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Samuel Scheffler (2003). What is Egalitrianism?

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  1.  4
    Fairness in Knowing: Science Communication and Epistemic Justice.Fabien Medvecky - forthcoming - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    Science communication, as a field and as a practice, is fundamentally about knowledge distribution; it is about the access to, and the sharing of knowledge. All distribution brings with it issues of ethics and justice. Indeed, whether science communicators acknowledge it or not, they get to decide both which knowledge is shared, and who gets access to this knowledge. As a result, the decisions of science communicators have important implications for epistemic justice: how knowledge is distributed fairly and equitably. This (...)
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  2.  15
    Cohen’s Community: Beyond the Liberal State?Louis-Philippe Hodgson - 2018 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 17 (1):23-50.
    Does the kind of socialist ideal articulated by G. A. Cohen in Why Not Socialism? add anything substantial to the Rawlsian conception of justice? Is it an ideal that Rawlsians should want to take on board, or is it ultimately foreign to their outlook? I defend a mixed answer to these questions. On the one hand, we shouldn’t underestimate the extent to which Rawls's theory already addresses the concerns that motivate Cohen’s appeal to the socialist ideal. Within the bounds of (...)
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  3.  6
    Principles of Public Reason in the UNFCCC: Rethinking the Equity Framework.Idil Boran - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (5):1253-1271.
    Since 2011, the focus of international negotiations under the UNFCCC has been on producing a new climate agreement to be adopted in 2015. This phase of negotiations is known as the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action. The goal has been to update the global effort on climate for long-term cooperation. In this period, various changes have been contemplated on the design of the architecture of the global climate effort. Whereas previously, the negotiation process consisted of setting mandated targets exclusively for (...)
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  4.  8
    Democratic Justice and Contractarian Injustice.Vittorio Bufacchi - 2017 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 20 (2):222-230.
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  5.  12
    Political Corruption.Emanuela Ceva & Maria Paola Ferretti - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (12):e12461.
    The corruption of public officials and institutions is generally regarded as wrong. But in what exactly does this form of corruption consist and what kind of wrong does it imply? This article aims to take stock of the current philosophical discussion of the different senses in which political corruption is wrong in a general sense, beyond the specific negative legal, economic, and social costs it may happen to have in specific circumstances. Political corruption is usually presented as a pathology of (...)
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  6.  41
    Survey Article: Relational Equality and Distribution.Gideon Elford - 2017 - Journal of Political Philosophy 25 (4):80-99.
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  7.  75
    Love and Justice: A Paradox?Anca Gheaus - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (6):739-759.
    Three claims about love and justice cannot be simultaneously true and therefore entail a paradox: (1) Love is a matter of justice. (2) There cannot be a duty to love. (3) All matters of justice are matters of duty. The first claim is more controversial. To defend it, I show why the extent to which we enjoy the good of love is relevant to distributive justice. To defend (2) I explain the empirical, conceptual and axiological arguments in its favour. Although (...)
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  8.  2
    Theorising From the Global Standpoint: Kant and Grotius on Original Common Possession of the Earth.Jakob Huber - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (2).
    The paper contrasts Kant's conception of original common possession of the earth with Hugo Grotius's superficially similar notion. The aim is not only to elucidate how much Kant departs from his natural law predecessors—given that Grotius's needs-based framework very much lines in with contemporary theorists’ tendency to reduce issues of global concern to questions of how to divide the world up, it also seeks to advocate Kant's global thinking as an alternative for current debates. Crucially, it is Kant's radical shift (...)
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  9.  4
    Theorising From the Global Standpoint: Kant and Grotius on Original Common Possession of the Earth.Jakob Huber - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (2):231-249.
    The paper contrasts Kant's conception of original common possession of the earth with Hugo Grotius's superficially similar notion. The aim is not only to elucidate how much Kant departs from his natural law predecessors—given that Grotius's needs-based framework very much lines in with contemporary theorists’ tendency to reduce issues of global concern to questions of how to divide the world up, it also seeks to advocate Kant's global thinking as an alternative for current debates. Crucially, it is Kant's radical shift (...)
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  10.  29
    Libertarian Personal Responsibility: On the Ethics, Practice, and American Politics of Personal Responsibility.Joshua Preiss - 2017 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 43 (6):621-645.
