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  1. An Inferential Account on Theoretical Concepts in Physics.Javier Anta - 2021 - Critica 52 (156).
    In this paper we develop an inferential account on the meaning and reference of theoretical concepts in physics, mainly based on the pragmatic notion of ‘inferential validity’. Firstly, we distinguish between empirical meaningfulness and theoretical significance as two different modes of meaning, wherein the former depends on consistently encoding experimental values, as proposed by Chang, and the latter on being semantically coherent with other concepts. Secondly, we argue that each of these contributions to the validity of inferences imports a causal (...)
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  • Philosophy of Science Naturalized.Ronald N. Giere - 1985 - Philosophy of Science 52 (3):331-356.
    In arguing a "role for history," Kuhn was proposing a naturalized philosophy of science. That, I argue, is the only viable approach to the philosophy of science. I begin by exhibiting the main general objections to a naturalistic approach. These objections, I suggest, are equally powerful against nonnaturalistic accounts. I review the failure of two nonnaturalistic approaches, methodological foundationism (Carnap, Reichenbach, and Popper) and metamethodology (Lakatos and Laudan). The correct response, I suggest, is to adopt an "evolutionary perspective." This perspective (...)
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  • Must Global Politics Constrain Democracy?Alan Gilbert - 1992 - Political Theory 20 (1):8-37.
    The government itself, which is the only mode which the people have chosen to execute their will, is equally liable [with the standing army] to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it. Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool; for, in the outset, the people would not have consented to this measure. Henry Thoreau, in “Civil Disobedience” It is easy to say — and often (...)
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  • Review Essays : Why Epistemology Just Might Be(Come) Sociology.Steve Fuller - 1990 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 20 (1):99-109.
  • Fix It and Be Damned: A Reply to Laudan.John Worrall - 1989 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (3):376-388.
  • Kuhn's Changing Concept of Incommensurability.Howard Sankey - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (4):759-774.
    Since 1962 Kuhn's concept of incommensurability has undergone a process of transformation. His current account of incommensurability has little in common with his original account of it. Originally, incommensurability was a relation of methodological, observational and conceptual disparity between paradigms. Later Kuhn restricted the notion to the semantical sphere and assimilated it to the indeterminacy of translation. Recently he has developed an account of it as localized translation failure between subsets of terms employed by theories.
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  • A Note on Fundamental Theory and Idealizations in Economics and Physics.Hans Lind - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (3):493-503.
    Modern economics, with its use of advanced mathematical methods, is often looked upon as the physics of the social sciences. It is here argued that deductive analyses are more important in economics than in physics, because the economists more seldom can confirm phenomenological laws directly. The economist has to use assumptions from fundamental theory when trying to bridge the gap between observations and phenomenological laws. Partly as a result of the difficulties of establishing phenomenological laws, analyses of idealized 'model-economies' play (...)
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  • Science and Technology Studies: Prospects for an Enlightened Postmodern Synthesis.Ronald N. Giere - 1993 - Science, Technology and Human Values 18 (1):102-112.
    The argument that recent attempts to model technology studies on science studies have consequences for approaches to science studies as well is presented. In particular, the move to technology studies through science studies counts against the existing extreme pictures of science, "enlightenment rationalism," and "constructivisim," which are identified with modernism and postmodernism, respectively. Some components for a moderate "enlightened post-modern synthesis" in naturalism, interest theory, and systems theory are found.
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  • Fuller and Rouse on the Legitimation of Scientific Knowledge.Francis Remedios - 2003 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 33 (4):444-463.
    Fullerand Rouse are both political social epistemologists concerned with the cognitive authority of science, though both disagree on what role it should play in science. Fullerar gues that political factors such as knowledge policy and a constitution play a primary role in the global legitimation of scientific knowledge, while Rouse holds that politics play a role on the local (practices) level but not on the global (metascientific) level of legitimation. While Fullerpr ovides a political response to the legitimation project, Rouse (...)
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  • Whither Social Epistemology? A Reply to Fuller.Warren Schmaus - 1991 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 21 (2):196-202.
  • Varieties of Rhetoric in Science.Maurice A. Finocchiaro - 1990 - History of the Human Sciences 3 (2):177-193.
