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  1. Making Sense of Whistle-Blowing’s Antecedents: Learning From Research on Identity and Ethics Programs.Abhijeet K. Vadera, Ruth V. Aguilera & Brianna B. Caza - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (4):553-586.
    Despite a significant increase in whistle-blowing practices in work organizations, we know little about what differentiates whistle-blowers from those who observe a wrongdoing but chose not to report it. In this review article, we first highlight the arenas inwhich research on whistle-blowing has produced inconsistent results and those in which the findings have been consistent. Second, we propose that the adoption of an identity approach will help clarify the inconsistent findings and extend prior work on individual-level motives behind whistle-blowing. Third, (...)
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  • A Word to the Wise: How Managers and Policy-Makers Can Encourage Employees to Report Wrongdoing.Marcia P. Miceli, Janet P. Near & Terry Morehead Dworkin - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (3):379-396.
    When successful and ethical managers are alerted to possible organizational wrongdoing, they take corrective action before the problems become crises. However, recent research [e. g., Rynes et al. (2007, Academy of Management Journal 50(5), 987-1008)] indi cates that many organizations fail to implement evidence-based practices (i. e., practices that are consistent with research findings), in many aspects of human resource management. In this paper, we draw from years of research on whistle-blowing by social scientists and legal scholars and offer concrete (...)
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  • Whistleblowing and Power: A Network Perspective.R. Guy Thomas - forthcoming - Business Ethics: A European Review.
    Business Ethics: A European Review, EarlyView.
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  • The Joint Effects of Machiavellianism and Ethical Environment on Whistle-Blowing.Derek Dalton & Robin R. Radtke - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (1):153-172.
    Given the importance of the Machiavellianism construct on informing a wide range of ethics research, we focus on gaining a better understanding of Machiavellianism within the whistle-blower context. In this regard, we examine the effect of Machiavellianism on whistle-blowing, focusing on the underlying mechanisms through which Machiavellianism affects whistle-blowing. Further, because individuals who are higher in Machiavellianism (high Machs) are expected to be less likely to report wrongdoing, we examine the ability of an organization’s ethical environment to increase whistle-blowing intentions (...)
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  • When Does a Proactive Personality Enhance an Employee’s Whistle-Blowing Intention?: A Cross-Level Investigation of the Employees in Chinese Companies.Yan Liu, Shuming Zhao, Li Jiang & Rui Li - 2016 - Ethics and Behavior 26 (8):660-677.
    To identify the boundary conditions for proactive employees making whistle-blowing decisions, we developed a cross-level model comprising employee proactive personality and two types of whistle-blowing intentions that incorporates the influences of organizational- and individual-level attributes. Analyses of data collected from 432 Chinese employees in 32 companies indicated that proactive personality was positively related to internal whistle-blowing intention and even more positively related to external whistle-blowing intention when individuals were working in organizations characterized by an instrumental ethical climate and employees with (...)
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  • Whistleblowing in Organizations: An Examination of Correlates of Whistleblowing Intentions, Actions, and Retaliation.Jessica R. Mesmer-Magnus & Chockalingam Viswesvaran - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (3):277-297.
    Whistleblowing on organizational wrongdoing is becoming increasingly prevalent. What aspects of the person, the context, and the transgression relate to whistleblowing intentions and to actual whistleblowing on corporate wrongdoing? Which aspects relate to retaliation against whistleblowers? Can we draw conclusions about the whistleblowing process by assessing whistleblowing intentions? Meta-analytic examination of 193 correlations obtained from 26 samples (N = 18,781) reveals differences in the correlates of whistleblowing intentions and actions. Stronger relationships were found between personal, contextual, and wrongdoing characteristics and (...)
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  • The Impact of Moral Reasoning and Retaliation on Whistle-Blowing: New Zealand Evidence.Gregory Liyanarachchi & Chris Newdick - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (1):37-57.
    This study examined experimentally the effect of retaliation strength and accounting students’ level of moral reasoning, on their propensity to blow the whistle (PBW) when faced with a serious wrongdoing. Fifty-one senior accounting students enrolled in an auditing course offered by a large New Zealand university participated in the study. Participants responded to three hypothetical whistle-blowing scenarios and completed an instrument that measured moral reasoning (Welton et al., 1994, Accounting Education . International Journal (Toronto, Ont.) 3 (1), 35–50) on one (...)
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  • Understanding the Behavioral Intention to Report Unethical Information Technology Practices: The Role of Machiavellianism, Gender, and Computer Expertise. [REVIEW]Antonis C. Stylianou, Susan Winter, Yuan Niu, Robert A. Giacalone & Matt Campbell - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):333-343.
