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  1. How Personality and Moral Identity Relate to Individuals’ Ethical Ideology.Brent McFerran, Karl Aquino & Michelle Duffy - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (1):35-56.
    Two studies tested the relationship between three facets of personality—conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience—as well as moral identity, on individuals’ ethical ideology. Study 1 showed that moral personality and the centralityof moral identity to the self were associated with a more principled ethical ideology in a sample of female speech therapists. Study 2 replicated these findings in a sample of male and female college students, and showed that ideology mediated therelationship between personality, moral identity, and two organizationally relevant outcomes: (...)
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  • New Directions in Legal Scholarship: Implications for Business Ethics Research, Theory, and Practice.John Hasnas, Robert Prentice & Alan Strudler - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (3):503-531.
    Legal scholars and business ethicists are interested in many of the same core issues regarding human and firm behavior. The vast amount of legal research being generated by nearly 10,000 law school and business law scholars will inevitably influence business ethics research. This paper describes some of the recent trends in legal scholarship and explores its implications for three significant aspects of business ethics research—methodology, theory, and policy.
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  • On Ethically Solvent Leaders: The Roles of Pride and Moral Identity in Predicting Leader Ethical Behavior.Stacey Sanders, Barbara Wisse, Nico W. Van Yperen & Diana Rus - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (3):631-645.
    The popular media has repeatedly pointed to pride as one of the key factors motivating leaders to behave unethically. However, given the devastating consequences that leader unethical behavior may have, a more scientific account of the role of pride is warranted. The present study differentiates between authentic and hubristic pride and assesses its impact on leader ethical behavior, while taking into consideration the extent to which leaders find it important to their self-concept to be a moral person. In two experiments (...)
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  • The Battle for Business Ethics: A Struggle Theory.Muel Kaptein - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (2):343-361.
    To be and to remain ethical requires struggle from organizations. Struggling is necessary due to the pressures and temptations management and employees encounter in and around organizations. As the relevance of struggle for business ethics has not yet been analyzed systematically in the scientific literature, this paper develops a theory of struggle that elaborates on the meaning and dimensions of struggle in organizations, why and when it is needed, and what its antecedents and consequences are. An important conclusion is that (...)
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  • Feel Good, Do-Good!? On Consistency and Compensation in Moral Self-Regulation.Anne Joosten, Marius van Dijke, Alain Van Hiel & David De Cremer - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (1):1-14.
    Studies in the behavioral ethics and moral psychology traditions have begun to reveal the important roles of self-related processes that underlie moral behavior. Unfortunately, this research has resulted in two distinct and opposing streams of findings that are usually referred to as moral consistency and moral compensation. Moral consistency research shows that a salient self-concept as a moral person promotes moral behavior. Conversely, moral compensation research reveals that a salient self-concept as an immoral person promotes moral behavior. This study’s aim (...)
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  • Being “in Control” May Make You Lose Control: The Role of Self-Regulation in Unethical Leadership Behavior.Anne Joosten, Marius van Dijke, Alain Van Hiel & David De Cremer - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 121 (1):1-14.
    In the present article, we argue that the constant pressure that leaders face may limit the willpower required to behave according to ethical norms and standards and may therefore lead to unethical behavior. Drawing upon the ego depletion and moral self-regulation literatures, we examined whether self-regulatory depletion that is contingent upon the moral identity of leaders may promote unethical leadership behavior. A laboratory experiment and a multisource field study revealed that regulatory resource depletion promotes unethical leader behaviors among leaders who (...)
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  • Deviant Behavior in a Moderated-Mediation Framework of Incentives, Organizational Justice Perception, and Reward Expectancy.Yehuda Baruch & Shandana Shoaib - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (3):617-633.
    This study introduces the concept of deviant behavior in a moderated-mediation framework of incentives and organizational justice perception. The proposed relationships in the theoretical framework were tested with a sample of 311 academics, using simple random sampling, via causal models and structural equation modeling. The findings suggest that incentives might boost the apparent performance, but not necessarily the intended performance. The results confirm that employees’ affection for incentives has direct, indirect, and conditional indirect effects on their deviant behavior likelihood. The (...)
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  • The Unwitting Accomplice: How Organizations Enable Motivated Reasoning and Self-Serving Behavior.Laura J. Noval & Morela Hernandez - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (3):699-713.
    In this article, we demonstrate that individuals use motivated reasoning to convince themselves that their self-serving behavior is justified, which in turn affects the distribution of resources in business situations. Specifically, we explore how ambiguous contextual cues and individual beliefs can jointly form motivated reasoning. Across two experimental studies, we find that whereas individual ideologies that endorse status hierarchies can strengthen the relationship between contextual ambiguity and motivated reasoning, individual beliefs rooted in fairness and equality can weaken it. Our findings (...)
