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Mediating duties

Ethics 98 (4):687-704 (1988)

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  1. CSR and the Debate on Business and Human Rights: Bridging the Great Divide.Florian Wettstein - 2012 - Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (4):739-770.
    Human rights have not played an overwhelmingly prominent role in CSR in the past. Similarly, CSR has had relatively little influence on what is now called the “business and human rights debate.” This contribution uncovers some of the reasons for the rather peculiar disconnect between these two debates and, based on it, presents some apparent synergies and complementarities between the two. A closer integration of the two debates, as it argues, would allow for the formulation of an expansive and demanding (...)
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  • The Moral Rationale for International Fiscal Law.Alexander W. Cappelen - 2001 - Ethics and International Affairs 15 (1):97-110.
    A country's right to levy taxes is a fundamental aspect of its sovereignty. Without the power to tax, a government would be unable to redistribute resources among its citizens and provide public goods.
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  • Kantian Ethics and Global Justice.Kok-Chor Tan - 1997 - Social Theory and Practice 23 (1):53-73.
    Kant divides moral duties into duties of virtue and duties of justice. Duties of virtue are imperfect duties, the fulfillment of which is left to agent discretion and so cannot be externally demanded of one. Duties of justice, while perfect, seem to be restricted to negative duties (of nondeception and noncoercion). It may seem then that Kant's moral philosophy cannot meet the demands of global justice. I argue, however, that Kantian justice when applied to the social and historical realities of (...)
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  • The Construction of a Sustainable Development in Times of Climate Change.Eric Brandstedt - 2013 - Dissertation, Lund University
    This dissertation is a contribution to the debate about ‘climate justice’, i.e. a call for a just and feasible distribution of responsibility for addressing climate change. The main argument is a proposal for a cautious, practicable, and necessary step in the right direction: given the set of theoretical and practical obstacles to climate justice, we must begin by making contemporary development practices sustainable. In times of climate change, this is done by recognising and responding to the fact that emissions of (...)
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  • Basic Positive Duties of Justice and Narveson's Libertarian Challenge.Pablo Gilabert - 2006 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (2):193-216.
    Are positive duties to help others in need mere informal duties of virtue or can they also be enforceable duties of justice? In this paper I defend the claim that some positive duties (which I call basic positive duties) can be duties of justice against one of the most important prin- cipled objections to it. This is the libertarian challenge, according to which only negative duties to avoid harming others can be duties of justice, whereas positive duties (basic or nonbasic) (...)
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  • Moral Responsibility for Environmental Problems—Individual or Institutional?Jessica Nihlén Fahlquist - 2009 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (2):109-124.
    The actions performed by individuals, as consumers and citizens, have aggregate negative consequences for the environment. The question asked in this paper is to what extent it is reasonable to hold individuals and institutions responsible for environmental problems. A distinction is made between backward-looking and forward-looking responsibility. Previously, individuals were not seen as being responsible for environmental problems, but an idea that is now sometimes implicitly or explicitly embraced in the public debate on environmental problems is that individuals are appropriate (...)
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  • Access to Medicines and the Rhetoric of Responsibility.Christian Barry & Kate Raworth - 2002 - Ethics and International Affairs 16 (2):57-70.
    In Africa fewer than 50,000 people—less than 2 percent of the people in need—currently receive ARV therapy. These facts have elicited strongly divergent reactions, and views about the appropriate response to this crisis have varied widely.
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  • The Problem with Yuppie Ethics.Iason Gabriel - 2018 - Utilitas 30 (1):32-53.
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  • Cosmopolitanism, Democracy and Distributive Justice.Simon Caney - 2005 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy (sup1):29-63.
  • Corruption as Violation of Distributed Ethical Obligations.Ivar Kolstad - 2012 - Journal of Global Ethics 8 (2-3):239-250.
    The ethics of corruption cannot be analysed without simultaneously addressing the legitimacy of public office or entrusted power. This paper introduces a concept of core unethical corruption, defined as violations of distributed ethical obligations for private gain. In other words, it is suggested that what is ethically wrong with corruption is that it entails the violation of certain obligations attributed to agents. By explicitly relating corruption to obligations, this approach helps make ethical sense of the concepts of public office or (...)