    While libertarians affirm personal responsibility as a central moral and political value, libertarian theorists write relatively little about the theory and practice of this value. Focusing on the work of F. A. Hayek and David Schmidtz, this article identifies the core of a libertarian approach to personal responsibility and demonstrates the ways in which this approach entails a radical revision of the ethics and American politics of personal responsibility. Then, I highlight several central implications of this analysis in the American (...)
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  11.  12
    What's Wrong with Differential Punishment?Benjamin S. Yost - 2017 - Utilitas 29 (3):257-285.
    Half of the drug offenders incarcerated in the United States are black, even though whites and blacks use and sell drugs at the same rate, and blacks make up only 13 percent of the population. Noncomparativists about retributive justice see nothing wrong with this picture; for them, an offender’s desert is insensitive to facts about other offenders. By contrast, comparativists about retributive justice assert that facts about others can partially determine an offender’s desert. Not surprisingly, comparativists, especially comparative egalitarians, contend (...)
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  12.  4
    Making Sense of Age-Group Justice.Juliana Bidadanure - 2016 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 15 (3):234-260.
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  13.  20
    Perspectives on the Fairness of Lotteries.Jan-Willem Burgers - 2016 - Res Publica 22 (2):209-224.
    When there are equally strong claimants for a scarce good, lotteries are often argued to be a fair method of allocation. This paper reproduces four of the views on the fairness of lotteries that have been presented in the literature: the distributive view; the preference view; the actual consent view; and the expressive view. It argues that these four views cannot offer plausible explanations for the fairness of lotteries. The distributive view is argued to be inadequate because, even though receiving (...)
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  14.  39
    Social Class, Merit and Equality of Opportunity in Education.Gideon Elford - 2016 - Res Publica 22 (3):267-284.
    The paper offers to substantiate a claim about the so-called Meritocratic Conception of how educational opportunities ought to be distributed. Such a conception holds an individual’s prospects for educational achievement may be a function of that individual’s talent or effort levels but should not be influenced by their social class background. The paper highlights the internal tension in the Meritocratic Conception between on the one hand a prohibition on the influence of social class on educational opportunities and on the other (...)
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  15.  94
    Luck Egalitarianism, Responsibility, and Political Liberalism.Ryan Long - 2016 - Dialogue 55 (1):107-130.
    Luck egalitarians argue that distributive justice should be understood in terms of our capacity to be responsible for our choices. Both proponents and critics assume that the theory must rely on a comprehensive conception of responsibility. I respond to luck egalitarianism’s critics by developing a political conception of responsibility that remains agnostic on the metaphysics of free choice. I construct this political conception by developing a novel reading of John Rawls’ distinction between the political and the comprehensive. A surprising consequence (...)
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  16.  3
    Justice and Well‐Orderedness: Saving Rawls From Luck Egalitarianism.Jahel Queralt - 2016 - Ratio Juris 29 (4):519-534.
    This paper develops a full account of Rawls's notion of a well-ordered society and uses it to address two luck egalitarian objections to his principles of justice. The first is an internal criticism which claims that Rawls's account of justice is better captured by a responsibility-sensitive egalitarian account. The second is an external objection according to which, regardless of the alleged inconsistency between Rawls's principles and his account of justice, we should reject those principles in favour of a responsibility-sensitive criterion (...)
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  17.  16
    Psychological Constraints on Egalitarianism: The Challenge of Just World Beliefs.T. J. Kasperbauer - 2015 - Res Publica 21 (3):217-234.
    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in (...)
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  18.  13
    Abandoning the Abandonment Objection: Luck Egalitarian Arguments for Public Insurance.Carl Knight - 2015 - Res Publica 21 (2):119-135.
    Critics of luck egalitarianism have claimed that, far from providing a justification for the public insurance functions of a welfare state as its proponents claim, the view objectionably abandons those who are deemed responsible for their dire straits. This article considers seven arguments that can be made in response to this ‘abandonment objection’. Four of these arguments are found wanting, with a recurrent problem being their reliance on a dubious sufficientarian or quasi-sufficientarian commitment to provide a threshold of goods unconditionally. (...)
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  19.  17
    How Interesting is the “Boring Problem” for Luck Egalitarianism?Gerald Lang - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (3):698-722.
    Imagine a two-person distributive case in which Ernest's choices yield X and Bertie's choices yield X + Y, producing an income gap between them of Y. Neither Ernest nor Bertie is responsible for this gap of Y, since neither of them has any control over what the other agent chooses. This is what Susan Hurley calls the “Boring Problem” for luck egalitarianism. Contrary to Hurley's relatively dismissive treatment of it, it is contended that the Boring Problem poses a deep problem (...)
