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  1. Peter Schroeder-Heister on Proof-Theoretic Semantics.Thomas Piecha & Kai F. Wehmeier (eds.) - 2024 - Springer.
    This open access book is a superb collection of some fifteen chapters inspired by Schroeder-Heister's groundbreaking work, written by leading experts in the field, plus an extensive autobiography and comments on the various contributions by Schroeder-Heister himself. For several decades, Peter Schroeder-Heister has been a central figure in proof-theoretic semantics, a field of study situated at the interface of logic, theoretical computer science, natural-language semantics, and the philosophy of language. -/- The chapters of which this book is composed discuss the (...)
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  • Proof-Theoretic Semantics: An Autobiographical Survey.Peter Schroeder-Heister - 2024 - In Thomas Piecha & Kai F. Wehmeier (eds.), Peter Schroeder-Heister on Proof-Theoretic Semantics. Springer. pp. 1-51.
    In this autobiographical sketch, which is followed by a bibliography of my writings, I try to relate my intellectual development to problems, ideas and results in proof-theoretic semantics on which I have worked and to which I have contributed.
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  • From the decline of development to the ascent of consciousness.Philip David Zelazo - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):731-732.
  • Is there an implicit level of representation?Annie Vinter & Pierre Perruchet - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):730-731.
  • Criteria for the Design and Evaluation of Cognitive Architectures.Sashank Varma - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (7):1329-1351.
    Cognitive architectures are unified theories of cognition that take the form of computational formalisms. They support computational models that collectively account for large numbers of empirical regularities using small numbers of computational mechanisms. Empirical coverage and parsimony are the most prominent criteria by which architectures are designed and evaluated, but they are not the only ones. This paper considers three additional criteria that have been comparatively undertheorized. (a) Successful architectures possess subjective and intersubjective meaning, making cognition comprehensible to individual cognitive (...)
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  • The Connectionist Model QNET and its Combination with Genetic Algorithms.Philip van Loocke - 1996 - Philosophica 57 (1):107-130.
  • Strategies in sentential reasoning.Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Yingrui Yang & P. N. Johnson-Laird - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (4):425-468.
    Four experiments examined the strategies that individuals develop in sentential reasoning. They led to the discovery of five different strategies. According to the theory proposed in the paper, each of the strategies depends on component tactics, which all normal adults possess, and which are based on mental models. Reasoners vary their use of tactics in ways that have no deterministic account. This variation leads different individuals to assemble different strategies, which include the construction of incremental diagrams corresponding to mental models, (...)
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  • Strategies in sentential reasoning.Jean-Baptiste Van Der Henst, Yingrui Yang & Johnson-Laird N. Philip - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (4):425-468.
    Four experiments examined the strategies that individuals develop in sentential reasoning. They led to the discovery of five different strategies. According to the theory proposed in the paper, each of the strategies depends on component tactics, which all normal adults possess, and which are based on mental models. Reasoners vary their use of tactics in ways that are not deterministic. This variation leads different individuals to assemble different strategies, which include the construction of incremental diagram corresponding to mental models, and (...)
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  • Synchrony in the eye of the beholder: An analysis of the role of neural synchronization in cognitive processes. [REVIEW]Frank van der Velde & Marc de Kamps - 2002 - Brain and Mind 3 (3):291-312.
    We discuss the role of synchrony of activationin higher-level cognitive processes. Inparticular, we analyze the question of whethersynchrony of activation provides a mechanismfor compositional representation in neuralsystems. We will argue that synchrony ofactivation does not provide a mechanism forcompositional representation in neural systems.At face value, one can identify a level ofcompositional representation in the models thatintroduce synchrony of activation for thispurpose. But behavior in these models isalways produced by means conjunctiverepresentations in the form of coincidencedetectors. Therefore, models that rely onsynchrony (...)
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  • The AHA! Experience: Creativity Through Emergent Binding in Neural Networks.Paul Thagard & Terrence C. Stewart - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (1):1-33.
    Many kinds of creativity result from combination of mental representations. This paper provides a computational account of how creative thinking can arise from combining neural patterns into ones that are potentially novel and useful. We defend the hypothesis that such combinations arise from mechanisms that bind together neural activity by a process of convolution, a mathematical operation that interweaves structures. We describe computer simulations that show the feasibility of using convolution to produce emergent patterns of neural activity that can support (...)
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  • How molecules matter to mental computation.Paul Thagard - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (3):497-518.
    Almost all computational models of the mind and brain ignore details about neurotransmitters, hormones, and other molecules. The neglect of neurochemistry in cognitive science would be appropriate if the computational properties of brains relevant to explaining mental functioning were in fact electrical rather than chemical. But there is considerable evidence that chemical complexity really does matter to brain computation, including the role of proteins in intracellular computation, the operations of synapses and neurotransmitters, and the effects of neuromodulators such as hormones. (...)