    Although organizations can derive competitive advantage from developing and implementing information systems, they are confronted with a rising number of unethical information practices. Because end-users and computer experts are the conduit to an ethical organizational environment, their intention to report unethical IT-related practices plays a critical role in protecting intellectual property and privacy rights. Using the survey methodology, this article investigates the relationship between willingness to report intellectual property and privacy violations and Machiavellianism, gender and computer literacy in the form (...)
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  • Prediction of Whistleblowing or Non-Reporting Observation: The Role of Personal and Situational Factors. [REVIEW]P. G. Cassematis & R. Wortley - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (3):615-634.
    This study examined whether it was possible to classify Australian public sector employees as either whistleblowers or non-reporting observers using personal and situational variables. The personal variables were demography (gender, public sector tenure, organisational tenure and age), work attitudes (job satisfaction, trust in management, whistleblowing propensity) and employee behaviour (organisational citizenship behaviour). The situational variables were perceived personal victimisation, fear of reprisals and perceived wrongdoing seriousness. These variables were used as predictors in a series of binary logistic regressions. It was (...)
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  • The Silent Samaritan Syndrome: Why the Whistle Remains Unblown.Jason MacGregor & Martin Stuebs - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 120 (2):1-16.
    Whistle blowing programs have been central to numerous government, legislative, and regulatory reform efforts in recent years. To protect investors, corporate boards have instituted numerous measures to promote whistle blowing. Despite significant whistle blowing incentives, few individuals blow the whistle when presented with the opportunity. Instead, individuals often remain fallaciously silent and, in essence, become passive fraudsters themselves. Using the fraud triangle and models of moral behavior, we model and analyze fallacious silence and identify factors that may motivate an individual (...)
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  • Whistleblowing Intentions of Lower-Level Employees: The Effect of Reporting Channel, Bystanders, and Wrongdoer Power Status.Jingyu Gao, Robert Greenberg & Bernard Wong-On-Wing - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (1):85-99.
    It has been suggested that a reporting channel administered by a third-party may represent a stronger procedural safeguard of anonymity and avoids the appearance of impropriety. This study examines whistleblowing intentions among lower-tier employees, specifically examines whether an externally-administered reporting channel increases whistleblowing intentions compared to an internally-administered one. In contrast to the findings of an earlier study by Kaplan et al. :273–288, 2009), our results suggest that whistle-blowing intentions are higher when the reporting channel is administered externally than when (...)
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  • Are There Gender Differences When Professional Accountants Evaluate Moral Intensity for Earnings Management?Tara J. Shawver & Lynn H. Clements - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 131 (3):557-566.
    Gender differences in ethical evaluations may vary across types of behaviors. This controlled experiment explores gender differences in ethical evaluations, moral judgment, moral intentions, and moral intensity evaluations by surveying a group of professional accountants to elicit their views on a common earnings management technique. We find that there are no significant differences between male and female professional accountants when they make an ethical evaluation involving earnings management by shipping product early to meet a quarterly bonus. Both male and female (...)
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  • Dissenting Discourse: Exploring Alternatives to the Whistleblowing/Silence Dichotomy. [REVIEW]Hayden Teo & Donella Caspersz - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 104 (2):237-249.
    In recent times, whistleblowing has become one of the most popularly debated issues of business ethics. Popular discussion has coincided with the institutionalisation of whistleblowing via legal and administrative practices, supported by the emergence of academic research in the field. However, the public practice and knowledge that has subsequently developed appears to construct a dichotomy of whistleblowing/silence ; that is, an employee elects either to ‘blow the whistle’ on organisational wrongdoing, or remain silent. We argue that this public transcript of (...)
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  • Self-Efficacy as an Intrapersonal Predictor for Internal Whistleblowing: A US and Canada Examination.Brent R. MacNab & Reginald Worthley - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 79 (4):407-421.
    Examining intrapersonal factors theorized to influence ethics reporting decisions, the relation of self-efficacy as a predictor of propensity for internal whistleblowing is investigated within a US and Canadian multi-regional context. Over 900 professionals from a total of nine regions in Canada and the US participated. Self-efficacy was found to influence participant reported propensity for internal whistleblowing consistently in both the US and Canada. Seasoned participants with greater management and work experience demonstrated higher levels of self-efficacy while gender was also found (...)
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  • An Examination of the Layers of Workplace Influences in Ethical Judgments: Whistleblowing Likelihood and Perseverance in Public Accounting.Eileen Z. Taylor & Mary B. Curtis - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 93 (1):21-37.