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  20.  41
    Luck Egalitarians Versus Relational Egalitarians: On the Prospects of a Pluralist Account of Egalitarian Justice.Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (2):220-241.
    Pluralist egalitarians think that luck and relational egalitarianism each articulates a component in a pluralist account of egalitarian justice. However, this ecumenical view appears problematic in the light of Elizabeth Anderson's claim that the divide arises because two incompatible views of justification are in play, which in turn generates derivative disagreements – e.g. about the proper currency of egalitarian justice. In support of pluralist egalitarianism I argue that two of Anderson's derivative disagreements are not rooted in the disagreement over justification (...)
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  21.  18
    Non-Domination, Non-Alienation and Social Equality: Towards a Republican Understanding of Equality.Fabian Schuppert - 2015 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 18 (4):440-455.
  22.  10
    Prerogatives, Incentives, and Institutionalism: A Reply to Brian Berkey.Alan Thomas - 2015 - Mind 124 (495):875-890.
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  23. The Rule of Law and Equality.Paul Gowder - 2013 - Law and Philosophy 32 (5):565-618.
    This paper describes and defends a novel and distinctively egalitarian conception of the rule of law. Official behavior is to be governed by preexisting, public rules that do not draw irrelevant distinctions between the subjects of law. If these demands are satisfied, a state achieves vertical equality between officials and ordinary people and horizontal legal equality among ordinary people.
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  24. Egalitarian Justice and Expected Value.Carl Knight - 2013 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (5):1061-1073.
    According to all-luck egalitarianism, the differential distributive effects of both brute luck, which defines the outcome of risks which are not deliberately taken, and option luck, which defines the outcome of deliberate gambles, are unjust. Exactly how to correct the effects of option luck is, however, a complex issue. This article argues that (a) option luck should be neutralized not just by correcting luck among gamblers, but among the community as a whole, because it would be unfair for gamblers as (...)
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  25. Luck Egalitarianism.Carl Knight - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (10):924-934.
    Luck egalitarianism is a family of egalitarian theories of distributive justice that aim to counteract the distributive effects of luck. This article explains luck egalitarianism's main ideas, and the debates that have accompanied its rise to prominence. There are two main parts to the discussion. The first part sets out three key moves in the influential early statements of Dworkin, Arneson, and Cohen: the brute luck/option luck distinction, the specification of brute luck in everyday or theoretical terms and the specification (...)
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  26.  25
    Incentive Inequalities and Talents: A Reply to Shiffrin.Douglas MacKay - 2013 - Philosophia 41 (2):521-526.
    In a recent article, Seana Valentine Shiffrin offers a distinctive egalitarian critique of the types of incentive inequalities that are permitted by John Rawls's difference principle. She argues that citizens of a well-ordered society, who publicly accept Rawls's two principles of justice and their justifications, may not demand incentives to employ their talents in productive ways since such demands are inconsistent with a major justification for the difference principle: the moral arbitrariness of talent. I argue that there is no such (...)
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  27.  55
    The Inegalitarian Ethos: Incentives, Respect, and Self-Respect.E. McTernan - 2013 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 12 (1):93-111.
    In Cohen’s vision of the just society, there would be no need for unequalizing incentives so as to benefit the least well-off; instead, people would be motivated by an egalitarian ethos to work hard and in the most socially productive jobs. As such, Cohen appears to offer a way to mitigate the trade-off of equality for efficiency that often characterizes theorizing about distributive justice. This article presents an egalitarian challenge to Cohen’s vision of the just society. I argue that a (...)
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  28.  92
    Language and Luck.H. De Schutter & L. Ypi - 2012 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (4):357-381.
    In this article, we examine how language and linguistic membership might feature in luck egalitarianism, what a luck-egalitarian theory of linguistic justice would look like, and, finally, what the emphasis on language teaches us about the validity of standard luck-egalitarian assumptions. We show that belonging to one language group rather than another is a morally arbitrary feature and that where membership of a specific linguistic group affects individual chances, the effects of such bad brute luck ought to be neutralized on (...)
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  29. What is Social Equality? An Analysis of Status Equality as a Strongly Egalitarian Ideal.Carina Fourie - 2012 - Res Publica 18 (2):107-126.