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  • Evaluating the Capacity of Theories of Justice to Serve as a Justice Framework for International Clinical Research.Bridget Pratt, Deborah Zion & Bebe Loff - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (11):30-41.
    This article investigates whether or not theories of justice from political philosophy, first, support the position that health research should contribute to justice in global health, and second, provide guidance about what is owed by international clinical research (ICR) actors to parties in low- and middle-income countries. Four theories?John Rawls's theory of justice, the rights-based cosmopolitan theories of Thomas Pogge and Henry Shue, and Jennifer Ruger's health capability paradigm?are evaluated. The article shows that three of the four theories require the (...)
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  • A Benefit Argument for Responsibilities to Rectify Injustice.Suzanne Neefus - unknown
    Daniel Butt develops an account of corrective responsibilities borne by beneficiaries of injustice. He defends the consistency model. I criticize the vagueness in this model and present two interpretations of benefit from injustice responsibilities: obligation and natural duty. The obligation model falls prey to the involuntariness objection. I defend a natural duties model, discussing how natural duties can be circumstantially perfected into directed duties and showing how the natural duties model avoids the involuntariness objection. I also address objections from structural (...)
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  • Global Warming and Our Natural Duties of Justice.Aaron Maltais - 2008 - Dissertation, Uppsala University
    Compelling research in international relations and international political economy on global warming suggests that one part of any meaningful effort to radically reverse current trends of increasing green house gas (GHG) emissions is shared policies among states that generate costs for such emissions in many if not most of the world’s regions. Effectively employing such policies involves gaining much more extensive global commitments and developing much stronger compliance mechanism than those currently found in the Kyoto Protocol. In other words, global (...)
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  • Moral Problems of Employing Foreign Workers.Aviva Geva - 1999 - Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (3):381-403.
    The employment of foreign workers is one of the most crucial problems today in the domain of work relations. Absorbing workersfrom abroad poses serious questions concerning the moral obligations of the employers as well as the government authorities in the migrantreceiving country. Unfortunately, the moral dilemmas of foreign labor have been largely neglected by business ethics researchers. This paper develops a conceptual framework based on the multinational corporation (MNC) ethical research to help examine the moral obligations of employers and states (...)
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  • Wirtbarkeit: Cosmopolitan Right and Innkeeping.Aravind Ganesh - 2018 - Legal Theory 24 (3):159-190.
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  • Transnational Corporations and the Duty to Respect Basic Human Rights.Denis G. Arnold - 2010 - Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (3):371-399.
    In a series of reports the United Nations Special Representative on the issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations has emphasized a tripartite framework regarding business and human rights that includes the state “duty to protect,” the TNC “responsibility to respect,” and “appropriate remedies” for human rights violations. This article examines the recent history of UN initiatives regarding business and human rights and places the tripartite framework in historical context. Three approaches to human rights are distinguished: moral, political, and legal. (...)
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  • Outreach, Impact, Collaboration: Why Academics Should Join to Stand Against Poverty.Thomas Pogge & Luis Cabrera - 2012 - Ethics and International Affairs 26 (2):163-182.
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  • Human Rights as Demands for Communicative Action.Varun Gauri & Daniel M. Brinks - 2012 - Journal of Political Philosophy 20 (4):407-431.
  • Compatriot Preference: Is There a Case?Richard Vernon - 2006 - Politics and Ethics Review 2 (1):1-18.
  • Reasonable Impartiality and Priority for Compatriots. A Criticism of Liberal Nationalism’s Main Flaws.Veit Bader - 2005 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (1-2):83 - 103.
    Distinguishing between reasonable partiality and reasonable impartiality makes a difference in resolving the serious clashes between priority for compatriots versus cosmopolitan global duties. Defenders of a priority for compatriots have to acknowledge two strong moral constraints: states have to fulfil all their special, domestic and trans-domestic duties, and associative duties are limited by distributive constraints resulting from the moral duty to fight poverty and gross global inequalities. In the recent global context, I see four main problems for liberal-nationalist defenders of (...)
