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  1. From ‘Hard’ Neuro-Tools to ‘Soft’ Neuro-Toys? Refocussing the Neuro-Enhancement Debate.Jonna Brenninkmeijer & Hub Zwart - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (3):337-348.
    Since the 1990’s, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of ‘neuro-enhancement’ has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on (...)
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  • Human Enhancement: Making the Debate More Productive. [REVIEW]Janet A. Kourany - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (S5):981-998.
    Human enhancement—the attempt to overcome all human cognitive, emotional, and physical limitations using current technological developments—has been said to pose the most fundamental social and political question facing the world in the twenty-first century. Yet, the public remains ill prepared to deal with it. Indeed, controversy continues to swirl around human enhancement even among the very best-informed experts in the most relevant fields, with no end in sight. Why the ongoing stalemate in the discussion? I attempt to explain the central (...)
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  • Public Attitudes Toward Cognitive Enhancement.Nicholas S. Fitz, Roland Nadler, Praveena Manogaran, Eugene W. J. Chong & Peter B. Reiner - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (2):173-188.
    Vigorous debate over the moral propriety of cognitive enhancement exists, but the views of the public have been largely absent from the discussion. To address this gap in our knowledge, four experiments were carried out with contrastive vignettes in order to obtain quantitative data on public attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. The data collected suggest that the public is sensitive to and capable of understanding the four cardinal concerns identified by neuroethicists, and tend to cautiously accept cognitive enhancement even as they (...)
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  • Exploring Some Challenges of the Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement Discourse: Users and Policy Recommendations.Toni Pustovrh & Franc Mali - 2014 - Neuroethics 7 (2):137-158.
    The article explores some of the issues that have arisen in the discourse on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE), that is, the use of stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate, amphetamine and modafinil by healthy individuals of various populations with the aim of improving cognitive performance. Specifically, we explore the presumed sizes of existing PCE user populations and the policy actions that have been proposed regarding the trend of PCE. We begin with an introductory examination of the academic stances and philosophical issues (...)
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  • Cognitive Enhancements and the Values of Higher Education.Matt Lamkin - 2012 - Health Care Analysis 20 (4):347-355.
    Drugs developed to treat cognitive impairments are proving popular with healthy college students seeking to boost their focus and productivity. Concerned observers have called these practices a form of cheating akin to athletes’ use of steroids, with some proposing testing students’ urine to deter “academic doping.” The ease with which critics analogize the academic enterprise to competitive sport, and the impulse to crack down on students using study drugs, reflect the same social influences and trends that spur demand for these (...)
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  • Why is Cognitive Enhancement Deemed Unacceptable? The Role of Fairness, Deservingness, and Hollow Achievements.Nadira S. Faber, Julian Savulescu & Thomas Douglas - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
    We ask why pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) is generally deemed morally unacceptable by lay people. Our approach to this question has two core elements. First, we employ an interdisciplinary perspective, using philosophical rationales as base for generating psychological models. Second, by testing these models we investigate how different normative judgments on PCE are related to each other. Based on an analysis of the relevant philosophical literature, we derive two psychological models that can potentially explain the judgment that PCE is unacceptable: (...)
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  • Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students’ Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements.Ralf Brand & Helen Koch - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • The Implications of Methylphenidate Use by Healthy Medical Students and Doctors in South Africa.Chad Beyer, Ciara Staunton & Keymanthri Moodley - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):20.
    The use of medical stimulants to sustain attention, augment memory and enhance intellectual capacity is increasing in society. The use of Methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement is a subject that has received much attention in the literature and academic circles in recent times globally. Medical doctors and medical students appear to be equally involved in the off-label use of Methylphenidate. This presents a potential harm to society and the individual as the long-term side effect profile of this medication is unknown.
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  • The Use of Methylphenidate Among Students: The Future of Enhancement?S. M. Outram - 2010 - Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (4):198-202.
