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Kristin Shrader-Frechette (1991). Risk and Rationality.

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  1.  6
    Mischaracterizing Uncertainty in Environmental-Health Sciences.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2017 - Diametros 53:96-124.
    Researchers doing welfare-related science frequently mischaracterize either situations of decision-theoretic mathematical/scientific uncertainty as situations of risk, or situations of risk as those of uncertainty. The paper outlines this epistemic/ethical problem ; surveys its often-deadly, welfare-related consequences in environmental-health sciences; and uses recent research on diesel particulate matter to reveal 7 specific methodological ways that scientists may mischaracterize lethal risks instead as situations of uncertainty, mainly by using methods and assumptions with false-negative biases. The article closes by outlining two normative strategies (...)
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  2.  10
    Coping with Ethical Uncertainty.John R. Welch - 2017 - Diametros 53:150-166.
    Most ethical decisions are conditioned by formidable uncertainty. Decision makers may lack reliable information about relevant facts, the consequences of actions, and the reactions of other people. Resources for dealing with uncertainty are available from standard forms of decision theory, but successful application to decisions under risk requires a great deal of quantitative information: point-valued probabilities of states and point-valued utilities of outcomes. When this information is not available, this paper recommends the use of a form of decision theory that (...)
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  3.  18
    Community Epistemic Capacity.Ian Werkheiser - 2016 - Social Epistemology 30 (1):25-44.
    Despite US policy documents which recommend that in areas of environmental risk, interaction between scientific experts and the public move beyond the so-called “Decide, Announce, and Defend model,” many current public involvement policies still do not guarantee meaningful public participation. In response to this problem, various attempts have been made to define what counts as sufficient or meaningful participation and free informed consent from those affected. Though defining “meaningfulness” is a complex task, this paper explores one under-examined dimension that concerns (...)
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  4.  19
    Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Food and Neoliberalism: An Argument for Democratizing the Regulatory Review Protocol of the Food and Drug Administration.Zahra Meghani - 2014 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (6):967-989.
    The primary responsibility of the US Food and Drug Administration is to protect public health by ensuring the safety of the food supply. To that end, it sometimes conducts risk assessments of novel food products, such as genetically modified food. The FDA describes its regulatory review of GM food as a purely scientific activity, untainted by any normative considerations. This paper provides evidence that the regulatory agency is not justified in making that claim. It is argued that the FDA’s policy (...)
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  5.  13
    The Unbearable Uncertainty Paradox.Sabine Roeser - 2014 - Metaphilosophy 45 (4-5):640-653.
    People can be risk seeking and risk averse, but people can also be uncertainty averse: in other words, if risk is at least the possibility of an unwanted affect, then it is not only the unwanted effect that they want to avoid, it can also be the uncertainty inherent in the possibility that they wish to avoid. This uncertainty aversion can even lead to a state where someone prefers a certain outcome at all costs, even when it is the worst (...)
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  6.  7
    Combining Risk and Responsibility Perspectives: First Steps. [REVIEW]Johannes Brinkmann - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (4):567-583.
    Business activity can be analyzed through a ‘risk awareness’ perspective and a ‘responsibility awareness’ perspective. However, risk and responsibility are actually interdependent. Risk-taking triggers responsibility issues and taking responsibility means risking being asked critical questions. This article suggests some first steps for combining these two perspectives conceptually. After several introductory illustrations showing how risk and responsibility issues are intertwined, the article looks separately each at risk and at responsibility. Then the argument that such perspectives could be usefully combined is elaborated (...)
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  7.  45
    The Importance of Participatory Virtues in the Future of Environmental Education.Matt Ferkany & Kyle Powys Whyte - 2012 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (3):419-434.
    Participatory approaches to environmental decision making and assessment continue to grow in academic and policy circles. Improving how we understand the structure of deliberative activities is especially important for addressing problems in natural resources, climate change, and food systems that have wicked dimensions, such as deep value disagreements, high degrees of uncertainty, catastrophic risks, and high costs associated with errors. Yet getting the structure right is not the only important task at hand. Indeed, participatory activities can break down and fail (...)