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  • Demandingness as a Virtue.Robert E. Goodin - 2009 - Journal of Ethics 13 (1):1-13.
    Philosophers who complain about the ‹demandingness’ of morality forget that a morality can make too few demands as well as too many. What we ought be seeking is an appropriately demanding morality. This article recommends a ‹moral satisficing’ approach to determining when a morality is ‹demanding enough’, and an institutionalized solution to keeping the demands within acceptable limits.
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  • Corporate Responsibility in the Collective Age: Toward a Conception of Collaborative Responsibility.Florian Wettstein - 2012 - Business and Society Review 117 (2):155-184.
    ABSTRACTIn this article, I will argue that it is time to rethink and reconfigure some of the established assumptions underlying our conception of moral responsibility. Specifically, there is a mismatch between the individualism of our common sense morality and the imperative for collaborative responses to global problems in what I will call the “collective age.” This must have an impact also on the way we think about the responsibility of corporations. I will argue that most plausibly we ought to reframe (...)
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  • Justice in Migration: A Closed Borders Utopia?Lea Ypi - 2008 - Journal of Political Philosophy 16 (4):391-418.
  • Basic Social Rights, Constitutional Justice, and Democracy.Rodolfo Arango - 2003 - Ratio Juris 16 (2):141-154.
  • Global Solidarity.Patti Tamara Lenard, Christine Straehle & Lea Ypi - 2010 - Contemporary Political Theory 9 (1):99-130.
  • Re-Thinking 'Spheres of Responsibility': Business Responsibility for Indirect Harm. [REVIEW]Kate Macdonald - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (4):549 - 563.
    This article considers two prominent, competing approaches to defining the scope of business responsibility for human rights. The first approach advocates extension of business responsibility beyond the boundaries of the enterprise to encompass broader ' spheres of influence'. The second approach advocates a business ' responsibility to respect* human rights (but not a ' positive* duty to protect, promote or fulfil rights).Building on a critical evaluation of these competing accounts of business responsibility, this article outlines a modified account, referred to (...)
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  • Should Charity Begin at Home? An Empirical Investigation of Consumers’ Responses to Companies’ Varying Geographic Allocations of Donation Budgets.Laura Marie Schons, John Cadogan & Roumpini Tsakona - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 144 (3):559-576.
    In our globalized and interconnected world, companies are increasingly donating substantial amounts to good causes around the globe. Many companies choose to donate “at home” while others give to causes in faraway places where recipients are in dire need of support. Interestingly, past research on corporate donations has neglected the question of whether consumers differentially reward companies for geographically varying allocations of donation budgets. Through a mixed methods approach, this paper remedies this gap by developing and empirically testing a conceptual (...)
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  • The Duty to Protect: Corporate Complicity, Political Responsibility, and Human Rights Advocacy. [REVIEW]Florian Wettstein - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (1):33 - 47.
    Recent years have heralded increasing attention to the role of multinational corporations in regard to human rights violations. The concept of complicity has been of particular interest in this regard. This article explores the conceptual differences between silent complicity in particular and other, more "conventional" forms of complicity. Despite their far-reaching normative implications, these differences are often overlooked.Rather than being connected to specific actions as is the case for other forms of complicity, the concept of silent complicity is tied to (...)
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  • Human Rights and Assigned Duties: Implications for Corporations. [REVIEW]Ivar Kolstad - 2009 - Human Rights Review 10 (4):569-582.
    Human rights imply duties. The question is, duties for whom? Without a well-defined scheme for assigning duties correlative to human rights, these rights remain illusory. This paper develops core elements of a general scheme of duty assignment and studies the implications for corporations. A key distinction in such an assignment is between unconditional and conditional duties. Unconditional duties apply to every agent regardless of the conduct of others. Conditional duties reflect a division of moral labour where different tasks are assigned (...)
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  • Legitimacy is Not Authority.Jon Garthoff - 2010 - Law and Philosophy 29 (6):669-694.