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  • Semantic computations of truth based on associations already learned.Patrick Suppes & Jean-Yves Béziau - 2004 - Journal of Applied Logic 2 (4):457-467.
  • Grammar‐based Connectionist Approaches to Language.Paul Smolensky - 1999 - Cognitive Science 23 (4):589-613.
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  • Harmony in Linguistic Cognition.Paul Smolensky - 2006 - Cognitive Science 30 (5):779-801.
    In this article, I survey the integrated connectionist/symbolic (ICS) cognitive architecture in which higher cognition must be formally characterized on two levels of description. At the microlevel, parallel distributed processing (PDP) characterizes mental processing; this PDP system has special organization in virtue of which it can be characterized at the macrolevel as a kind of symbolic computational system. The symbolic system inherits certain properties from its PDP substrate; the symbolic functions computed constitute optimization of a well-formedness measure called Harmony. The (...)
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  • Modal knowledge and transmodularity.Leslie Smith - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):729-730.
  • A bound on synchronically interpretable structure.Jon M. Slack - 2004 - Mind and Language 19 (3):305–333.
    Multiple explanatory frameworks may be required to provide an adequate account of human cognition. This paper embeds the classical account within a neural network framework, exploring the encoding of syntacticallystructured objects over the synchronicdiachronic characteristics of networks. Synchronic structure is defined in terms of temporal binding and the superposition of states. To accommodate asymmetric relations, synchronic structure is subject to the type uniqueness constraint. The nature of synchronic structure is shown to underlie Xbar theory that characterizes the phrasal structure of (...)
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  • Symbolic/Subsymbolic Interface Protocol for Cognitive Modeling.Patrick Simen & Thad Polk - 2010 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 18 (5):705-761.
    Researchers studying complex cognition have grown increasingly interested in mapping symbolic cognitive architectures onto subsymbolic brain models. Such a mapping seems essential for understanding cognition under all but the most extreme viewpoints (namely, that cognition consists exclusively of digitally implemented rules; or instead, involves no rules whatsoever). Making this mapping reduces to specifying an interface between symbolic and subsymbolic descriptions of brain activity. To that end, we propose parameterization techniques for building cognitive models as programmable, structured, recurrent neural networks. Feedback (...)
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  • Semantic Boost on Episodic Associations: An Empirically‐Based Computational Model.Yaron Silberman, Shlomo Bentin & Risto Miikkulainen - 2007 - Cognitive Science 31 (4):645-671.
    Words become associated following repeated co-occurrence episodes. This process might be further determined by the semantic characteristics of the words. The present study focused on how semantic and episodic factors interact in incidental formation of word associations. First, we found that human participants associate semantically related words more easily than unrelated words; this advantage increased linearly with repeated co-occurrence. Second, we developed a computational model, SEMANT, suggesting a possible mechanism for this semantic-episodic interaction. In SEMANT, episodic associations are implemented through (...)
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  • The challenge of representational redescription.Thomas R. Shultz - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):728-729.
  • Temporal synchrony, dynamic bindings, and Shruti: A representational but nonclassical model of reflexive reasoning.Lokendra Shastri - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):331-337.
    Lange & Dyer misunderstand what is meant by an “entity” and confuse a medium of representation with the content being represented. This leads them to the erroneous conclusion that SHRUTI will run out of phases and that its representation of bindings lacks semantic content. It is argued that the limit on the number of phases suffices, and SHRUTI can be interpreted as using “dynamic signatures” that offer significant advantages over fixed preexisting signatures. Bonatti refers to three levels of commitment to (...)
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  • Episodic memory and cortico–hippocampal interactions.Lokendra Shastri - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (4):162-168.
  • An extended local connectionist manifesto: Embracing relational and procedural knowledge.Lokendra Shastri - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):492-493.
    Page has performed an important service by dispelling several myths and misconceptions concerning the localist approach. The localist position and computational model presented in the target article, however, are overly restrictive and do not address the representation of complex conceptual items such as events, situations, actions, and plans. Working toward the representation of such items leads to a more sophisticated and articulated view of the localist approach.
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  • Redescribing development.Ellin Kofsky Scholnick - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):727-728.
  • Plausible reasoning and the resolution of quantifier scope ambiguities.Walid S. Saba & Jean-Pierre Corriveau - 2001 - Studia Logica 67 (2):271-289.
    Despite overwhelming evidence suggesting that quantifier scope is a phenomenon that must be treated at the pragmatic level, most computational treatments of scope ambiguities have thus far been a collection of syntactically motivated preference rules. This might be in part due to the prevailing wisdom that a commonsense inferencing strategy would require the storage of and reasoning with a vast amount of background knowledge. In this paper we hope to demonstrate that the challenge in developing a commonsense inferencing strategy is (...)