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  8.  57
    Philosophy and Public Policy.Sven Ove Hansson - 2012 - Theoria 78 (2):89-92.
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  9.  41
    Risk and Responsibility: A Complex and Evolving Relationship.Céline Kermisch - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (1):91-102.
    This paper analyses the nature of the relationship between risk and responsibility. Since neither the concept of risk nor the concept of responsibility has an unequivocal definition, it is obvious that there is no single interpretation of their relationship. After introducing the different meanings of responsibility used in this paper, we analyse four conceptions of risk. This allows us to make their link with responsibility explicit and to determine if a shift in the connection between risk and responsibility can be (...)
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  10.  34
    Restructuring Science, Re-Engaging Society. Lake - 2012 - The Pluralist 7 (3):51-56.
    In Anthropos Today Paul Rabinow's purpose was to "assemble a toolkit of concepts in order to advance inquiry" (2). A good portion of his subsequent work shares this same goal of advancing an experimental mode, especially within the human sciences. In his Coss lecture, "How to Submit to Inquiry: Dewey and Foucault," Rabinow says, "my experiments and inquiries suport the claim that scientifically and ethically, relations among and between the life sciences, human sciences, and ethics require sustained re-thinking and re-working." (...)
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  11.  50
    Emotional Engineers: Toward Morally Responsible Design. [REVIEW]Sabine Roeser - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (1):103-115.
    Engineers are normally seen as the archetype of people who make decisions in a rational and quantitative way. However, technological design is not value neutral. The way a technology is designed determines its possibilities, which can, for better or for worse, have consequences for human wellbeing. This leads various scholars to the claim that engineers should explicitly take into account ethical considerations. They are at the cradle of new technological developments and can thereby influence the possible risks and benefits more (...)
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  12.  5
    Value-Ladenness and Rationality in Health Communication.John Rossi & Michael Yudell - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (2):20-22.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 2, Page 20-22, February 2012.
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  13.  42
    Emotions and Ethical Considerations of Women Undergoing IVF-Treatments.Sofia Kaliarnta, Jessica Nihlén-Fahlquist & Sabine Roeser - 2011 - HEC Forum 23 (4):281-293.
    Women who suffer from fertility issues often use in vitro fertilization (IVF) to realize their wish to have children. However, IVF has its own set of strict administration rules that leave the women physically and emotionally exhausted. Feeling alienated and frustrated, many IVF users turn to internet IVF-centered forums to share their stories and to find information and support. Based on the observation of Dutch and Greek IVF forums and a selection of 109 questionnaires from Dutch and Greek IVF forum (...)
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  14.  41
    The “Revolving Door” Between Regulatory Agencies and Industry: A Problem That Requires Reconceptualizing Objectivity. [REVIEW]Zahra Meghani & Jennifer Kuzma - 2011 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (6):575-599.
    There is a “revolving door” between federal agencies and the industries regulated by them. Often, at the end of their industry tenure, key industry personnel seek employment in government regulatory entities and vice versa. The flow of workers between the two sectors could bring about good. Industry veterans might have specialized knowledge that could be useful to regulatory bodies and former government employees could help businesses become and remain compliant with regulations. But the “revolving door” also poses at least three (...)
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  15.  24
    High-Stakes Gambling with Unknown Outcomes: Justifying the Precautionary Principle.Anton Petrenko & Dan McArthur - 2011 - Journal of Social Philosophy 42 (4):346-362.
  16.  45
    Nuclear Energy, Risk, and Emotions.Sabine Roeser - 2011 - Philosophy and Technology 24 (2):197-201.
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  17.  42
    The Morally Desirable Option for Nuclear Power Production.Behnam Taebi - 2011 - Philosophy and Technology 24 (2):169-192.
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  18.  54
    Engagement for Progress: Applied Philosophy of Science in Context.Heather Douglas - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):317-335.