    What kind of equality should we value and why? Current debate centres around whether distributive equality is valuable. However, it is not the only (potentially) morally significant form of equality. David Miller and T. M. Scanlon have emphasised the importance of social equality—a strongly egalitarian notion distinct from distributive equality, and which cannot be reduced to a concern for overall welfare or the welfare of the worst-off. However, as debate tends to focus on distribution, social equality has been neglected and (...)
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  30.  63
    Distributive and Relational Equality.C. Schemmel - 2012 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 11 (2):123-148.
    Is equality a distributive value or does it rather point to the quality of social relationships? This article criticizes the distributive character of luck egalitarian theories of justice and fleshes out the central characteristics of an alternative, relational approach to equality. It examines a central objection to distributive theories: that such theories cannot account for the significance of how institutions treat people (as opposed to the outcomes they bring about). I discuss two variants of this objection: first, that distributive theories (...)
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  31.  59
    Rescuing Justice From Equality.Steven Wall - 2012 - Social Philosophy and Policy 29 (1):180-212.
    In the wake of G. A. Cohen's masterful critique of Rawls's work, this paper discusses Rawlsian justice in general and the difference principle in particular. It argues that Rawlsian arguments for the difference principle present a puzzle and that to respond adequately to the puzzle we must engage in rational reconstruction. After explaining the puzzle and considering and rejecting a number of responses to it, the paper begins its reconstructive project. It presents the case for viewing the difference principle as (...)
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  32.  74
    Liberalism, Capitalism, and “Socialist” Principles.Richard J. Arneson - 2011 - Social Philosophy and Policy 28 (2):232-261.
    One way to think about capitalism-versus-socialism is to examine the extent to which capitalist economic institutions are compatible with the fulfillment of socialist ideals. The late G. A. Cohen has urged that the two are strongly incompatible. He imagines how it would make sense for friends to organize a camping trip, distills the socialist moral principles that he sees fulfilled in the camping trip model, and observes that these principles conflict with a capitalist organization of the economy. He adds that (...)
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  33.  42
    Health, Luck and Moral Fallacies of the Second Best.Eric Cavallero - 2011 - The Journal of Ethics 15 (4):387-403.
    Individuals who become ill as a result of personal lifestyle choices often shift the monetary costs of their healthcare needs to the taxpaying public or to fellow members of a private insurance pool. Some argue that policies permitting such cost shifting are unfair. Arguments for this view may seem to draw support from luck egalitarian accounts of distributive justice. This essay argues that the luck egalitarian framework provides no such support. To allocate healthcare costs on the basis of personal responsibility (...)
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  34.  32
    The Relational Approach to Egalitarian Justice: A Critique of Luck Egalitarianism.Takashi Kibe - 2011 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 14 (1):1-21.
  35. Luck and Oppression.Mark Navin - 2011 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 14 (5):533-547.
    Oppression can be unjust from a luck egalitarian point of view even when it is the consequence of choices for which it is reasonable to hold persons responsible. This is for two reasons. First, people who have not been oppressed are unlikely to anticipate the ways in which their choices may lead them into oppressive conditions. Facts about systematic phenomena (like oppression) are often beyond the epistemic reach of persons who are not currently subject to such conditions, even when they (...)
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  36.  12
    Democratic Equality and Relating as Equals.Richard J. Arneson - 2010 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 40 (S1):25-52.
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  37.  24
    Luck, Equality and Responsibility.Keith Dowding - 2010 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 13 (1):71-92.
    Egalitarians claim that inequality in society is only justified to the extent that it results from choices freely and responsibly made. Inequality resulting from brute bad luck is not justified. I argue that luck, and therefore responsibility, are defined in terms of the reward structure. Luck and responsibility are epiphenomena of the incentives that people have to choose from the opportunity sets available. To that end egalitarians should look more directly at the degree of inequality that is acceptable and examine (...)
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  38. One Kiss Too Many? Giving, Luck Egalitarianism and Other-Affecting Choice.Hugh Lazenby - 2010 - Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (3):271-286.
  39.  11
    Justice and the Allocation of Healthcare Resources: Should Indirect, Non-Health Effects Count? [REVIEW]Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen & Sigurd Lauridsen - 2010 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (3):237-246.
    Alternative allocations of a fixed bundle of healthcare resources often involve significantly different indirect, non-health effects. The question arises whether these effects must figure in accounts of the conditions under which a distribution of healthcare resources is morally justifiable. In this article we defend a Scanlonian, affirmative answer to this question: healthcare resource managers should sometimes select an allocation which has worse direct, health-related effects but better indirect, nonhealth effects; they should do this when the interests served by such a (...)