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  • How Upward Moral Comparison Influences Prosocial Behavioral Intention: Examining the Mediating Role of Guilt and the Moderating Role of Moral Identity.Zhang Heyun, Chen Sisi, Wang Rong, Jiang Jiang, Xu Yan & Zhao Huanhuan - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Unethical Pro-Organizational Behavior and Positive Leader–Employee Relationships.Will Bryant & Stephanie M. Merritt - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-17.
    Unethical pro-organizational behaviors are unethical, but prosocially-motivated, acts intended to benefit one’s organization. This study examines the extent to which employees are willing to perform UPB to benefit a liked leader. Based on social exchange theory, we hypothesized that LMX would mediate the association of interpersonal justice with UPB willingness. Moral identity and positive reciprocity beliefs were examined as moderators. Higher LMX was significantly and positively related to UPB willingness, and the indirect effect of interpersonal justice on UPB via LMX (...)
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  • Scrooge Posing as Mother Teresa: How Hypocritical Social Responsibility Strategies Hurt Employees and Firms.Sabrina Scheidler, Laura Marie Edinger-Schons, Jelena Spanjol & Jan Wieseke - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 157 (2):339-358.
    Extant research provides compelling conceptual and empirical arguments that company-external as well as company-internal CSR efforts positively affect employees, but does so largely in studies assessing effects from the two CSR types independently of each other. In contrast, this paper investigates external–internal CSR jointly, examining the effects of consistent external–internal CSR strategies on employee attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. The research takes a social and moral identification theory view and advances the core hypothesis that inconsistent CSR strategies, defined as favoring external (...)
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  • In the Moral Eye of the Beholder: The Interactive Effects of Leader and Follower Moral Identity on Perceptions of Ethical Leadership and LMX Quality.Steffen R. Giessner, Niels Van Quaquebeke, Suzanne van Gils, Daan van Knippenberg & Janine A. J. M. Kollée - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Ethical and Unethical Leadership: Exploring New Avenues for Future Research.Michael E. Brown & Marie S. Mitchell - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (4):583-616.
    The purpose of this article is to review literature that is relevant to the social scientific study of ethics and leadership, as well as outline areas for future study. We first discuss ethical leadership and then draw from emerging research on “dark side” organizational behavior to widen the boundaries of the review to include unethical leadership. Next, three emerging trends within the organizational behavior literature are proposed for a leadership and ethics research agenda: 1) emotions, 2) fit/congruence, and 3) identity/identification. (...)
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  • Effects of Perceived Organizational CSR Value and Employee Moral Identity on Job Satisfaction: A Study of Business Organizations in Thailand.Anusorn Singhapakdi, Dong-Jin Lee, M. Joseph Sirgy, Hyuntak Roh, Kalayanee Senasu & Grace B. Yu - 2019 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 8 (1):53-72.
    Research has shown that corporate social responsibility can have a positive impact on the firm’s reputation and financial performance. Moreover, CSR activities can have a positive impact on employees’ workplace experience. Consistent with past research, we argue that perceived organizational CSR value can have a positive impact on job satisfaction. We also argue that employees’ moral identity can play an important moderating role on the perceived CSR effect. Specifically, the current study was designed to test the predictive effects of perceived (...)
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  • The Influence of Business Ethics Education on Moral Efficacy, Moral Meaningfulness, and Moral Courage: A Quasi-Experimental Study.Douglas R. May, Matthew T. Luth & Catherine E. Schwoerer - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (1):1-14.
    The research described here contributes to the extant empirical research on business ethics education by examining outcomes drawn from the literature on positive organizational scholarship (POS). The general research question explored is whether a course on ethical decision-making in business could positively influence students’ confidence in their abilities to handle ethical problems at work (i.e., moral efficacy), boost the relative importance of ethics in their work lives (i.e., moral meaningfulness), and encourage them to be more courageous in raising ethical problems (...)
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  • Moral Differentiation: Exploring Boundaries of the “Monkey See, Monkey Do” Perspective. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 102 (3):379-399.
    Research in ethical decision making has consistently demonstrated a positive relationship between others’ unethical behavior and observers’ unethical behavior, providing support for the “Monkey See, Monkey Do” perspective (e.g., Robinson and O’Leary-Kelly, Acad Manage J 41:658–672, 1998 ). However, the boundaries of this relationship have received little research attention. Guided by theory and research in interpersonal distancing, we explore these boundaries by proposing and examining “moral differentiation,” the set of individual and situational characteristics that affect the degree to which one (...)
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  • Who Engages with Moral Beauty?Rhett Diessner, Ravi Iyer, Meghan M. Smith & Jonathan Haidt - 2013 - Journal of Moral Education 42 (2):139-163.
    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the telos of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 (N = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological constructs relevant to moral education, and structural models reveal that the story of engagement with moral beauty may be considered a story of love and (...)