    Philosophy of science was once a much more socially engaged endeavor, and can be so again. After a look back at philosophy of science in the 1930s-1950s, I turn to discuss the current potential for returning to a more engaged philosophy of science. Although philosophers of science have much to offer scientists and the public, I am skeptical that much can be gained by philosophers importing off-the-shelf discussions from philosophy of science to science and society. Such efforts will likely look (...)
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  19.  63
    Conceptual Analysis and Special-Interest Science: Toxicology and the Case of Edward Calabrese.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):449 - 469.
    One way to do socially relevant investigations of science is through conceptual analysis of scientific terms used in special-interest science (SIS). SIS is science having welfare-related consequences and funded by special interests, e.g., tobacco companies, in order to establish predetermined conclusions. For instance, because the chemical industry seeks deregulation of toxic emissions and avoiding costly cleanups, it funds SIS that supports the concept of "hormesis" (according to which low doses of toxins/carcinogens have beneficial effects). Analyzing the hormesis concept of its (...)
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  20. Trust, Expertise, and the Philosophy of Science.Kyle Powys Whyte & Robert Crease - 2010 - Synthese 177 (3):411-425.
    Trust is a central concept in the philosophy of science. We highlight how trust is important in the wide variety of interactions between science and society. We claim that examining and clarifying the nature and role of trust (and distrust) in relations between science and society is one principal way in which the philosophy of science is socially relevant. We argue that philosophers of science should extend their efforts to develop normative conceptions of trust that can serve to facilitate trust (...)
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  21.  14
    The Need to Explicate the Ethical Evaluation Tools to Avoid Ethical Inflation.Rosemarie Bernabe, Ghislaine van Thiel, Jan Raaijmakers & Johannes van Delden - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (11):56-58.
  22.  26
    The Us' Food and Drug Administration, Normativity of Risk Assessment, Gmos, and American Democracy.Zahra Meghani - 2009 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (2):125-139.
    The process of risk assessment of biotechnologies, such as genetically modified organisms (GMOs), has normative dimensions. However, the US’ Food and Drug Administration (FDA) seems committed to the idea that such evaluations are objective. This essay makes the case that the agency’s regulatory approach should be changed such that the public is involved in deciding any ethical or social questions that might arise during risk assessment of GMOs. It is argued that, in the US, neither aggregative nor deliberative (representative) democracy (...)
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  23.  31
    Understanding the Scope of Farmer Perceptions of Risk: Considering Farmer Opinions on the Use of Genetically Modified (Gm) Crops as a Stakeholder Voice in Policy. [REVIEW]Nicholas P. Guehlstorf - 2008 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 21 (6):541-558.
    In the beginning, policy debates between critics and advocates of genetically modified (GM) crops focused on scientifically determined risks. Ten years later, the argument between environmentalists or consumers and regulators or industry has changed into a discussion about the implementation of more democratic policymaking about GM farming. A notable omission from the political debate about food biotechnology in the United States, however, is the opinion of farmers who cultivate the GM crops. Policymakers should value practical knowledge based on experiences from (...)
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  24.  71
    The Role of Science in Public Policy: Higher Reason, or Reason for Hire? [REVIEW]Stephen F. Haller & James Gerrie - 2007 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (2):139-165.
    The traditional vision of the role science should play in policy making is of a two stage process of scientists first finding out the facts, and then policy makers making a decision about what to do about them. We argue that this two stage process is a fiction and that a distinction must be drawn between pure science and science in the service of public policy. When science is transferred into the policy realm, its claims to truth get undermined because (...)
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  25.  35
    Nanotoxicology and Ethical Conditions for Informed Consent.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2007 - NanoEthics 1 (1):47-56.
    While their strength, electrical, optical, or magnetic properties are expected to contribute a trillion dollars in global commerce before 2015, nanomaterials also appear to pose threats to human health and safety. Nanotoxicology is the study of these threats. Do nanomaterial benefits exceed their risks? Should all nanomaterials be regulated? Currently nanotoxicologists cannot help answer these questions because too little is known about nanomaterials, because their properties differ from those of bulk materials having the same chemical composition, and because they differ (...)