    During the past few years considerable debate has arisen within academic journals with respect to the use of smart drugs or cognitive enhancement pharmaceuticals. The following paper seeks to examine the foundations of this cognitive enhancement debate using the example of methylphenidate use among college students. The argument taken is that much of the enhancement debate rests upon inflated assumptions about the ability of such drugs to enhance and over-estimations of either the size of the current market for such drugs (...)
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  • Health, Happiness and Human Enhancement—Dealing with Unexpected Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation.Maartje Schermer - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (3):435-445.
    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a treatment involving the implantation of electrodes into the brain. Presently, it is used for neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease, but indications are expanding to psychiatric disorders such as depression, addiction and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Theoretically, it may be possible to use DBS for the enhancement of various mental functions. This article discusses a case of an OCD patient who felt very happy with the DBS treatment, even though her symptoms were not reduced. First, (...)
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  • Ethical Considerations in the Framing of the Cognitive Enhancement Debate.Simon M. Outram - 2012 - Neuroethics 5 (2):173-184.
    Over the past few years the use of stimulants such as methylphenidate and modafinil among the student population has attracted considerable debate in the pages of bioethics journals. Under the rubric of cognitive enhancement, bioethicists have discussed this use of stimulants—along with future technologies of enhancement—and have launched a sometimes forceful debate of such practices. In the following paper, it is argued that even if we focus solely upon current practices, the term cognitive enhancement encompasses a wide range of ethical (...)
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  • Neuroscience, Neuropolitics and Neuroethics: The Complex Case of Crime, Deception and fMRI.Stuart Henry & Dena Plemmons - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):573-591.
    Scientific developments take place in a socio-political context but scientists often ignore the ways their innovations will be both interpreted by the media and used by policy makers. In the rush to neuroscientific discovery important questions are overlooked, such as the ways: (1) the brain, environment and behavior are related; (2) biological changes are mediated by social organization; (3) institutional bias in the application of technical procedures ignores race, class and gender dimensions of society; (4) knowledge is used to the (...)
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  • The Controversy Over Pediatric Bariatric Surgery: An Explorative Study on Attitudes and Normative Beliefs of Specialists, Parents, and Adolescents With Obesity.Stefan M. van Geelen, Ineke L. E. Bolt, Olga H. van der Baan-Slootweg & Marieke J. H. van Summeren - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (2):227-237.
    Despite the reported limited success of conventional treatments and growing evidence of the effectiveness of adult bariatric surgery, weight loss operations for (morbidly) obese children and adolescents are still considered to be controversial by health care professionals and lay people alike. This paper describes an explorative, qualitative study involving obesity specialists, morbidly obese adolescents, and parents and identifies attitudes and normative beliefs regarding pediatric bariatric surgery. Views on the etiology of obesity—whether it should be considered primarily a medical condition or (...)
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  • Emotional Causes and Dynamics of Current Expectations in Neuroscience.Luis Enrique Echarte & Leandro Martín Gaitán - 2013 - Pensamiento y Cultura 16 (2):8-32.
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  • Military Medical Ethics.Michael L. Gross - 2013 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 22 (1):92-109.
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  • A Comparison of Attitudes Toward Pharmacological Treatment Versus Enhancement Under Competitive and Noncompetitive Conditions.Jeffrey M. Rudski - 2014 - Ajob Empirical Bioethics 5 (2):80-90.
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  • Enhancing Motivation by Use of Prescription Stimulants: The Ethics of Motivation Enhancement.Torben Kjærsgaard - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (1):4-10.
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  • Protecting Sexual Diversity: Rethinking the Use of Neurotechnological Interventions to Alter Sexuality.Kristina Gupta - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 3 (3):24-28.
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  • Deflating the Neuroenhancement Bubble.Jayne C. Lucke, Stephanie Bell, Brad Partridge & Wayne D. Hall - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 2 (4):38-43.
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  • Neuroenhancement in Young People: Proposal for Research, Policy, and Clinical Management.Ilina Singh & Kelly J. Kelleher - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 1 (1):3-16.
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