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  40.  96
    Fairness Between Competing Claims.Ben Saunders - 2010 - Res Publica 16 (1):41-55.
    Fairness is a central, but under-theorized, notion in moral and political philosophy. This paper makes two contributions. Firstly, it criticizes Broome’s seminal account of fairness in Proc Aristotelian Soc 91:87–101, showing that there are problems with restricting fairness to a matter of relative satisfaction and holding that it does not itself require the satisfaction of the claims in question. Secondly, it considers the justification of lotteries to resolve cases of ties between competing claims, which Broome claims as support for his (...)
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  41. Fairness, Respect and the Egalitarian Ethos Revisited.Jonathan Wolff - 2010 - The Journal of Ethics 14 (3-4):335-350.
    This paper reconsiders some themes and arguments from my earlier paper “Fairness, Respect and the Egalitarian Ethos.” That work is often considered to be part of a cluster of papers attacking “luck egalitarianism” on the grounds that insisting on luck egalitarianism's standards of fairness undermines relations of mutual respect among citizens. While this is an accurate reading, the earlier paper did not make its motivations clear, and the current paper attempts to explain the reasons that led me to write the (...)
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  42.  31
    Reassessing Insurers' Access to Genetic Information: Genetic Privacy, Ignorance, and Injustice.Eli Feiring - 2009 - Bioethics 23 (5):300-310.
    Many countries have imposed strict regulations on the genetic information to which insurers have access. Commentators have warned against the emerging body of legislation for different reasons. This paper demonstrates that, when confronted with the argument that genetic information should be available to insurers for health insurance underwriting purposes, one should avoid appeals to rights of genetic privacy and genetic ignorance. The principle of equality of opportunity may nevertheless warrant restrictions. A choice-based account of this principle implies that it is (...)
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  43. Responsibility and the Consequences of Choice.Serena Olsaretti - 2009 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 109 (1pt2):165-188.
    Contemporary egalitarian theories of justice constrain the demands of equality by responsibility, and do not view as unjust inequalities that are traceable to individuals' choices. This paper argues that, in order to make non-arbitrary determinate judgements of responsibility, any theory of justice needs a principle of stakes , that is, an account of what consequences choices should have. The paper also argues that the principles of stakes seemingly presupposed by egalitarians are implausible, and that adopting alternative principles of stakes amounts (...)
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  44.  89
    Equality of Opportunity and Personal Identity.Neven Petrović - 2009 - Acta Analytica 24 (2):97-111.
    One of the central theses of egalitarian liberals in the domain of distributive justice is that talented individuals should not be allowed to keep their entire market-income even if it flows solely from their greater abilities. This claim is usually supported by one of several arguments or some mixture of them, but in the present paper, I want to concentrate on the version that invokes equality of opportunity as its starting point. Namely, it is claimed that every human being should (...)
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  45.  96
    An Explanation of the Injustice of Slavery.Simon Roberts-Thomson - 2008 - Res Publica 14 (2):69-82.
    The institution of slavery is an unjust institution. The aim of this paper is to provide an explanation of why it is unjust. I argue that slavery is unjust because it makes it impossible for slaves to realise both their interest in self-respect and their interest in being at home in the world. Furthermore, I argue that this explanation of the injustice of slavery also provides us with an argument for political equality.
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  46.  80
    Nothing Personal: On Statistical Discrimination.Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen - 2007 - Journal of Political Philosophy 15 (4):385–403.
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  47. Global Justice, Reciprocity, and the State.Andrea Sangiovanni - 2007 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (1):3–39.
  48.  62
    Luck, Leverage, and Equality: A Bargaining Problem for Luck Egalitarians.Matthew Seligman - 2007 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (3):266–292.
  49.  85
    Defending Luck Egalitarianism.Nicholas Barry - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (1):89–107.
  50.  27
    Reparations for Luck Egalitarians.Roland Pierik - 2006 - Journal of Social Philosophy 37 (3):423–440.
    Two of the most important theories in contemporary liberal egalitarianism are Ronald Dworkin’s equality of resources and Amartya Sen’s capability approach. Recently Dworkin has claimed that Sen’s capability approach does not provide a genuine alternative to equality of resources. In this article, we provide both an internal and an external critique of Dworkin’s claim. In the first part of the article we develop an internal critique by providing a detailed analysis of Dworkin’s claim. Andrew Williams has contested Dworkin’s claim, but (...)
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