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  26.  55
    An Ethics of Expertise Based on Informed Consent.Kevin C. Elliott - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (4):637-661.
    Ethicists widely accept the notion that scientists have moral responsibilities to benefit society at large. The dissemination of scientific information to the public and its political representatives is central to many of the ways in which scientists serve society. Unfortunately, the task of providing information can often give rise to moral quandaries when scientific experts participate in politically charged debates over issues that are fraught with uncertainty. This paper develops a theoretical framework for an “ethics of expertise” (EOE) based on (...)
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  27.  47
    How Not to Criticize the Precautionary Principle.Jonathan Hughes - 2006 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 31 (5):447 – 464.
    The precautionary principle has its origins in debates about environmental policy, but is increasingly invoked in bioethical contexts. John Harris and Søren Holm argue that the principle should be rejected as incoherent, irrational, and representing a fundamental threat to scientific advance and technological progress. This article argues that while there are problems with standard formulations of the principle, Harris and Holm's rejection of all its forms is mistaken. In particular, they focus on strong versions of the principle and fail to (...)
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  28.  40
    Philosophical Scrutiny of Evidence of Risks: From Bioethics to Bioevidence.Deborah G. Mayo & Aris Spanos - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):803-816.
    We argue that a responsible analysis of today's evidence-based risk assessments and risk debates in biology demands a critical or metascientific scrutiny of the uncertainties, assumptions, and threats of error along the manifold steps in risk analysis. Without an accompanying methodological critique, neither sensitivity to social and ethical values, nor conceptual clarification alone, suffices. In this view, restricting the invitation for philosophical involvement to those wearing a "bioethicist" label precludes the vitally important role philosophers of science may be able to (...)
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  29.  39
    “The Moral Difference Between Intragenic and Transgenic Modification of Plants”.Bjørn K. Myskja - 2006 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (3):225-238.
    Public policy on the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has mainly been concerned with defining proper strategies of risk management. However, surveys and focus group interviews show that although lay people are concerned with risks, they also emphasize that genetic modification is ethically questionable in itself. Many people feel that this technology “tampers with nature” in an unacceptable manner. This is often identified as an objection to the crossing of species borders in producing transgenic organisms. Most scientists (...)
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  30.  32
    A Network Approach for Distinguishing Ethical Issues in Research and Development.Sjoerd D. Zwart, Ibo van de Poel, Harald van Mil & Michiel Brumsen - 2006 - Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (4):663-684.
    In this paper we report on our experiences with using network analysis to discern and analyse ethical issues in research into, and the development of, a new wastewater treatment technology. Using network analysis, we preliminarily interpreted some of our observations in a Group Decision Room session where we invited important stakeholders to think about the risks of this new technology. We show how a network approach is useful for understanding the observations, and suggests some relevant ethical issues. We argue that (...)
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  31.  4
    Flawed Attacks on Contemporary Human Rights: Laudan, Sunstein, and the Cost-Benefit State. [REVIEW]Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2005 - Human Rights Review 7 (1):92-110.
    After giving a brief account of human rights, the paper investigates five contemporary attacks on them. All of the attacks come from two contemporary proponents of the cost-benefit state, attorney Cass Sunstein and philosopher Larry Laudan. These attacks may be called, respectively, the rationality, objectivity, permission, voluntariness, and comparativism claims. Laudan's and Sunstein's rationality claim (RC) ist that only policy decisions passing cost-benefit tests are rational. Their objectivity presupposition (OP) is that only acute, deterministic threats to life are objective. Sunstein’s (...)
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  32.  49
    Property Rights and Genetic Engineering: Developing Nations at Risk.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2005 - Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):137-149.