  • Deflationary Methodology and Rationality of Science.Thomas Nickles - 1996 - Philosophica 58.
  • How Do Scientific Explanations Explain?Joyce Kinoshita - 1990 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 27:297-311.
    My title question as it stands is ambiguous, and is in want of some initial clarification. Does the question ask how the explanandum is logically related to the explanans? Or does it ask about the details of the dynamics of the explanation speech-act? Or does it ask how the linguistic ambiguities of explanation questions and answers should properly be unpacked? Or does it ask yet some other question? The ways of studying explanation, like the ways of understanding the world, are (...)
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  • Alien Reasoning: Is a Major Change in Scientific Research Underway?Thomas Nickles - 2020 - Topoi 39 (4):901-914.
    Are we entering a major new phase of modern science, one in which our standard, human modes of reasoning and understanding, including heuristics, have decreasing value? The new methods challenge human intelligibility. The digital revolution inspires such claims, but they are not new. During several historical periods, scientific progress has challenged traditional concepts of reasoning and rationality, intelligence and intelligibility, explanation and knowledge. The increasing intelligence of machine learning and networking is a deliberately sought, somewhat alien intelligence. As such, it (...)
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  • Kant and Naturalism Reconsidered.John H. Zammito - 2008 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 51 (5):532 – 558.
    Reconstructions of Kant are prominent in the contemporary debate over naturalism. Given that this naturalism rejects a priori principles, Kant's anti-naturalism can best be discerned in the “critical turn” as a response to David Hume. Hume did not awaken Kant to criticize but to defend rational metaphysics. But when Kant went transcendental did he not, in fact, go transcendent? The controversy in the 1990s over John McDowell's Mind and World explored just this suspicion: the questions of the normative force of (...)
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  • Scholastic Temptations in the Philosophy of Biology.Werner Callebaut - 2013 - Biological Theory 8 (1):1-6.
  • A Cybernetic Computational Model for Learning and Skill Acquisition.B. Scott & A. Bansal - 2013 - Constructivist Foundations 9 (1):125-136.
    Context: Although there are rich descriptive accounts of skill acquisition in the literature, there are no satisfactory explanatory models of the cognitive processes involved. Problem: The aim of the paper is to explain some key phenomena frequently observed in the acquisition of motor skills: the loss of conscious access to knowledge of the structure of a skill and the awareness that an error has been made prior to the receipt of knowledge of results. Method: In the 1970s, the first author (...)
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  • Cognitive Values, Theory Choice, and Pluralism: On the Grounds and Implications of Philosophical Diversity.Guy Stanwood Axtell - 1991 - Dissertation, University of Hawai'i
    This dissertation focuses on the development of a pragmatic account of normative discourse. The approach taken to the subject of study is metaphilosophical. Prevalent contemporary treatments of norm governance and cognitive evaluation, are examined in light of background metaphilosophical views adopted by such schools as logical empiricism, pragmatism, and schools associated with contemporary sociology of scientific knowledge. I examine metaphilosophical assumptions that pre-structure treatment of conceptual issues such as belief-modification, theory choice, and explanation, pursuing these issues across a wide range (...)
     
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  • Again, What the Philosophy of Biology is Not.Werner Callebaut - 2005 - Acta Biotheoretica 53 (2):93-122.
    There are many things that philosophy of biology might be. But, given the existence of a professional philosophy of biology that is arguably a progressive research program and, as such, unrivaled, it makes sense to define philosophy of biology more narrowly than the totality of intersecting concerns biologists and philosophers (let alone other scholars) might have. The reasons for the success of the “new” philosophy of biology remain poorly understood. I reflect on what Dutch and Flemish, and, more generally, European (...)
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  • The Hammer and the Nail : Interdisciplinarity and Problem Solving in Sustainability Science.Henrik Thorén - 2015 - Dissertation, Lund University
    This is a thesis about interdisciplinarity, scientific integration, and problem solving in sustainability science. Sustainability science is an emerging and highly interdisciplinary field that seeks to integrate vastly differentiated bodies of knowledge in addressing the challenge of transitioning contemporary societies towards sustainability. Interdisciplinarity is paramount. Interdisciplinarity in general, and in the context of sustainability science in particular, has often been associated with solving particular problems and problem solving is one important theme in this thesis. A central idea that is developed (...)
