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Meaning as functional classification

Synthese 27 (3-4):417 - 437 (1974)

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  1. Scientific Reasoning Is Material Inference: Combining Confirmation, Discovery, and Explanation.Ingo Brigandt - 2010 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 24 (1):31-43.
    Whereas an inference (deductive as well as inductive) is usually viewed as being valid in virtue of its argument form, the present paper argues that scientific reasoning is material inference, i.e., justified in virtue of its content. A material inference is licensed by the empirical content embodied in the concepts contained in the premises and conclusion. Understanding scientific reasoning as material inference has the advantage of combining different aspects of scientific reasoning, such as confirmation, discovery, and explanation. This approach explains (...)
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  • Functionalism, Computationalism, and Mental Contents.Gualtiero Piccinini - 2004 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 34 (3):375-410.
    Some philosophers have conflated functionalism and computationalism. I reconstruct how this came about and uncover two assumptions that made the conflation possible. They are the assumptions that (i) psychological functional analyses are computational descriptions and (ii) everything may be described as performing computations. I argue that, if we want to improve our understanding of both the metaphysics of mental states and the functional relations between them, we should reject these assumptions. # 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • Pragmatism & Semantics.Jaroslav Peregrin - manuscript
    Theories of language in the twentieth century tend towards one of two radically different models. One paradigm holds that expressions ‘stand for’ entities and their meanings are the entities stood for by them. According to the other, expressions are rather tools of interaction and their meanings are their functions within the interaction, their aptitudes to serve it in their distinctive ways.
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  • Www.Cuni.Cz/-Peregrin.Jaroslav Peregrin - unknown
    Summary. I do not think there is one true answer to the question What is logic?. There are, clearly, good and less good answers, and there are answers which are plainly wrong; but the term 'logic' has been employed, throughout the history of the subject matter, in such diverse ways that no single one of the uses can be said to be the correct one. However, even among the answers which are acceptable on historico-semantical grounds there are still, without doubt, (...)
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  • Reference and Inference: The Case of Anaphora.Jaroslav Peregrin - 2000 - In Klaus von Heusinger & Urs Egli (eds.), Reference and Anaphoric Relations. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 269--286.
    In part one, I give an (unsystematic) overview of the development of logical tools which have been employed in the course of the analysis of referring expressions, i.e. definite and (specific) indefinite singular terms, of natural language. I present Russell's celebrated theory of definite descriptions which I see as an attempt to explain definite reference in terms of unique existence (and reference in general in terms of existence simpliciter); and I present Hilbert's E-calculus as an attempt to explain existence in (...)
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  • The Myth of the Taken: Why Hegel Is Not a Conceptualist.W. Clark Wolf - forthcoming - International Journal of Philosophical Studies:1-23.
    ABSTRACTThe close connection often cited between Hegel and Wilfrid Sellars is not only said to lie in their common negative challenges to the ‘framework of givenness,’ but also in the positive lesson drawn from these challenges. In particular, the critique of givenness is thought to lead to a conceptualist view of perceptual experience. In this essay, I challenge the common idea that Hegel’s critique of givenness provides specific support for a conceptualist view. The notion that Hegel, if anyone, is a (...)
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  • Variables in Natural Language: Where Do They Come From?'.Jaroslav Peregrin - 2000 - In Michael Böttner & Wolf Thümmel (eds.), Variable-Free Semantics. Secolo. pp. 46--65.
  • From Linguistic Contextualism to Situated Cognition: The Case of Ad Hoc Concepts.Jérôme Dokic - 2006 - Philosophical Psychology 19 (3):309 – 328.
    Our utterances are typically if not always "situated," in the sense that they are true or false relative to unarticulated parameters of the extra-linguistic context. The problem is to explain how these parameters are determined, given that nothing in the uttered sentences indicates them. It is tempting to claim that they must be determined at the level of thought or intention. However, as many philosophers have observed, thoughts themselves are no less situated than utterances. Unarticulated parameters need not be mentally (...)
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  • Moderate Holism and the Instability Thesis.Henry Jackman - 1999 - American Philosophical Quarterly 36 (4):361-69.