    We employ a Layers of Workplace Influence theory to guide our study of whistleblowing among public accounting audit seniors. Specifically, we examine professional commitment, organizational commitment versus colleague commitment (locus of commitment), and moral intensity of the unethical behavior on two measures of reporting intentions: likelihood of reporting and perseverance in reporting. We find that moral intensity relates to both reporting intention measures. In addition, while high levels of professional identity increase the likelihood that an auditor will initially report an (...)
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  • Why Code of Conduct Violations Go Unreported: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Intervention and Future Research.Detlev Nitsch, Mark Baetz & Julia Christensen Hughes - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (4):327-341.
    . The ability to enforce the provisions of a code of conduct influences whether the code is effective in shaping behavior. Enforcement relies in part on the willingness of organization members to report violations of the code, but research from the business and educational environment suggests that fewer than half of those who observe code violations follow their organizations procedures for reporting them. Based on a review of the literature in the business and educational environments, and a survey of 3605 (...)
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  • Effective Corporate Codes of Ethics: Perceptions of Code Users.Mark S. Schwartz - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 55 (4):321-341.
    The study examines employee, managerial, and ethics officer perceptions regarding their companies codes of ethics. The study moves beyond examining the mere existence of a code of ethics to consider the role that code content and code process (i.e. creation, implementation, and administration) might play with respect to the effectiveness of codes in influencing behavior. Fifty-seven in-depth, semi-structured interviews of employees, managers, and ethics officers were conducted at four large Canadian companies. The factors viewed by respondents to be important with (...)
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  • Ethical Climate Theory, Whistle-Blowing, and the Code of Silence in Police Agencies in the State of Georgia.Gary R. Rothwell & J. Norman Baldwin - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (4):341-361.
    This article reports the findings from a study that investigates the relationship between ethical climates and police whistle-blowing on five forms of misconduct in the State of Georgia. The results indicate that a friendship or team climate generally explains willingness to blow the whistle, but not the actual frequency of blowing the whistle. Instead, supervisory status, a control variable investigated in previous studies, is the most consistent predictor of both willingness to blow the whistle and frequency of blowing the whistle. (...)
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  • Organisational Whistleblowing Policies: Making Employees Responsible or Liable?Eva E. Tsahuridu & Wim Vandekerckhove - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):107-118.
    This paper explores the possible impact of the recent legal developments on organizational whistleblowing on the autonomy and responsibility of whistleblowers. In the past thirty years numerous pieces of legislation have been passed to offer protection to whistleblowers from retaliation for disclosing organisational wrongdoing. An area that remains uncertain in relation to whistleblowing and its related policies in organisations, is whether these policies actually increase the individualisation of work, allowing employees to behave in accordance with their conscience and in line (...)
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  • Intelligence Vs. Wisdom: The Love of Money, Machiavellianism, and Unethical Behavior Across College Major and Gender.Thomas Li-Ping Tang & Yuh-Jia Chen - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (1):1-26.
    This research investigates the efficacy of business ethics intervention, tests a theoretical model that the love of money is directly or indirectly related to propensity to engage in unethical behavior (PUB), and treats college major (business vs. psychology) and gender (male vs. female) as moderators in multi-group analyses. Results suggested that business students who received business ethics intervention significantly changed their conceptions of unethical behavior and reduced their propensity to engage in theft; while psychology students without intervention had no such (...)
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  • An Investigation of the Effects of Corporate Ethical Values on Employee Commitment and Performance: Examining the Moderating Role of Perceived Fairness.Dheeraj Sharma, Shaheen Borna & James M. Stearns - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2):251-260.
    Corporate ethical values (CEVs) can be viewed outside the realm of organizational training, standard operating procedures, reward and punishment systems, formal statements, and as more representative of the real nature of the organization (Organ, 1988). Past researchers have empirically demonstrated the direct influence of CEVs on job performance. This study argues that employees' perception of organizational fairness will create perceptual distortion of CEVs. The results of the study indicate that perceived fairness moderates the influence of CEVs on two seminal outcomes, (...)
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  • Whistle-Blowing Among Young Employees: A Life-Course Perspective.Jason M. Stansbury & Bart Victor - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (3):281-299.
    The 2003 National Business Ethics Survey, conducted by the Ethics Resource Center, found that respondents who were both young and had short organizational tenure were substantially less likely than other respondents to report misconduct that they observed in the workplace to an authority. We propose that the life-course model of deviance can help account for this attenuation of acquiescence in misbehavior. As employees learn to perceive informal prosocial control during their socialization into the workforce, we hypothesize that they will become (...)