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  • A Cognitive Approach to the 'Happy Victimiser'.Gerhard Minnameier - 2012 - Journal of Moral Education 41 (4):491-508.
    The happy victimiser phenomenon has puzzled many researchers in the field of moral development. After having learnt and internalised what is morally right and wrong, young children tend to attribute positive feelings to observed models of their age who explicitly harm other children. This has been mainly explained as a lack of moral motivation or an insufficiently developed moral self. On both accounts, happy victimising is seen as an educational problem and understood in terms of a gap between moral judgement (...)
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  • An Identity Perspective on Ethical Leadership to Explain Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Interplay of Follower Moral Identity and Leader Group Prototypicality.Fabiola H. Gerpott, Niels Van Quaquebeke, Sofia Schlamp & Sven C. Voelpel - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (4):1063-1078.
    Despite the proliferation of research on ethical leadership, there remains a limited understanding of how specifically the assumingly moral component of this leadership style affects employee behavior. Taking an identity perspective, we integrate the ethical leadership literature with research on the dynamics of the moral self-concept to posit that ethical leadership will foster a sense of moral identity among employees, which then inspires followers to adopt more ethical actions, such as increased organization citizenship behavior. We further argue that these identity (...)
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  • Status Differentiation and the Protean Self: A Social-Cognitive Model of Unethical Behavior in Organizations. [REVIEW]Bella L. Galperin, Rebecca J. Bennett & Karl Aquino - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (3):407 - 424.
    Based on social-cognitive theory, this article proposes a model that seeks to explain why high status organizational members engage in unethical behavior. We argue that status differentiation in organizations creates social isolation which initiates activation of high status group identity and a deactivation of moral identity. We further argue that high status group identity results in insensitivity to the needs of out-group members which, in turn, results in lessened motivation to selfregulate ethical decision making. As a result of this identity (...)
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  • A Dual-Processing Model of Moral Whistleblowing in Organizations.Logan L. Watts & M. Ronald Buckley - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (3):669-683.
    A dual-processing model of moral whistleblowing in organizations is proposed. In this theory paper, moral whistleblowing is described as a unique type of whistleblowing that is undertaken by individuals that see themselves as moral agents and are primarily motivated to blow the whistle by a sense of moral duty. At the individual level, the model expands on traditional, rational models of whistleblowing by exploring how moral intuition and deliberative reasoning processes might interact to influence the whistleblowing behavior of moral agents. (...)
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  • How Leader Alignment of Words and Deeds Affects Followers: A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Integrity Research.Tony Simons, Hannes Leroy, Veroniek Collewaert & Stijn Masschelein - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (4):831-844.
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  • How Can a Deontological Decision Lead to Moral Behavior? The Moderating Role of Moral Identity.Zhi Xing Xu & Hing Keung Ma - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 137 (3):537-549.
    Deontology and utilitarianism are two competing principles that guide our moral judgment. Recently, deontology is thought to be intuitive and is based on an error-prone and biased approach, whereas utilitarianism is relatively reflective and a suitable framework for making decision. In this research, the authors explored the relationship among moral identity, moral decision, and moral behavior to see how a preference for the deontological solution can lead to moral behavior. In study 1, a Web-based survey demonstrated that when making decisions, (...)
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  • Why Moral Followers Quit: Examining the Role of Leader Bottom-Line Mentality and Unethical Pro-Leader Behavior.Salar Mesdaghinia, Anushri Rawat & Shiva Nadavulakere - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-15.
    Many business leaders vigorously and single-mindedly pursue bottom-line outcomes with the hope of producing superior results for themselves and their companies. Our study investigated two drawbacks of such leader bottom-line mentality. First, based on leaders’ power over followers, we hypothesized that leader BLM promotes unethical pro-leader behaviors among followers. Second, based on cognitive dissonance theory, we hypothesized that UPLB, and leader BLM via UPLB, increase turnover intention among employees with a strong moral identity. Data collected from 153 employees of various (...)
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  • Antecedents to the Justification of Norm Violating Behavior Among Business Practitioners.Scott J. Vitell, Megan Keith & Manisha Mathur - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 101 (1):163 - 173.
    This study investigates the role that moral identity, religiosity, and the institutionalization of ethics play in determining the extent of justification of norm violating behavior among business practitioners. Moral justification is where a person, rather than assuming responsibility for an outcome, attempts to legitimize ethically questionable behavior. Results of the study indicate that both the internalization and symbolization dimensions of moral identity as well as intrinsic religiosity and the explicit institutionalization of ethics within the organization are significant determinants of the (...)
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  • Good Without Knowing It: Subtle Contextual Cues Can Activate Moral Identity and Reshape Moral Intuition.Keith Leavitt, Lei Zhu & Karl Aquino - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 137 (4):785-800.