    Eighty percent of (commercial) genetically engineered seeds (GES) are designed only to resist herbicides. Letting farmers use more chemicals, they cut labor costs. But developing nations say GES cause food shortages, unemployment, resistant weeds, and extinction of native cultivars when “volunteers” drift nearby. While GES patents are reasonable, this paper argues many patent policies are not. The paper surveys GE technology, outlines John Locke’s classic account of property rights, and argues that current patent policies must be revised to take account (...)
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  33.  14
    Risk Communication, Value Judgments, and the Public-Policy Maker Relationship in a Climate of Public Sensitivity Toward Animals: Revisiting Britain's Foot and Mouth Crisis. [REVIEW]Raymond Anthony - 2004 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (4-5):363-383.
    This paper offers some suggestions on, and encouragement for, how to be better at risk communication in times of agricultural crisis. During the foot and mouth epizootic, the British public, having no precedent to deal with such a rapid and widespread epizootic, no existing rules or conventions, and no social or political consensus, was forced to confront the facts of a perceived "economic disease. Foot and mouth appeared as an economic disease because the major push to eradicate it was motivated (...)
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  34.  19
    Public Consultation in Ethics an Experiment in Representative Ethics.Michael M. Burgess - 2004 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 1 (1):4-13.
    Genome Canada has funded a research project to evaluate the usefulness of different forms of ethical analysis for assessing the moral weight of public opinion in the governance of genomics. This paper will describe a role of public consultation for ethical analysis and a contribution of ethical analysis to public consultation and the governance of genomics/biotechnology. Public consultation increases the robustness of ethical analysis with a more diverse and rich accounts experiences. Consultation must be carefully and respectfully designed to generate (...)
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  35.  43
    Comparativist Rationality And.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2004 - Topoi 23 (2):153-163.
    US testing of nuclear weapons has resulted in about 800,000 premature fatal cancers throughout the globe, and the nuclear tests of China, France, India, Russia, and the UK have added to this total. Surprisingly, however, these avoidable deaths have not received much attention, as compared, for example, to the smaller number of US fatalities on 9-11-01. This essay (1) surveys the methods and models used to assess effects of low-dose ionizing radiation from above-ground nuclear weapons tests and (2) explains some (...)
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  36.  15
    Risky Businessnuclear Workers, Ethics, and the Market-Efficiency Argument.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2002 - Ethics and the Environment 7 (1):1-23.
    Workers generally face higher levels of pollution and risk in their workplace than members of the public. Economists justify the double standard on the grounds of the compensating wage differential . The CWD, or hazard-pay premium, is the increment in wages, all things being equal, that workers in hazardous environments receive, as compared to other workers. Economists defend the CWD by asserting that workers willingly trade safety for extra money. This essay examines the theory behind the CWD, presents and evaluates (...)
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  37.  15
    Association and Deliberation in Risk Society: Two Faces of Ecological Democracy.Wouter Achterberg - 2001 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 4 (1):85-104.
  38.  12
    Investigating Ethical Issues in Engineering Design.Ibo Poel - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (3):429-446.
    This paper aims at contributing to a research agenda in engineering ethics by exploring the ethical aspects of engineering design processes. A number of ethically relevant topics with respect to design processes are identified. These topics could be a subject for further research in the field of engineering ethics. In addition, it is argued that the way design processes are now organised and should be organised from a normative point of view is an important topic for research.
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  39.  45
    Investigating Ethical Issues in Engineering Design.Ibo van de Poel - 2001 - Science and Engineering Ethics 7 (3):429-446.
    This paper aims at contributing to a research agenda in engineering ethics by exploring the ethical aspects of engineering design processes. A number of ethically relevant topics with respect to design processes are identified. These topics could be a subject for further research in the field of engineering ethics. In addition, it is argued that the way design processes are now organised and should be organised from a normative point of view is an important topic for research.
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  40.  42
    The Ethics of Truth-Telling and the Problem of Risk.Paul B. Thompson - 1999 - Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (4):489-510.
