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Fair Play : The Ethics of Sport

Boulder, CO: Westview Pres (2015)

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  1. Performance-Enhancing Drugs as a Collective Action Problem.J. S. Russell & Alister Browne - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 45 (2):109-127.
    Current general restrictions on performance-enhancing drugs pose a collective action problem that cannot be solved and bring a variety of adverse consequences for sport. General prohibitions of PEDs are grounded in claims that they violate the integrity of sport. But there are decisive arguments against integrity of sport-based prohibitions of PEDs for elite sport. We defend a harm prevention approach to PED prohibition as an alternative. This position cannot support a general ban on PEDs, since it provides no basis for (...)
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  • Sporting Supererogation and Why It Matters.Alfred Archer - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (3):359-373.
    A commonly accepted feature of commonsense morality is that there are some acts that are supererogatory or beyond the call of duty. Recently, philosophers have begun to ask whether something like supererogation might exist in other normative domains such as epistemology and esthetics. In this paper, I will argue that there is good reason to think that sporting supererogation exists. I will then argue that recognizing the existence of sporting supererogation is important because it highlights the value of sport as (...)
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  • Carl Schmitt, Sportspersonship, and the Ius Publicum Ludis.Michael Hemmingsen - 2020 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 49 (1):37-51.
    In this paper, I argue that sportspersonship is a means of performing fundamental sociality; it is about the conversion of a foe (inimicus) into an enemy (hostis). Drawing on Carl Schmitt’s distinction between enemy and foe – inimicus and hostis – as well as his discussion of the ius publicum Europaeum, I suggest a model of sportspersonship that sees it as expressing the competitive relations between equals that undergird the most minimal form of sociality; relations that any deeper union takes (...)
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  • Therapeutic Use Exemptions and the Doctrine of Double Effect.Jon Pike - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 45 (1):68-82.
    Without taking a position on the overall justification of anti-doping regulations, I analyse the possible justification of Therapeutic Use Exemptions from such rules. TUEs are a creative way to prevent the unfair exclusion of athletes with a chronic condition, and they have the potential to be the least bad option. But they cannot be competitively neutral. Their justification must rest, instead, on the relevance of intentions to permissibility. I illustrate this by means of a set of thought experiments in which (...)
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  • Striving Play and Achievement Play in Games: Agency as Art.J. S. Russell - 2021 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 48 (3):414-424.
    An important book is always a beginning, a new way of looking at and thinking about things, sometimes including familiar things. C. Thi Nguyen’s Games: Agency as Art is one of those books. I...
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  • Sporting Propaganda: The Language of Strategic Fouling.Miroslav Imbrisevic - 2020 - Idrottsforum.
    Words don’t just describe the world; they change the world. We do things with words as John L. Austin (1975) has argued. But words can also change how we think about something. In this piece I wish to examine the everyday usage of words referring to strategic fouling, as it cuts across various languages. In some languages this rule-violation gave rise to figurative language after the practice became widespread. We find euphemisms but also dysphemisms, as well as evaluative language (whose (...)
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  • The Moral Responsibilities of Fandom.George Tyler - 2021 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 48 (1):111-128.
    Using American football as a point of entry, I approach harmful sports from the perspective of fans’ roles and responsibilities. Given that sports’ profitability is a significant obstacle to reform...
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  • Three Kinds of Competitive Excellence.Daniel M. Johnson - 2020 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 47 (2):200-216.
    I call the trait that makes for a good or great competitor, the trait that makes its possessor compete well, ‘competitive excellence’. We seem to be of two minds about this trait: on the one hand,...
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  • Reseñas de Libros.Joshua R. Bott, Paulina Morales Aguilera & Victor Paramo Valero - 2016 - Recerca.Revista de Pensament I Anàlisi 18:135-149.
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  • Ethical Potentialities on Physical Education as a Vehicle for Ethical Education Through Sports.Luísa Ávila da Costa, Michael McNamee & Teresa Lacerda - 2016 - Recerca.Revista de Pensament I Anàlisi 18:29-48.
    Sports occupies an interesting ethical space from a pedagogic point of view, being included in physical education curricula in most Western countries. The approach of physical education as vehicle for ethical education, is too limited when restricted to its minimal functional, constitutive and regulatory goals. The aim of this essay is to argue to what extent the ethical potential of physical education extrapolates them in order to, with Sousa Santos, state against to what we consider a waste of sport’s experience. (...)
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  • The Strategic Foul and Contract Law: Efficient Breach in Sports?Miroslav Imbrisevic - 2018 - Fair Play 12:69-99.
    The debate about the Strategic Foul has been rumbling on for several decades and it has predominantly been fought on moral grounds. The defenders claim that the rules of a game must be supplemented by the ‘ethos’ of the game, by its conventions or informal rules. Critics of the Strategic Foul argue that to break the rules deliberately, in order to gain an advantage, is morally wrong, spoils the game, or is a form of cheating. Rather than entering the moral (...)