    The role of moral intuition has been increasingly implicated in business decisions and ethical business behavior. But troublingly, because implicit processes often operate outside of conscious awareness, decision makers are generally unaware of their influence. We tested whether subtle contextual cues for identity can alter implicit beliefs. In two studies, we found that contextual cues which nonconsciously prime moral identity weaken the implicit association between the categories of “business” and “ethical,” an implicit association which has previously been linked to unethical (...)
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  • Strengthening Moral Judgment: A Moral Identity-Based Leverage Strategy in Business Ethics Education.Cristina Neesham & Jun Gu - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 131 (3):527-534.
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  • Procedural Justice and Employee Engagement: Roles of Organizational Identification and Moral Identity Centrality.Hongwei He, Weichun Zhu & Xiaoming Zheng - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (4):681-695.
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  • What is Ethical Competence? The Role of Empathy, Personal Values, and the Five-Factor Model of Personality in Ethical Decision-Making.Rico Pohling, Danilo Bzdok, Monika Eigenstetter, Siegfried Stumpf & Anja Strobel - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 137 (3):449-474.
    The objective of the present research was two-fold: to provide a new definition of ethical competence, and to clarify the influence of empathy, personal values, and the five-factor model of personality on ethical competence. The present research provides a comprehensive overview about recent approaches and empirically explores the interconnections of these constructs. 366 German undergraduate students were examined in a cross-sectional study that investigated the relationship of empathy, personal values, and the five-factor model of personality with moral judgment competence and (...)
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  • Sāttvika Leadership: An Indian Model of Positive Leadership.Kumar Alok - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (1):117-138.
    I propose a leadership theory with moral concerns at its core. Sāttvika leadership is defined as a set of purposive leader actions comprising knowledge-driven cooperation that are initiated on the basis of positive and reasonably accurate assumptions and executed through morally responsible and sustainably fruitful means to secure the flourishing of followers and the collective. SL enhances psychological capital, psychological empowerment, and work engagement of followers while developing them into morally better persons. It enhances their trust on the leader and (...)
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  • Spirituality, Moral Identity, and Consumer Ethics: A Multi-Cultural Study.Scott J. Vitell, Robert Allen King, Katharine Howie, Jean-François Toti, Lumina Albert, Encarnación Ramos Hidalgo & Omneya Yacout - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 139 (1):147-160.
    This article presents the results of a cross-cultural study that examines the relationship between spirituality and a consumer’s ethical predisposition, and further examines the relationship between the internalization of one’s moral identity and a consumer’s ethical predisposition. Finally, the moderating impact of cultural factors on the above relationships is tested using Hofstede’s five dimensions. Data were gathered from young adult, well-educated consumers in five different countries, namely the U.S., France, Spain, India, and Egypt. The results indicate that the more spiritual (...)
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  • Psychology and Business Ethics: A Multi-Level Research Agenda.Gazi Islam - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-13.
    Arguing that psychology and business ethics are best brought together through a multi-level, broad-based agenda, this essay articulates a vision of psychology and business ethics to frame a future research agenda. The essay draws upon work published in JBE, but also identifies gaps where published research is needed, to build upon psychological conceptions of business ethics. Psychological concepts, notably, are not restricted to phenomena “in the head”, but are discussed at the intra-psychic, relational, and contextual levels of analysis. On the (...)
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  • Internalized Moral Identity in Ethical Leadership.Rebekka Skubinn & Lisa Herzog - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (2):249-260.
    The relevance of leader ethicality has moti- vated ethical leadership theory. In this paper, we emphasize the importance of moral identity for the concept of ethical leadership. We relate ethical leadership incorporating an internalized moral identity to productive deviant workplace behavior. Using qualitative empirical data we illustrate the relevance of critical situations, i.e., situations in which hypernorms and organizational norms diverge, for the distinction of ethical leaders with or without internalized moral identities. Our paper takes a multidisciplinary approach integrating insight (...)
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  • Ethical Climates in Organizations: A Review and Research Agenda.Alexander Newman, Heather Round, Sukanto Bhattacharya & Achinto Roy - 2017 - Business Ethics Quarterly 27 (4):475-512.
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  • Moral Identity as Leverage Point in Teaching Business Ethics.Jun Gu & Cristina Neesham - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 124 (3):527-536.
  • Does Honesty Result From Moral Will or Moral Grace? Why Moral Identity Matters.Zhi Xing Xu & Hing Keung Ma - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (2):371-384.
    Does honesty result from the absence of temptation or the active resistance of temptation? The “will’’ hypothesis suggests that honesty results from the active resistance of temptation, while the ”grace” hypothesis argues that honesty results from the absence of temptation. We examined reaction time and measured the cheating behavior of individuals who had a chance to lie for money. In study 1, we tested the “grace” hypothesis that honesty results from the absence of temptation and found a priming effect of (...)
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