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  1. Bringing Biology Back In: The Unresolved Issue of “Epigenesis” in Kant.John H. Zammito - 2015 - Con-Textos Kantianos 1:197-216.
    Epigenesis has become a far more exciting issue in Kant studies recently, especially with the publication of Jennifer Mensch’s Kant’ Organicism. In my commentary, I propose to clarify my own position on epigenesis relative to that of Mensch by once again considering the discourse of epigenesis in the wider eighteenth century. In order to situate more precisely what Kant made of it in his own thought, I distinguish the metaphysical use Kant made of epigenesis from his rejection of its aptness (...)
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  • “I Was Stealing Some Skulls From the Bone Chamber When a Bigamist Cleric Stopped Me.” Karl Ernst von Baer and the Development of Physical Anthropology in Europe.Erki Tammiksaar & Ken Kalling - 2018 - Centaurus 60 (4):276-293.
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  • Alexander von Humboldt, Humboldtian Science and the Origins of the Study of Vegetation.Malcolm Nicolson - 1987 - History of Science 25 (2):167-194.
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  • ‘This Inscrutable Principle of an Original Organization’: Epigenesis and ‘Looseness of Fit’ in Kant’s Philosophy of Science.John H. Zammito - 2003 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (1):73-109.
    Kant’s philosophy of science takes on sharp contour in terms of his interaction with the practicing life scientists of his day, particularly Johann Blumenbach and the latter’s student, Christoph Girtanner, who in 1796 attempted to synthesize the ideas of Kant and Blumenbach. Indeed, Kant’s engagement with the life sciences played a far more substantial role in his transcendental philosophy than has been recognized hitherto. The theory of epigenesis, especially in light of Kant’s famous analogy in the first Critique, posed crucial (...)
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  • Herschel in Bedlam: Natural History and Stellar Astronomy.Simon Schaffer - 1980 - British Journal for the History of Science 13 (3):211-239.
    In his comprehensive survey of the work of William Herschel, published in the Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes for 1842, Dominique Arago argued that the life of the great astronomer ‘had the rare privilege of forming an epoch in an extended branch of astronomy’. Arago also noted, however, that Herschel's ideas were often taken as ‘the conceptions of a madman’, even if they were subsequently accepted. This fact, commented Arago, ‘seems to me one that deserves to appear in the history (...)
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  • Kant, Race, and Natural History.Stella Sandford - 2018 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 44 (9):950-977.
    This article presents a new argument concerning the relation between Kant’s theory of race and aspects of the critical philosophy. It argues that Kant’s treatment of the problem of the systematic unity of nature and knowledge in the Critique of Pure Reason and the Critique of the Power of Judgment can be traced back a methodological problem in the natural history of the period – that of the possibility of a natural system of nature. Kant’s transformation of the methodological problem (...)
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  • Race and Genealogy. Buffon and the Formation of the Concept of “Race”.Claude-Olivier Doron - 2012 - Humana Mente 5 (22).
    This article analyses the conditions of formation of the concept of “race” in natural history in the middle of the eighteenth century. Relying on the method of historical epistemology to avoid some of the aporias raised by the traditional historiography of “racism”, it focuses on the peculiarities of the concept of “race” in contrast to other similar concepts such as “variety”, “species” and tries to answer the following questions: to what extent the concept of “race” was integrated in natural history’s (...)
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  • Studies on Animals and the Rise of Comparative Anatomy at and Around the Parisian Royal Academy of Sciences in the Eighteenth Century.Stéphane Schmitt - 2016 - Science in Context 29 (1):11-54.
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  • The Lenoir Thesis Revisited: Blumenbach and Kant.John H. Zammito - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):120-132.
  • Kant's intervention in the debate about race in the late eighteenth century.María Verónica Galfione - 2014 - Scientiae Studia 12 (1):11-43.
    El presente trabajo reconstruye algunos de los momentos principales del debate acerca del concepto de "raza humana" que tuvo lugar hacia finales del siglo xviii entre Kant, Forster y Herder. El objetivo de esta reconstrucción es mostrar, en una primera instancia, que esa polémica se hallaba determinada por la necesidad de adaptar las herramientas histórico-naturales heredadas a la emergencia de una concepción irreversible de la variable temporal. En un segundo momento, es analizada la posición asumida por Kant frente a los (...)
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  • Where Do White People Come From? A Foucaultian Critique of Whiteness Studies.Ladelle McWhorter - 2005 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 31 (5-6):533-556.
