement is prevalent, in demand, and calls for appropriate policy action. In this paper, we present data on the prevalence, views and knowledge from a large sample of German students in three different universities and analyze the findings from a moral pragmatics perspective. The results of our study (...)
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  • Developing an Ethics Support Tool for Dealing with Dilemmas Around Client Autonomy Based on Moral Case Deliberations.L. A. Hartman, S. Metselaar, A. C. Molewijk, H. M. Edelbroek & G. A. M. Widdershoven - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):97.
    Moral Case Deliberations are reflective dialogues with a group of participants on their own moral dilemmas. Although MCD is successful as clinical ethics support, it also has limitations. 1. Lessons learned from individual MCDs are not shared in order to be used in other contexts 2. Moral learning stays limited to the participants of the MCD; 3. MCD requires quite some organisational effort, 4. MCD deals with one individual concrete case. It does not address other, similar cases. These limitations warrant (...)
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