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  • Thomo S. Kuhno Mokslo Paradigmų Klasifikacija Pagal Margaret Masterman Interpretaciją.Aurimas Okunauskas - 2015 - Žmogus ir Žodis 17 (4).
    Straipsnio tikslas atkreipti dėmesį į Thomo S. Kuhno paradigmos sąvokos daugiaprasmiškumą jo knygoje Mokslo revoliucijų struktūra bei įvertinti T. S. Kuhno komentatorės Margaret Masterman išdėstytą paradigmų klasifikaciją. Ji išskiria tris šios sąvokos aspektus: sociologinį, konstrukcinį ir metafizinį. Mokslo revoliucijų struktūroje M. Masterman įžvelgia bent 21 skirtingą šios sąvokos formuluotę. Dėl tokio sąvokos neapibrėžtumo daug kritikų koncentravosi tik ties metafiziniais aspektais. Šiame straipsnyje išdėstoma pirminė T. S. Kuhno formuluotė, jos išsklaida M. Masterman klasifikacijoje ir konstrukcinės paradigmos sukuriama galimybė naujai aiškinti mokslo (...)
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  • Multidisciplinarity, Interdisciplinarity, Transdisciplinarity, and the Sciences.David Alvargonzález - 2011 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (4):387-403.
    The ideas of interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity have been widely applied to the relationship between sciences. This article is an attempt to discuss the reasons why scientific interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity pose specific problems. First of all, certain questions about terminology are taken into account in order to clarify the meaning of the word ?discipline? and its cognates. Secondly, we argue that the specificity of sciences does not lie in becoming disciplines. Then, we focus on the relationship between sciences, and between sciences (...)
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  • Naturalized Philosophy of Science with a Plurality of Methods.David Stump - 1992 - Philosophy of Science 59 (3):456-460.
    Naturalism implies unity of method--an application of the methods of science to the methodology of science itself and to value theory. Epistemological naturalists have tried to find a privileged discipline to be the methodological model of philosophy of science and epistemology. However, since science itself is not unitary, the use of one science as a model amounts to a reduction and distorts the philosophy of science just as badly as traditional philosophy of science distorted science, despite the fact that the (...)
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  • Philosophy of Science and History of Science: A Productive Engagement.Eric Palmer - 1991 - Dissertation, University of California, San Diego
    Philosophy of science and history of science both have a significant relation to science itself; but what is their relation to each other? That question has been a focal point of philosophical and historical work throughout the second half of this century. An analysis and review of the progress made in dealing with this question, and especially that made in philosophy, is the focus of this thesis. Chapter one concerns logical positivist and empiricist approaches to philosophy of science, and the (...)
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  • Authors’ Response: A Perspectivist View on the Perspectivist View of Interdisciplinary Science.H. F. Alrøe & E. Noe - 2014 - Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):88-95.
    Upshot: In our response we focus on five questions that point to important common themes in the commentaries: why start in wicked problems, what kind of system is a scientific perspective, what is the nature of second-order research processes, what does this mean for understanding interdisciplinary work, and how may polyocular research help make real-world decisions.
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  • Three Dogmas on Scientific Theory.Massimiliano Badino - manuscript
    Most philosophical accounts on scientific theories are affected by three dogmas or ingrained attitudes. These dogmas have led philosophers to choose between analyzing the internal structure of theories or their historical evolution. In this paper, I turn these three dogmas upside down. I argue (i) that mathematical practices are not epistemically neutral, (ii) that the morphology of theories can be very complex, and (iii) that one should view theoretical knowledge as the combination of internal factors and their intrinsic historicity.
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  • Second-Order Science of Interdisciplinary Research: A Polyocular Framework for Wicked Problems.Hugo F. Alrøe & E. Noe - 2014 - Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):65-76.