    This paper argues that popular criticisms of semantic holism (such as that it leaves the ideas of translation, disagreement and change of mind problematic) are more properly directed at an "instability assumption" which, while often associated with holism, can be separated from it. The versions of holism that follow from 'interpretational' account of meaning are not committed to the instability assumption and can thus avoid many of the problems traditionally associated with holism.
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  • The Pragmatization of Semantics.Jaroslav Peregrin - 1999 - In Ken Turner (ed.), The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface From Different Points of View. Elsevier. pp. 419--442.
  • A Guide to Naturalizing Semantics.Barry M. Loewer - 1997 - In C. Wright & Bob Hale (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Blackwell: Oxford. pp. 108-126.
  • Scientific Practice, Conceptual Change, and the Nature of Concepts.Ingo Brigandt - manuscript
    The theory of concepts advanced in the present discussion aims at accounting for a) how a concept makes successful practice possible, and b) how a scientific concept can be subject to rational change in the course of history. To this end, I suggest that each scientific concept consists of three components of content: 1) the concept.
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  • Inferentialism Without Normativity.Krzysztof Poslajko & Pawel Grabarczyk - 2018 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 25 (2):174-195.
    In this paper we argue that inferentialist approach to meaning does not, by itself, show that meaning is normative in a prescriptive sense, and that the constitutive rules argument is especially troubling for this position. To show that, we present the proto-inferentialist theory developed by Ajdukiewicz and claim that despite the differences between his theory and contemporary inferentialism rules of language in both theories function more like classificatory devices than prescriptions. Inferentialists can respond by claiming that in their theory meaning (...)
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  • Advertisement for a Semantics for Psychology.Ned Block - 1986 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 10 (1):615-678.
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  • Conditionals, Meaning, and Mood.William Starr - 2010 - Dissertation, Rutgers University
    This work explores the hypothesis that natural language is a tool for changing a language user's state of mind and, more specifically, the hypothesis that a sentence's meaning is constituted by its characteristic role in fulfilling this purpose. This view contrasts with the dominant approach to semantics due to Frege, Tarski and others' work on artificial languages: language is first and foremost a tool for representing the world. Adapted to natural language by Davidson, Lewis, Montague, et. al. this dominant approach (...)
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  • The Fallacy of the Homuncular Fallacy.Carrie Figdor - 2018 - Belgrade Philosophical Annual 31:41-56.
    A leading theoretical framework for naturalistic explanation of mind holds that we explain the mind by positing progressively "stupider" capacities ("homunculi") until the mind is "discharged" by means of capacities that are not intelligent at all. The so-called homuncular fallacy involves violating this procedure by positing the same capacities at subpersonal levels. I argue that the homuncular fallacy is not a fallacy, and that modern-day homunculi are idle posits. I propose an alternative view of what naturalism requires that reflects how (...)
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  • What is an Expression?'.B. G. Sundholm - unknown
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  • The Sellars's Functionalism: A Historical Research.Marcelo Masson Maroldi - manuscript
    Philosopher Wilfrid Sellars was one of the contemporary functionalism precursors when he conceived mental states as theoretical entities identified with functional states, conception defended mainly in his most relevant work Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind, broadly discussed on the academic context of analytical tradition. On this book, Sellars introduces his explanation of mental, gathering on the same thesis private events, intententionality , a public language and a system based on rules defined intersubjectivity Therefore, this work intends to show how (...)
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  • Inferenzialismo, pratiche argomentative e oggettività.Pietro Salis - 2012 - Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio 6 (3):108-20.
    Inferentialism, especially Brandom’s theory, is the project aimed at understanding meaning as determined by inferences, and language as a social practice governed by rational discursive norms. Discursive practice is thus understood as the basic rational practice, where commitments undertaken by participants are evaluated in terms of their being correct/incorrect. This model of explanation is also intended to rescue, by means of reasons, the commitments we undertake ourselves and assess the commitments we attribute to others, in an objective sense: starting from (...)
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  • Le Mythe Fondateur de L’Empirisme : Le Donné Épistémologique. [REVIEW]Aude Bandini - 2012 - Dialogue 51 (3):341-371.