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  • Situating representational redescriptionin infants' pragmatic knowledge.Julie C. Rutkowska - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):726-727.
  • The WEAVER model of word-form encoding in speech production.Ardi Roelofs - 1997 - Cognition 64 (3):249-284.
  • Brain symbols and computationalist explanation.William S. Robinson - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (1):25-44.
    Computationalist theories of mind require brain symbols, that is, neural events that represent kinds or instances of kinds. Standard models of computation require multiple inscriptions of symbols with the same representational content. The satisfaction of two conditions makes it easy to see how this requirement is met in computers, but we have no reason to think that these conditions are satisfied in the brain. Thus, if we wish to give computationalist explanations of human cognition, without committing ourselvesa priori to a (...)
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  • The neural basis of cognitive development: A constructivist manifesto.Steven R. Quartz & Terrence J. Sejnowski - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):537-556.
    How do minds emerge from developing brains? According to the representational features of cortex are built from the dynamic interaction between neural growth mechanisms and environmentally derived neural activity. Contrary to popular selectionist models that emphasize regressive mechanisms, the neurobiological evidence suggests that this growth is a progressive increase in the representational properties of cortex. The interaction between the environment and neural growth results in a flexible type of learning: minimizes the need for prespecification in accordance with recent neurobiological evidence (...)
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  • Beyond modularity: Neural evidence for constructivist principles in development.Steven R. Quartz & Terrence J. Sejnowski - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):725-726.
  • The Computational Origin of Representation.Steven T. Piantadosi - 2020 - Minds and Machines 31 (1):1-58.
    Each of our theories of mental representation provides some insight into how the mind works. However, these insights often seem incompatible, as the debates between symbolic, dynamical, emergentist, sub-symbolic, and grounded approaches to cognition attest. Mental representations—whatever they are—must share many features with each of our theories of representation, and yet there are few hypotheses about how a synthesis could be possible. Here, I develop a theory of the underpinnings of symbolic cognition that shows how sub-symbolic dynamics may give rise (...)
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  • Progress toward an understanding of cortical computation.W. A. Phillips & W. Singer - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):703-714.
    The additional data, perspectives, questions, and criticisms contributed by the commentaries strengthen our view that local cortical processors coordinate their activity with the context in which it occurs using contextual fields and synchronized population codes. We therefore predict that whereas the specialization of function has been the keynote of this century the coordination of function will be the keynote of the next.
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  • In search of common foundations for cortical computation.William A. Phillips & Wolf Singer - 1997 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):657-683.
    It is worthwhile to search for forms of coding, processing, and learning common to various cortical regions and cognitive functions. Local cortical processors may coordinate their activity by maximizing the transmission of information coherently related to the context in which it occurs, thus forming synchronized population codes. This coordination involves contextual field (CF) connections that link processors within and between cortical regions. The effects of CF connections are distinguished from those mediating receptive field (RF) input; it is shown how CFs (...)
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  • Darwin's mistake: Explaining the discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds.Derek C. Penn, Keith J. Holyoak & Daniel J. Povinelli - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):109-130.
    Over the last quarter century, the dominant tendency in comparative cognitive psychology has been to emphasize the similarities between human and nonhuman minds and to downplay the differences as (Darwin 1871). In the present target article, we argue that Darwin was mistaken: the profound biological continuity between human and nonhuman animals masks an equally profound discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. To wit, there is a significant discontinuity in the degree to which human and nonhuman animals are able to approximate (...)
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  • Where redescriptions come from.David R. Olson - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):725-725.
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  • Representational change, generality versus specificity, and nature versus nurture: Perennial issues in cognitive research.Stellan Ohlsson - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):724-725.
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  • Commentary on ''cortical activity and the explanatory gap'' by John G. Taylor.Danko Nikolic - 1998 - Consciousness and Cognition 7 (2):196-201.
  • Symmetry between the intentionality of minds and machines? The biological plausibility of Dennett’s account.Bence Nanay - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (1):57-71.
    One of the most influential arguments against the claim that computers can think is that while our intentionality is intrinsic, that of computers is derived: it is parasitic on the intentionality of the programmer who designed the computer-program. Daniel Dennett chose a surprising strategy for arguing against this asymmetry: instead of denying that the intentionality of computers is derived, he endeavours to argue that human intentionality is derived too. I intend to examine that biological plausibility of Dennett’s suggestion and show (...)
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  • Can connectionism save constructivism?Gary F. Marcus - 1998 - Cognition 66 (2):153-182.