    Over the past 15 years we have seen the rise of a field of inquiry known as Whiteness Studies. Two of its major tenets are (1) that white identity is socially constructed and functions as a racial norm and (2) that those who occupy the position of white subjectivity exercise ‘white privilege’, which is oppressive to non-whites. However, despite their ubiquitous use of the term ‘norm’, Whiteness Studies theorists rarely give any detailed account of how whiteness serves to normalize. A (...)
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  • Richard A. Richards: The Species Problem: A Philosophical Analysis.Thomas A. C. Reydon - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):381-389.
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  • Vital Forces and Organization: Philosophy of Nature and Biology in Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer.Andrea Gambarotto - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:12-20.
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  • The Lenoir Thesis Revisited: Blumenbach and Kant.John H. Zammito - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (1):120-132.
  • Buffon: From Natural History to the History of Nature?Thierry Hoquet - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (4):413-419.
  • Natural Philosophy and Public Spectacle in the Eighteenth Century.S. Schaffer - 1983 - History of Science 21 (1):1-43.
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  • Lacepède’s Syncretic Contribution to the Debates on Natural History in France Around 1800.Stephane Schmitt - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (3):429-457.
  • Storm and Stress Anthropology.Karl J. Fink - 1993 - History of the Human Sciences 6 (1):51-71.
  • Kant on Epigenesis, Monogenesis and Human Nature: The Biological Premises of Anthropology.Alix A. Cohen - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (4):675-693.
    The aim of this paper is to show that for Kant, a combination of epigenesis and monogenesis is the condition of possibility of anthropology as he conceives of it and that moreover, this has crucial implications for the biological dimension of his account of human nature. More precisely, I begin by arguing that Kant’s conception of mankind as a natural species is based on two premises: firstly the biological unity of the human species (monogenesis of the human races); and secondly (...)
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  • Teleology Then and Now: The Question of Kant’s Relevance for Contemporary Controversies Over Function in Biology.John Zammito - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 37 (4):748-770.
  • Teleology Then and Now: The Question of Kant's Relevance for Contemporary Controversies Over Function in Biology.John Zammito - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (4):748-770.
    Kant -- drawing on his eighteenth-century predecessors -- provided a discerning and powerful characterization of what biologists had to explain in organic form. His difference from the rest is that he opined that was impossible to explain it. Its ’inscrutability’ was intrinsic. The third ’Critique’ essentially proposed the reduction of biology to a kind of prescientific descriptivism, doomed never to attain authentic scientificity. By contrast, for Locke, and ’a fortiori’ for Buffon and his followers, ’intrinsic purposiveness’ was a fact of (...)
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  • Lacepède's Syncretic Contribution to the Debates on Natural History in France Around 1800.Stephane Schmitt - 2010 - Journal of the History of Biology 43 (3):429 - 457.
    Lacepède was a key figure in the French intellectual world from the Old Regime to the Restoration, since he was not only a scientist, but also a musician, a writer, and a politician. His brilliant career is a good example of the progress of the social status of scientists in France around 1800. In the life sciences, he was considered the heir to Buffon and continued the latter's Histoire naturelle, but he also borrowed ideas from anti-Buffonian (e.g. Linnaean) scientists. He (...)
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  • How to Make Oneself Nature's Spokesman? A Latourian Account of Classification in Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Natural History.Dirk Stemerding - 1993 - Biology and Philosophy 8 (2):193-223.
    Classification in eighteenth-century natural history was marked by a battle of systems. The Linnaean approach to classification was severely criticized by those naturalists who aspired to a truly natural system. But how to make oneself nature''s spokesman? In this article I seek to answer that question using the approach of the French anthropologist of science Bruno Latour in a discussion of the work of the French naturalists Buffon and Cuvier in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century. These naturalists followed very (...)
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  • Charles Bonnets Allgemeine Systemtheorie Organismischer Ordnung.Tobias Cheung - 2004 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 26 (2):177-207.
    In diesem Artikel geht es um die historische und konzeptuelle Entwicklung von Charles Bonnets (1720-1793) allgemeiner Systemtheorie organismischer Ordnung. Hierfür wird der Kontext von Bonnets Ansatz in Naturgeschichte und Philosophie rekonstruiert. Leitfaden zur Analyse von Bonnets Systemtheorie bildet das Problem der doppelten Verortung des Organischen: Zum einen unterscheiden sich organisierte Körper durch ihre Ordnungsform von allen nicht organisierten Körpern, und zum anderen reihen sie sich zusammen mit den nicht-organisierten Körpern in eine Stufenleiter der Wesen ein, die von den Elementen bis (...)
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