    La critique sellarsienne du «mythe du donné» touche en son cœur le projet empiriste fondationnaliste, dont elle entend néanmoins sauvegarder les intuitions épistémologiques et ontologiques saines. Pour ce faire, les difficultés dirimantes soulevées par l’usage de la notion de donné doivent être d’abord clairement identifiées, puis désamorcées. Ceci aboutit à la fois à une redéfinition précautionneuse du donné comme un concept non épistémologique, et à une révision de la conception traditionnelle du rapport entre observation et théorie, connaissance directe et connaissance (...)
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  • X—Knowing What One Ought to Do.Matthew Chrisman - 2015 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 115 (2pt2):167-186.
    This paper considers two competing pictures of knowledge of what one ought to do—one which assimilates this to other propositional knowledge conceived as partial ‘locational’ knowledge of where one is in a space of possibilities, the other which distinguishes this from other propositional knowledge by construing it as partial ‘directional’ knowledge of what to do in particular circumstances. I argue that the apparent tension can be lessened by better understanding the contextualized modal-cum-prescriptive nature of ‘ought’ and enriching our conception of (...)
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  • Summary.Bradley Armour-Garb & James A. Woodbridge - 2018 - Analysis 78 (4):687-692.
    _ Pretense and Pathology: Philosophical Fictionalism and its Applications _Armour-GarbBradley and WoodbridgeJames A.Cambridge University Press, 2015. 286 pp.
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  • Pathological Pretending.Jody Azzouni - 2018 - Analysis 78 (4):692-703.
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  • Inferentialism and the Normativity of Meaning.Jaroslav Peregrin - 2012 - Philosophia 40 (1):75-97.
    There may be various reasons for claiming that meaning is normative, and additionally, very different senses attached to the claim. However, all such claims have faced fierce resistance from those philosophers who insist that meaning is not normative in any nontrivial sense of the word. In this paper I sketch one particular approach to meaning claiming its normativity and defend it against the anti-normativist critique: namely the approach of Brandomian inferentialism. However, my defense is not restricted to inferentialism in any (...)
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  • Knowing‐Wh and Embedded Questions.Ted Parent - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (2):81-95.
    Do you know who you are? If the question seems unclear, it might owe to the notion of ‘knowing-wh’ (knowing-who, knowing-what, knowing-when, etc.). Such knowledge contrasts with ‘knowing-that’, the more familiar topic of epistemologists. But these days, knowing-wh is receiving more attention than ever, and here we will survey three current debates on the nature of knowing-wh. These debates concern, respectively, (1) whether all knowing-wh is reducible to knowing-that (‘generalized intellectualism’), (2) whether all knowing-wh is relativized to a contrast proposition (...)
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  • Tacit and Accessible Understanding of Language.Kent Johnson - 2007 - Synthese 156 (2):253 - 279.
    The empirical nature of our understanding of language is explored. I first show that there are several important and different distinctions between tacit and accessible awareness. I then present empirical evidence concerning our understanding of language. The data suggests that our awareness of sentence-meanings is sometimes merely tacit according to one of these distinctions, but is accessible according to another. I present and defend an interpretation of this mixed view. The present project is shown to impact on several diverse areas, (...)
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  • A Defense of Derangement.Paul Pietroski - 1994 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (1):95 - 117.
    In a recent paper, Bar-On and Risjord (henceforth, 'B&R') contend that Davidson provides no 1 good argument for his (in)famous claim that "there is no such thing as a language." And according to B&R, if Davidson had established his "no language" thesis, he would thereby have provided a decisive reason for abandoning the project he has long advocated--viz., that of trying to provide theories of meaning for natural languages by providing recursive theories of truth for such languages. For he would (...)
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  • A Neo-Hintikkan Theory of Attitude Ascriptions.Peter Alward - 2005 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 19 (1):1-11.