    Context: The problems that are most in need of interdisciplinary collaboration are “wicked problems,” such as food crises, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development, with many relevant aspects, disagreement on what the problem is, and contradicting solutions. Such complex problems both require and challenge interdisciplinarity. Problem: The conventional methods of interdisciplinary research fall short in the case of wicked problems because they remain first-order science. Our aim is to present workable methods and research designs for doing second-order science in domains (...)
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  • Was the Early Calculus an Inconsistent Theory?Peter Vickers - unknown
    The ubiquitous assertion that the early calculus of Newton and Leibniz was an inconsistent theory is examined. Two different objects of a possible inconsistency claim are distinguished: (i) the calculus as an algorithm; (ii) proposed explanations of the moves made within the algorithm. In the first case the calculus can be interpreted as a theory in something like the logician’s sense, whereas in the second case it acts more like a scientific theory. I find no inconsistency in the first case, (...)
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  • Methodological Incommensurability and Epistemic Relativism.Howard Sankey - 2013 - Topoi 32 (1):33-41.
    This paper revisits one of the key ideas developed in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. In particular, it explores the methodological form of incommensurability which may be found in the original edition of Structure. It is argued that such methodological incommensurability leads to a form of epistemic relativism. In later work, Kuhn moved away from the original idea of methodological incommensurability with his idea of a set of epistemic values that provides a basis for rational theory choice, but do not (...)
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  • Integrating Sciences by Creating New Disciplines: The Case of Cell Biology. [REVIEW]William Bechtel - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (3):277-299.
    Many studies of the unification of science focus on the theories of different disciplines. The model for integration is the theory reduction model. This paper argues that the embodiment of theories in scientists, and the institutions in which scientists work and the instruments they employ, are critical to the sort of integration that actually occurs in science. This paper examines the integration of scientific endeavors that emerged in cell biology in the period after World War II when the development of (...)
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  • The Justification and Selection of Scientific Theories.James T. Cushing - 1989 - Synthese 78 (1):1 - 24.
    This paper is a critique of a project, outlined by Laudan et al. (1986) recently in this journal, for empirically testing philosophical models of change in science by comparing them against the historical record of actual scientific practice. While the basic idea of testing such models of change in the arena of science is itself an appealing one, serious questions can be raised about the suitability of seeking confirmation or disconfirmation for large numbers of specific theses drawn from a massive (...)
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  • A Theory of Scientific Model Construction: The Conceptual Process of Abstraction and Concretisation. [REVIEW]Demetris P. Portides - 2005 - Foundations of Science 10 (1):67-88.
    The process of abstraction and concretisation is a label used for an explicative theory of scientific model-construction. In scientific theorising this process enters at various levels. We could identify two principal levels of abstraction that are useful to our understanding of theory-application. The first level is that of selecting a small number of variables and parameters abstracted from the universe of discourse and used to characterise the general laws of a theory. In classical mechanics, for example, we select position and (...)
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  • Psycholinguistics as a Case of Cross-Disciplinary Research: Symposium Introduction.William Bechtel - 1987 - Synthese 72 (3):293 - 311.
    In setting a framework for the papers that follow, I have explored some of the major characteristics of disciplines and the factors that breed ethnocentrism among disciplines, considered what factors can lead researchers to cross disciplinary boundaries, and explored the kinds of conceptual as well as social and institutional products that result from cross-disciplinary work. While drawing out the significance of these various considerations for psycholinguistics, I have presented a fairly general conceptual analysis that is not restricted to this case. (...)
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  • A (Post)Foundational Approach to the Philosophy of Science: Part II. [REVIEW]Dimitri Ginev - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):57 - 74.
    This is a sequel to my paper, "Searching for a (Post)Foundational Approach to Philosophy of Science", which appeared in an earlier issue of this Journal [Ginev 2001, Journal for General Philosophy of science 32, 27-37]. In the present paper I continue to scrutinize the possibility of a strong hermeneutics of scientific research. My aim is to defend the position of cognitive existentialism that combines the advocacy of science's cognitive specificity and the rejection of any form of essentialism. A special attention (...)
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  • The Process of Science.Steve Fuller - 1990 - Erkenntnis 33 (1):121-129.