    The two leading traditions of theorizing about democratic legitimacy are liberalism and deliberative democracy. Liberals typically claim that legitimacy consists in the consent of the governed, while deliberative democrats typically claim that legitimacy consists in the soundness of political procedures. Despite this difference, both traditions see the need for legitimacy as arising from the coercive enforcement of law and regard legitimacy as necessary for law to have normative authority. While I endorse the broad aims of these two traditions, I believe (...)
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  • Global Justice, Climate Change and Miller’s Theory of Responsibility.Margaret Moore - 2008 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 11 (4):501-517.
  • Aporia, Attentiveness, and the Politics of Social Welfare.Glenn Mackin - 2010 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 13 (4):517-539.
  • The Universal Scope of Positive Duties Correlative to Human Rights.Marinella Capriati - 2018 - Utilitas 30 (3):355-378.
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  • Boundary Making and Equal Concern.Kok-Chor Tan - 2005 - Metaphilosophy 36 (1‐2):50-67.
  • Citizenship and Exclusion.Bader Veit - 1995 - Political Theory 23 (2):211-246.
  • Global Solidarity.Lea Ypi Patti Tamara Lenard, Christine Straehle - 2010 - Contemporary Political Theory 9 (1):99.
  • Justice and Beneficence.Pablo Gilabert - 2016 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 19 (5):508-533.
    What is a duty of justice? And how is it different from a duty of beneficence? We need a clear account of the contrast. Unfortunately, there is no consensus in the philosophical literature as to how to characterize it. Different articulations of it have been provided, but it is hard to identify a common core that is invariant across them. In this paper, I propose an account of how to understand duties of justice, explain how it contrasts with several proposals (...)
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  • Global Justice in the Shadow of Security Threats.Yuchun Kuo - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-22.
    Do a threatened state’s obligations of assistance extend to the enemy’s needy people and the needy people in non-hostile countries equally? This paper examines five arguments defending the political boundary between hostile and non-hostile countries. The aid workers, defence capacity, and pre-emptive self-defence arguments highlight the unreasonable burdens for a threatened state to protect its own citizens, as a result of its assistance to the enemy’s needy people, while the limited and comprehensive negative duties arguments underscore a threatened state’s involvement (...)
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  • The Ethics of Immigration.Veit Bader - 2005 - Constellations 12 (3):331-361.
  • Reasonable Impartiality and Priority for Compatriots. A Criticism of Liberal Nationalism’s Main Flaws.Veit Bader - 2005 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (1-2):83-103.
    Distinguishing between reasonable partiality and reasonable impartiality makes a difference in resolving the serious clashes between 'priority for compatriots' versus cosmopolitan global duties. Defenders of a priority for compatriots have to acknowledge two strong moral constraints: states have to fulfil all their special, domestic and trans-domestic duties, and associative duties are limited by distributive constraints resulting from the moral duty to fight poverty and gross global inequalities. In the recent global context, I see four main problems for liberal-nationalist defenders of (...)
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  • Human Rights and Positive Corporate Duties: The Importance of Corporate-State Interaction.Ivar Kolstad - 2012 - Business Ethics: A European Review 21 (3):276-285.
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  • Why Firms Should Not Always Maximize Profits.Ivar Kolstad - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 76 (2):137-145.
    Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position. One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by many executives, that CSR and profits go together. This article argues that the first position is ethically untenable, while the latter (...)
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  • Re-Thinking ‘Spheres of Responsibility’: Business Responsibility for Indirect Harm.Kate Macdonald - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (4):549-563.
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  • Human Rights and Positive Corporate Duties: The Importance of Corporate–State Interaction.Ivar Kolstad - 2012 - Business Ethics 21 (3):276-285.
    While it is commonly accepted that corporations have negative duties to respect human rights, the question of whether rights also imply positive duties for corporations is contentious. The recent reports of the United Nations special representative on business and human rights contend that corporations do not have positive duties, but the arguments this is based on are flawed from an ethical point of view. In particular, the reports fail to consider the implications of interactions between corporations and states. For rights (...)
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