    In the paper, I develop what I call the “Neo-Hintikkan theory” of belief sentences. What is characteristic of this approach is that the meaning of an ascription is analyzed in terms of the believer’s “epistemic alternatives”: the set of worlds compatible with how the believer takes the world to be. The Neo-Hintikkan approach proceeds by assuming that individuals in believers’ alternatives can share spatio-temporal parts with actual individuals, and ascribers can refer to individuals in believer’s alternatives in virtue of their (...)
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  • L’Inferenzialismo Semantico di Robert Brandom: Tra Prospettivismo E Oggettività.Paolo Labinaz - 2007 - Esercizi Filosofici 7 (2):256-271.
    In this paper, after having outlined the theoretical framework of Brandom’s philosophy, I examine his attempt to reconcile semantic perspectivism, which is at the core of his inferentialist semantics, with the idea that objectivity transcends the practical normative attitudes of the participants in the so-called game of giving and asking for reasons.
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  • Tonking a Theory of Content: An Inferentialist Rejoinder.Jon Cogburn - 2004 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 13:31-55.
    If correct, Christopher Peacocke’s [20] “manifestationism without verificationism,” would explode the dichotomy between realism and inferentialism in the contemporary philosophy of language. I first explicate Peacocke’s theory, defending it from a criticism of Neil Tennant’s. This involves devising a recursive definition for grasp of logical contents along the lines Peacocke suggests. Unfortunately though, the generalized account reveals the Achilles’ heel of the whole theory. By inventing a new logical operator with the introduction rule for the existential quantifier and the elimination (...)
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  • Louis Joly as a Platonist Painter?Roger Pouivet - 2006 - In Johan van Benthem, Gerhard Heinzman, M. Rebushi & H. Visser (eds.), The Age of Alternative Logics. Springer. pp. 337--341.
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  • Legal Inferentialism and Semantic Inferentialism.Jaroslav Peregrin - unknown
    One of the recent trends in the philosophy of language and theory of meaning is the inferentialist project launched by Robert Brandom (1994, 2000, 2008), elaborating on the approach of Wilfrid Sellars (1953, 1954, 1956, 1974). According to this project, language is to be seen as essentially a rule-governed activity, providing for meaningful utterances in a way analogous to the way in which the rules of chess provide for making one's pawns, bishops or rooks attack one's opponent, checking his king (...)
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  • Advertisement for a Semantics for Psychology.Ned Block - 1986 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 10 (1):615-78.
  • Sellars, Second-Order Quantification, and Ontological Commitment.Andrew Parisi - 2018 - History and Philosophy of Logic 40 (1):81-97.
    Sellars [1960. ‘Grammar and existence: A preface to ontology’, Mind, 69, 499–533; 1979. Naturalism and Ontology, Reseda, CA: Ridgeview Publishing Company] argues that the truth of a second-order sentence, e.g., does not incur commitment to there being any sort of abstract entity. This paper begins by exploring the arguments that Sellars offers for the above claim. It then develops those arguments by pointing out places where Sellars has been unclear or ought to have said more. In particular, Sellars's arguments rely (...)
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  • Science, Philosophy, and Interpretation.Daniel C. Dennett - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):535.
  • Intentional System Theory and Experimental Psychology.Michael H. Van Kleeck - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):533.
  • What Really Matters.Charles Taylor - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):532.
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  • Connectionism, Realism, and Realism.Stephen P. Stich - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):531.
  • Styles of Computational Representation.M. P. Smith - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):530.
  • Why Philosophers Should Be Designers.Aaron Sloman - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):529.
  • The Realistic Stance.John R. Searle - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):527.
  • Will the Argument for Abstracta Please Stand Up?Alexander Rosenberg - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):526.
  • How to Build a Mind.H. L. Roitblat - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):525.
  • Intentionality: How to Tell Mae West From a Crocodile.David Premack - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):522.
  • The Intentional Stance and the Knowledge Level.Allen Newell - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):520.
  • Dennett's Instrumentalism.William G. Lycan - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):518.
  • The Devil, the Details, and Dr. Dennett.Patricia Kitcher & Philip Kitcher - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):517.
  • Competence Models Are Causal.David Kirsh - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):515.
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  • What is the Intentional Stance?Gilbert Harman - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):515.
  • Real Intentions?Donald R. Griffin - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):514.
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