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  • To Blow or Not to Blow the Whistle: The Role of Rationalization in the Perceived Seriousness of Threats and Wrongdoing.Hengky Latan, Charbel Jose Chiappetta Jabbour & Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-19.
    Whistleblowers who need to decide whether or not they should report wrongdoing usually experience several anxieties and pressures before making a final decision. As whistleblowers continue to attract the attention of a wide range of stakeholders, more research is necessary to understand the effects of the perceived seriousness of threats and perceived seriousness of wrongdoing, as well as the effect of the rationalization process on the intention to blow the whistle. We make the original proposal that the rationalization process can (...)
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  • Beyond Silence or Compliance: The Complexities of Reporting a Friend for Misconduct.Megan F. Hess, Linda K. Treviño, Anjier Chen & Rob Cross - 2019 - Business Ethics: A European Review 28 (4):546-562.
    Business Ethics: A European Review, EarlyView.
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  • Whistleblowing as a Protracted Process: A Study of UK Whistleblower Journeys.Arron Phillips & Wim Vandekerckhove - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (1):201-219.
    This paper provides an exploration of whistleblowing as a protracted process, using secondary data from 868 cases from a whistleblower advice line in the UK. Previous research on whistleblowing has mainly studied this phenomenon as a one-off decision by someone perceiving wrongdoing within an organisation to raise a concern or to remain silent. Earlier suggestions that whistleblowing is a process and that people find themselves inadvertently turned into whistleblowers by management responses, have not been followed up by a systematic study (...)
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  • From Inaction to External Whistleblowing: The Influence of the Ethical Culture of Organizations on Employee Responses to Observed Wrongdoing. [REVIEW]Muel Kaptein - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 98 (3):513 - 530.
    Putting measures in place to prevent wrongdoing in organizations is important, but detecting and correcting wrongdoing are also vital. Employees who detect wrongdoing should, therefore, be encouraged to respond in a manner that supports corrective action. This article examines the influence of the ethical culture of organizations on employee responses to observed wrongdoing. Different dimensions of ethical culture are related to different types of intended responses. The findings show that several dimensions of ethical culture were negatively related to intended inaction (...)
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  • Ethical Leadership and Internal Whistleblowing: A Mediated Moderation Model.Jin Cheng, Haiqing Bai & Xijuan Yang - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 155 (1):115-130.
    Studies have shown that internal whistleblowing could be utilized as an effective way to stop an organization’s unethical behaviors. This study investigates the relationship between ethical leadership and internal whistleblowing by focusing on the mediating role of employee-perceived organizational politics and the moderating role of moral courage. An analysis of data collected at three phases indicates that employee-perceived organizational politics partly mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and internal whistleblowing. Also, moral courage is found to moderate the effect of employee-perceived (...)
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  • Detecting Fraud: The Role of the Anonymous Reporting Channel.Elka Johansson & Peter Carey - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 139 (2):391-409.
    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether anonymous reporting channels are effective in detecting fraud against companies. Fraud, which comprises predominantly asset misappropriation, represents a key operational risk and a major cost to organisations. The fraud triangle provides a framework for developing our understanding of how ARCs can increase detection of fraud. Using publicly listed company survey data collected by KPMG in Australia—where ARCs are not mandated—we find a positive association between ARCs and reported fraud. These results indicate (...)
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  • The Evolution of Whistleblowing Studies: A Critical Review and Research Agenda.Barbara Culiberg & Katarina Katja Mihelič - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (4):787-803.
    Whistleblowing is a controversial yet socially significant topic of interest due to its impact on employees, organizations, and society at large. The purpose of this paper is to integrate knowledge of whistleblowing with theoretical advancements in the broader domain of business ethics to propose a novel approach to research and practice engaged in this complex phenomenon. The paper offers a conceptual framework, i.e., the wheel of whistleblowing, that is developed to portray the different features of whistleblowing by applying the whistleblower’s (...)
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  • Laddered Motivations of External Whistleblowers: The Truth About Attributes, Consequences, and Values.Heungsik Park, Wim Vandekerckhove, Jaeil Lee & Joowon Jeong - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-14.
    The purpose of this study was to explore the motivational structures of external whistleblowers involved in the decision to blow the whistle by applying MEC theory and the laddering technique. Using both soft and hard laddering methods, data were collected from 37 Korean external whistleblowers. Results revealed that the means-end chain of external whistleblowers was the hierarchical linkage among two concrete attributes, two functional consequences, and one terminal value. The extant whistleblowing literature has either made assumptions about whistleblowers’ motivations when (...)
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