  • Religious Experience as an Observational Epistemic Practice.Bruce R. Reichenbach - 2012 - Sophia 51 (1):1-16.
    William Alston proposed an understanding of religious experience modeled after the triadic structure of sense perception. However, a perceptual model falters because of the unobservability of God as the object of religious experience. To reshape Alston’s model of religious experience as an observational practice we utilize Dudley Shapere’s distinction between the philosophical use of ‘observe’ in terms of sensory perception and scientists’ epistemic use of ‘observe’ as being evidential by providing information or justification leading to knowledge. This distinction helps us (...)
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  • A Foundational Approach to the Philosophy of Science: Part II.Dimitri Ginev - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):57-74.
    This is a sequel to my paper, "Searching for a Foundational Approach to Philosophy of Science", which appeared in an earlier issue of this Journal [Ginev 2001, Journal for General Philosophy of science 32, 27-37]. In the present paper I continue to scrutinize the possibility of a strong hermeneutics of scientific research. My aim is to defend the position of cognitive existentialism that combines the advocacy of science's cognitive specificity and the rejection of any form of essentialism. A special attention (...)
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  • The Relation Between Idealisation and Approximation in Scientific Model Construction.Demetris P. Portides - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (7-8):699-724.
  • Sur la voie constructiviste en épistémologie (A propos de Théorétiques d'Yvon Gauthier).Robert Nadeau - 1985 - Dialogue 24 (1):115-.
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  • Incommensurability, Relativism, and the Epistemic Authority of Science.Steven Bland - 2014 - Episteme 11 (4):463-473.
  • Fall and Rise of Aristotelian Metaphysics in the Philosophy of Science.John Lamont - 2009 - Science & Education 18 (6-7):861-884.
  • The Hidden Premise.Paul Jewell - 1991 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 23 (1):79–88.
  • Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Justin Leiber, W. J. Talbott, Anthony Dardis, Dale Jamieson, Douglas Dempster, John Snapper, Denise Dellarosa Cummins, Michael Wheeler, Harry Heft, Donald Levy, Lindley Darden & Alastair Tait - 1995 - Philosophical Psychology 8 (4):389-431.
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  • In Defense of Relativism.Joseph Margolis - 1988 - Social Epistemology 2 (3):201 – 225.
  • Resisting the Historical Objections to Realism: Is Doppelt’s a Viable Solution?Mario Alai - 2017 - Synthese 194 (9):3267-3290.
    There are two possible realist defense strategies against the pessimistic meta-induction and Laudan’s meta-modus tollens: the selective strategy, claiming that discarded theories are partially true, and the discontinuity strategy, denying that pessimism about past theories can be extended to current ones. A radical version of discontinuity realism is proposed by Gerald Doppelt: rather than discriminating between true and false components within theories, he holds that superseded theories cannot be shown to be even partially true, while present best theories are demonstrably (...)
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  • Toward a Cognitive Psychology of What?Harold Brown - 1989 - Social Epistemology 3 (2):129 – 137.
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  • Normative Epistemology and Naturalized Epistemology.Harold I. Brown - 1988 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):53 – 78.
    A number of philosophers have argued that a naturalized epistemology cannot be normative, and thus that the norms that govern science cannot themselves be established empirically. Three arguments for this conclusion are here developed and then responded to on behalf of naturalized epistemology. The response is developed in three stages. First, if we view human knowers as part of the natural world, then the attempt to establish epistemic norms that are immune to scientific evaluation faces difficulties that are at least (...)
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  • Clusters' Last Stand.Nader Chokr - 1993 - Social Epistemology 7 (4):329 – 353.
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  • Epistemic Concepts: A Naturalistic Approach.Harold I. Brown - 1991 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 34 (3-4):323 – 351.
    Several forms of naturalism are currently extant. Proponents of the various approaches disagree on matters of strategy and detail but one theme is common: we have not received any revelations about the nature of the world -- including our own nature. Whatever knowledge we have has been acquired through a fallible process of conjecture and revision. This common theme will bring to mind the writings of Karl Popper and, in many respects, Popper is the father of contemporary naturalism. Along with (...)
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  • The Hidden Premise.Paul Jewell - 1991 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 23 (1):79-88.