  • Can connectionism save constructivism?Gary F. Marcus - 1998 - Cognition 66 (2):153-182.
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  • The Notion of Dynamic Unit: Conceptual Developments in Cognitive Science.Nili Mandelblit & Oron Zachar - 1998 - Cognitive Science 22 (2):229-268.
    We suggest a common ground for alternative proposals In different domains of cognitive science which have previously seemed to have little in common. The underlying common theme is associated with a redefinition of the basic unit of analysis in each domain of thought. Our framework suggests a definition of unity which is based not on inherent properties of the elements constituting the unit, but rather on dynamic patterns of correlation across the elements. We introduce a set of features that characterize (...)
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  • Algorithm and Parameters: Solving the Generality Problem for Reliabilism.Jack C. Lyons - 2019 - Philosophical Review 128 (4):463-509.
    The paper offers a solution to the generality problem for a reliabilist epistemology, by developing an “algorithm and parameters” scheme for type-individuating cognitive processes. Algorithms are detailed procedures for mapping inputs to outputs. Parameters are psychological variables that systematically affect processing. The relevant process type for a given token is given by the complete algorithmic characterization of the token, along with the values of all the causally relevant parameters. The typing that results is far removed from the typings of folk (...)
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  • Beyond methodological solipsism?Michael Losonsky - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):723-724.
  • A theory of lexical access in speech production.Willem J. M. Levelt, Ardi Roelofs & Antje S. Meyer - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1):1-38.
    Preparing words in speech production is normally a fast and accurate process. We generate them two or three per second in fluent conversation; and overtly naming a clear picture of an object can easily be initiated within 600 msec after picture onset. The underlying process, however, is exceedingly complex. The theory reviewed in this target article analyzes this process as staged and feedforward. After a first stage of conceptual preparation, word generation proceeds through lexical selection, morphological and phonological encoding, phonetic (...)
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  • Analogy as relational priming: A developmental and computational perspective on the origins of a complex cognitive skill.Robert Leech, Denis Mareschal & Richard P. Cooper - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):357-378.
    The development of analogical reasoning has traditionally been understood in terms of theories of adult competence. This approach emphasizes structured representations and structure mapping. In contrast, we argue that by taking a developmental perspective, analogical reasoning can be viewed as the product of a substantially different cognitive ability – relational priming. To illustrate this, we present a computational (here connectionist) account where analogy arises gradually as a by-product of pattern completion in a recurrent network. Initial exposure to a situation primes (...)
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  • Parallel reasoning in structured connectionist networks: Signatures versus temporal synchrony.Trent E. Lange & Michael G. Dyer - 1996 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (2):328-331.
    Shastri & Ajjanagadde argue convincingly that both structured connectionist networks and parallel dynamic inferencing are necessary for reflexive reasoning - a kind of inferencing and reasoning that occurs rapidly, spontaneously, and without conscious effort, and which seems necessary for everyday tasks such as natural language understanding. As S&A describe, reflexive reasoning requires a solution to thedynamic binding problem, that is, how to encode systematic and abstract knowledge and instantiate it in specific situations to draw appropriate inferences. Although symbolic artificial intelligence (...)
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  • The power of explicit knowing.Deanna Kuhn - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):722-723.
  • Transforming a partially structured brain into a creative mind.Annette Karmiloff-Smith - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):732-745.
  • Précis of Beyond modularity: A developmental perspective on cognitive science.Annette Karmiloff-Smith - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):693-707.
    Beyond modularityattempts a synthesis of Fodor's anticonstructivist nativism and Piaget's antinativist constructivism. Contra Fodor, I argue that: (1) the study of cognitive development is essential to cognitive science, (2) the module/central processing dichotomy is too rigid, and (3) the mind does not begin with prespecified modules; rather, development involves a gradual process of “modularization.” Contra Piaget, I argue that: (1) development rarely involves stagelike domain-general change and (2) domainspecific predispositions give development a small but significant kickstart by focusing the infant's (...)
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  • A Probabilistic Model of Lexical and Syntactic Access and Disambiguation.Daniel Jurafsky - 1996 - Cognitive Science 20 (2):137-194.
    The problems of access—retrieving linguistic structure from some mental grammar —and disambiguation—choosing among these structures to correctly parse ambiguous linguistic input—are fundamental to language understanding. The literature abounds with psychological results on lexical access, the access of idioms, syntactic rule access, parsing preferences, syntactic disambiguation, and the processing of garden‐path sentences. Unfortunately, it has been difficult to combine models which account for these results to build a general, uniform model of access and disambiguation at the lexical, idiomatic, and syntactic levels. (...)
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  • Genes, development, and the “innate” structure of the mind.Timothy D. Johnston - 1994 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (4):721-722.