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  • Rules in Games and Sports: Why a Solution to the Problem of Penalties Leads to the Rejection of Formalism as a Useful Theory About the Nature of Sport.Sinclair A. MacRae - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 47 (1):49-62.
    Bernard Suits and other formalists endorse both the logical incompatibility thesis and the view that rule-breakings resulting in penalties can be a legitimate part of a game. This is what Fred D’Ag...
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  • ‘Equal Play, Equal Pay’: Moral Grounds for Equal Pay in Football.Alfred Archer & Martine Prange - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 46 (3):416-436.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper, we investigate three different ways of defending the claim that national football associations ought to pay their men’s and women’s football teams the same amount. First, we...
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  • In Praise of Partisanship.Nicholas Dixon - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (2):233-249.
    J.S. Russell, Stephen Mumford, and Randolph Feezell have criticized my view that zealous partisans of a particular team are superior to purists, who derive an esthetic pleasure from good play by any team. All three philosophers extol the virtues of purism and Russell defends a pluralistic view that rejects the very idea of an ideal type of fan. In response, I renounce the claim that partisans are superior to purists and instead propose a more modest defense of partisanship. Moderate partisan (...)
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  • A Critique of Mutualism’s Combination of the Aristotelian and Kantian Traditions.Francisco Javier Lopez Frías - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 45 (2):161-176.
    ABSTRACTIn this article, I will identify two key normative principles at the core of Robert L. Simon’s mutualist theory of sport, namely, the respect-for-the-opponent principle and the idea that sport is a practice aimed at pursuing excellence. The former is a Kantian principle grounded in human beings’ rationality, and the latter is an Aristotelian principle related to the development of excellences as a means to human flourishing. After having presented and analyzed both principles, I will critically evaluate Simon’s attempt to (...)
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  • Robert Simon and the Morality of Strategic Fouling.Miroslav Imbrisevic - 2019 - Synthesis Philosophica 34 (2):359-377.
    As sports have become more professional, winning has become more important. This emphasis on results, rather than sporting virtue and winning in style, probably explains the rising incidence of the Strategic Foul. Surprisingly, it has found some apologists among the philosophers of sport. The discussion of the Strategic Foul in the literature has produced subtle distinctions (e.g. Cesar Torres: constitutive skills versus restorative skills) as well as implausible distinctions (e.g. D’Agostino: ‘impermissible’ but ‘acceptable’ behaviour). In this paper I will review (...)
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  • A Critical Note on Sporting Supererogation.Steffen Borge - 2021 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 48 (2):247-261.
    Alfred Archer recently argued that there is good reason to think that sporting supererogation exists. In the present paper, I take a closer look at Archer’s two key cases from association football...
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  • Athletic Skill and the Value of Close Contests.Erin Flynn - 2021 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 48 (2):186-201.
    In this paper I defend an Irreconcilability Thesis, claiming that two commonly held views about athletic contests are in fact incompatible. The first view is that athletic contests are essentially...
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  • Sport as a (Mere) Hobby: In Defense of ‘the Gentle Pursuit of a Modest Competence’.R. Scott Kretchmar - 2019 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 46 (3):367-382.
    ABSTRACTIn this essay, I defend sport as a hobby in contrast to sport as a ‘mutual quest for excellence through challenge’. With the assistance of ideas found in the novel Don Quixote, I rai...
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  • The Compatibility of Zero-Sum Logic and Mutualism in Sport.Adam Berg - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 45 (3):259-278.
    ABSTRACTThis essay argues that within competitive sport zero-sum logic and the theory of mutualism are compatible and complementary. Drawing on Robert Simon’s theory of mutualism and Scott Kretchmar’s argument for zero-sum logic, this article shows how athletes can strive for a clear-cut victory and shared benefits such as athletic excellence fully and wholeheartedly at the same time. This paper will also consider how acknowledgment of this dynamic could advance understandings for ethical theories for sport. It will then conclude by describing (...)
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  • Competition, Cooperation, and an Adversarial Model of Sport.Sinclair A. MacRae - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 45 (1):53-67.
    In this paper, I defend a general theory of competition and contrast it with a corresponding general theory of cooperation. I then use this analysis to critique mutualism. Building on the work of Arthur Applbaum and Joseph Heath I develop an alternative adversarial model of competitive sport, one that helps explain and is partly justified by shallow interpretivism, and argue that this model helps shows that the claim that mutualism provides us with the most defensible ethical ideal of sport is (...)
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  • What Counts as Part of a Game? Reconsidering Skills.Cesar R. Torres - 2018 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 45 (1):1-21.
