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  1. Making a Virus Visible: Francis O. Holmes and a Biological Assay for Tobacco Mosaic Virus. [REVIEW]Karen-Beth G. Scholthof - 2014 - Journal of the History of Biology 47 (1):107-145.
    In the early twentieth century, viruses had yet to be defined in a material way. Instead, they were known better by what they were not – not bacteria, not culturable, and not visible with a light microscope. As with the ill-defined “gene” of genetics, viruses were microbes whose nature had not been revealed. Some clarity arrived in 1929 when Francis O. Holmes, a scientist at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research reported that Tobacco mosaic virus could produce local necrotic (...)
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  • The Bacteriophage, its Role in Immunology: How Macfarlane Burnet’s Phage Research Shaped His Scientific Style.Neeraja Sankaran - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (4):367-375.
  • When Viruses Were Not in Style: Parallels in the Histories of Chicken Sarcoma Viruses and Bacteriophages.Neeraja Sankaran - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:189-199.
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  • The Bacteriophage, its Role in Immunology: How Macfarlane Burnet's Phage Research Shaped His Scientific Style.Neeraja Sankaran - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (4):367-375.
    The Australian scientist Frank Macfarlane Burnet—winner of the Nobel Prize in 1960 for his contributions to the understanding of immunological tolerance—is perhaps best recognized as one of the formulators of the clonal selection theory of antibody production, widely regarded as the ‘central dogma’ of modern immunology. His work in studies in animal virology, particularly the influenza virus, and rickettsial diseases is also well known. Somewhat less known and publicized is Burnet’s research on bacteriophages, which he conducted in the first decade (...)
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