    Risk communication poses a challenge to ordinary norms of truth-telling because it can easily mislead. Analyzing this challenge in terms of a systematic divergence between expertise and public attitudes fails to recognize how two specific features of the concept of risk play a role in managing daily affairs. First, evaluating risk always incorporates an estimate of the reliability of information. Since risk communication is an effort at providing information, audiences will naturally and appropriately incorporate their assessment of the reliability of (...)
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  41.  78
    Environmental Justice: A Louisiana Case Study. [REVIEW]Daniel C. Wigley & Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 1996 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 9 (1):61-82.
    The paper begins with a brief analysis of the concepts of environmental justice and environmental racism and classism. The authors argue that pollution- and environment-related decision-making is prima facie wrong whenever it results in inequitable treatment of individuals on the basis of race or socio-economic status. The essay next surveys the history of the doctrine of free informed consent and argues that the consent of those affected is necessary for ensuring the fairness of decision-making for siting hazardous facilities. The paper (...)
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  42. The Case Against Free Market Environmentalism.Tony Smith - 1995 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 8 (2):126-144.
    Free market environmentalists believe that the extension of private property rights and market transactions is sufficient to address environmental difficulties. But there is no invisible hand operating in markets that ensures that environmentally sound practices will be employed just because property rights are in private hands. Also, liability laws and the court systems cannot be relied upon to force polluters to internalize the social costs of pollution. Third, market prices do not provide an objective measure of environmental matters. Finally, there (...)
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  43.  3
    Ethics as Rule Systems: The Case of Genetically Engineered Organisms.Carlo C. Jaeger & Alois J. Rust - 1994 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 37 (1):65 – 84.
    Like every major new technology, genetic engineering is affecting the hopes and fears of many people. The risks involved are perceived differently by different groups. One group regards genetic engineering as a simple extension of older techniques with no special risks, e.g. traditional breeding. This conservative denial of special risks is confronted with a different kind of conservatism from a group which, in the name of the preservation of nature, opposes any kind of genetic engineering. A third group, rooted in (...)
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  44.  47
    Biodiversity, Biological Uncertainty, and Setting Conservation Priorities.K. S. Shrader-Frechette & E. D. Mccoy - 1994 - Biology and Philosophy 9 (2):167-195.
    In a world of massive extinctions where not all taxa can be saved, how ought biologists to decide their preservation priorities? When biologists make recommendations regarding conservation, should their analyses be based on scientific criteria, on public or lay criteria, on economic or some other criteria? As a first step in answering this question, we examine the issue of whether biologists ought to try to save the endangered Florida panther, a well known glamour taxon. To evaluate the merits of panther (...)
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  45.  44
    Equity and Nuclear Waste Disposal.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 1994 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (2):133-156.
    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The (...)
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  46.  64
    Science, Democracy, and Public Policy.Kristin Shrader‐Frechette - 1992 - Critical Review 6 (2-3):255-264.
    Experts often tout highly subjective methods of policy analysis as scientific and value?free. In The Myth of Scientific Public Policy, Robert Formaini exposes the uncertainties in two of these methods, cost?benefit analysis and risk assessment. Because of these deficiencies, he concludes that ethics and political philosophy, not science, are the proper foundation for public policy. While Formaini is right to emphasize the value?ladenness of cost?benefit analysis and risk assessment, his rejection of scientific methods of policy analysis is questionable. His criticisms, (...)
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  47.  15
    Agricultural Practices, Ecology, and Ethics in the Third World.L. S. Westra, K. L. Bowen & B. K. Behe - 1991 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 4 (1):60-77.
    The increasing demand for horticultural products for nutritional and economic purposes by lesser developed countries (LDC's) is well-documented. Technological demands of the LDC's producing horticultural products is also increasing. Pesticide use is an integral component of most agricultural production, yet chemicals are often supplied without supplemental information vital for their safe and efficient implementation. Illiteracy rates in developing countries are high, making pesticide education even more challenging. For women, who perform a significant share of agricultural tasks, illiteracy rates are even (...)
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