    The first goal of this paper is to reply to a number of criticisms levied by Gunnar Breivik and Robert L. Simon against an account of sporting skills I published almost 20 years ago in which I distinguished between constitutive and restorative skills and examined their normative significance. To accomplish this goal, I first summarize my characterization and classification of skills and then detail the criticisms. After responding to the latter, and thus reconsidering and hopefully strengthening my account of skill (...)
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  • Strategic Fouls: A New Defense.Erin Flynn - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (3):342-358.
    Among philosophers, the question about strategic fouls has been whether they are ethically justified in light of our best conception of sport. This paper proposes a different defense. I argue that many strategic fouls should be excused even if we regard them as unjustified. I first lay out a partial defense of the assumptions that playing to win cannot be subordinate to playing skillfully and that winning has value that cannot be accounted for in terms of the skill that produces (...)
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  • Toward a Shallow Interpretivist Model of Sport.Sinclair A. MacRae - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (3):285-299.
    Deep ethical interpretivism has been the standard view of the nature of sport in the philosophy of sport for the past seventeen years or so. On this account excellence assumes the role of the foundational, ethical goal that justice assumes in Ronald Dworkin’s interpretivist model of law. However, since excellence in sports is not an ethical value, and since it should not be regarded as an ultimate goal, the case for the traditional account fails. It should be replaced by the (...)
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  • Vicious Competitiveness and the Desire to Win.Eric Gilbertson - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (3):409-423.
    This paper discusses the nature of competitiveness and argues that being competitive does not essentially involve a strong desire to win or to outperform others. The appeal of the ‘desire-to-win’ analysis of competitiveness can be explained away provided we distinguish between virtuous and vicious competitiveness. It is conceivable that a virtuously competitive athlete lack a strong desire to win or to outperform others. Moreover, there is empirical evidence that virtuous competitiveness and vicious competitiveness are distinct character traits. If being virtuously (...)
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  • “You’Re the Best Around”: An Argument for Playoffs and Tournaments.Aaron Harper - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (2):295-309.
    Recent articles, including those by Dixon and Torres and Hager, criticize tournament playoffs, primarily for reasons of fairness and integrity. Many suggest that playoff and tournament prominence reflect monetary and entertainment interests rather than the pursuit of athletic excellence. Nevertheless, tournament playoffs are increasingly popular. While the concerns are serious, in this paper I defend the overlooked value of playoffs and tournaments. Playoff critics employ too narrow a conception of the best team and too limited a view of excellence. Rather, (...)
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  • Internalism and External Moral Evaluation of Violent Sport.Nicholas Dixon - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (1):101-113.
  • Academic Versus Sporting Knowledge. Robert L. Simon and the Debate About Sports on Campus.Gunnar Breivik - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (1):61-74.
  • Robert L. Simon on Sport, Values, and Education.J. S. Russell - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (1):51-60.
  • Simon on Realism, Fallibilism, and the Power of Reason.R. Scott Kretchmar - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (1):41-49.
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  • The Ethics of Coaching Sports: Moral, Social, and Legal Issues.Adam G. Pfleegor - 2015 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 42 (3):468-473.
  • Match-Fixing: Working Towards an Ethical Framework.Andy Harvey - 2015 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 42 (3):393-407.
    How does match-fixing, or other unfair manipulation of matches, that involves under-performance by players, or refereeing and umpiring that prevents fair competition, be thought of in ethical terms? In this article, I outline the different forms that match-fixing can take and seek to comprehend these disparate scenarios within Kantian, Hegelian and contractualist ethical frameworks. I tentatively suggest that, by developing an ethical opposition to match-fixing in sport, we can give much greater substance to popular phrases such as ‘respect for the (...)
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  • Our Conception of Competitiveness: Unified but Useless?Todd Jones - 2015 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 42 (3):365-378.
    ‘Competitive’ is one of the most commonly and confidently used words in sports. I argue that, while this term does have necessary and sufficient conditions, it is still a fairly useless one. Knowing someone is competitive does not tell one about the type of desire to win, the type of quantity of that desire, and the precise way in which one wants to be better. We also don’t know who a person feels a desire to beat, when winning actually becomes (...)
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  • Endless Summer: What Kinds of Games Will Suits’ Utopians Play?Christopher C. Yorke - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 44 (2):213-228.
    I argue that we have good reason to reject Bernard Suits’ assertion that game-playing is the ideal of human existence, in the absence of a suitably robust account of utopian games. The chief motivating force behind this rejection rests in the fact that Suits begs the question that there exists some possible set of games-by-design in his utopia, such that the playing of its members would sustain an existentially meaningful existence for his utopians, in the event of a hypo-instrumental culture (...)
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  • Not Forgetting Sex: Simon on Gender Equality.Pam R. Sailors - 2016 - Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 43 (1):75-82.