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  1. Ethical Attitudes of Accounting Practitioners: Are Rank and Ethical Attitudes Related?Stephen J. Conroy, Tisha L. N. Emerson & Frank Pons - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):183-194.
    We address a previous finding in the business ethics literature in which accounting professionals in higher rank levels, i.e., “manager” or “partner” of auditing firms, appear to have lower moral reasoning ability than their junior counterparts. Prior investigations have relied upon a similar methodology for estimating ethical beliefs, namely testing “moral reasoning ability” using either the Moral Judgment Interview or Defining Issues Test. In the present study, we use a multiple vignettes approach to test for the existence of the inverse (...)
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  • Gender and Perceived Fundamental Moral Orientations: An Empirical Study of the Turkish Hotel Industry.Michael K. McCuddy, Musa Pinar, Ibrahim Birkin & Metin Kozak - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):331-349.
    Recent history is replete with scandalous acts and charitable acts within the business community. Unfortunately, scandalous acts seem to occur with greater frequency than charitable acts – at least as reported in the broadcast and print media. An interesting corollary to the incidence of scandalous and charitable acts is the apparent differential involvement of men and women, particularly in scandals. This article explores a possible explanation for the apparent gender differential in involvement in scandals and acts of charity. Drawing on (...)
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  • ‘The Business of Ethics and Gender’.A. Catherine McCabe, Rhea Ingram & Mary Conway Dato-on - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 64 (2):101-116.
    Unethical decision-making behavior within organizations has received increasing attention over the past ten years. As a result, a plethora of studies have examined the relationship between gender and business ethics. However, these studies report conflicting results as to whether or not men and women differ with regards to business ethics. In this article, we propose that gender identity theory [Spence: 1993, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64, 624-635], provides both the theory and empirical measures to explore the influence of (...)
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  • Does Education Influence Ethical Decisions? An International Study.Richard A. Bernardi, Caryn L. Lecca, Jennifer C. Murphy & Elizabeth M. Sturgis - 2011 - Journal of Academic Ethics 9 (3):235-256.
    This study examined whether having attended a public, private or religious affiliated grade and/or high school influenced a college student’s ethical decision making process. We also examined whether having taken an ethics course in college influences a student’s ethical decision making process. Our sample included 508 accounting students (237 men and 271 women) from Albania, Ecuador, Ireland and the United States. Our analyses indicated no differences in ethical decision making that associated with either grade-or-high-school education. While our data showed no (...)
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  • Ethical Orientation and Awareness of Tourism Students.Simon Hudson & Graham Miller - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 62 (4):383-396.
    The tourism industry is one of the largest industries in the world, and despite recent events that have made its operating environment more complex, the industry continues to grow [Theobald, 2005, Global Tourism, 3rd edn., Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier]. Commensurate to the size of the industry is a growth in the number of students pursuing degree courses in tourism around the world. Despite an increasingly sophisticated literature, the relative recency of the industry and its study has meant little attention has been paid in (...)
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  • Ethical Perceptions of Business Students in a New Zealand University: Do Gender, Age and Work Experience Matter?Gabriel Eweje & Margaret Brunton - 2010 - Business Ethics 19 (1):95-111.
    Ethical issues at the workplace have once again become topical and important due to considerable adverse publicity surrounding reports of unethical business practices by corporate managers. Accordingly, this paper re-visits the question of whether gender, age and work experience do have an effect on ethical judgement, using 655 business students as respondents. This is necessary as business students are likely to become managers during their career and will face complex ethical concerns and dilemmas in their daily, routine affairs. The findings (...)
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  • A Review of The Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996–2003. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (4):375 - 413.
    This review summarizes and critiques the empirical ethical decision-making literature from 1996-2003. One hundred and seventy-four articles were published in top business journals during this period. Tables are included that summarize the findings by dependent variable - awareness, judgment, intent, and behavior. We compare this review with past reviews in order to draw conclusions regarding trends in the ethical decision-making literature and to surface directions for future research.
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  • Students' Ethical Behavior in Iran.Mehran Nejati, Reza Jamali & Mostafa Nejati - 2009 - Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (4):277-285.
    Most of research on fostering ethical behavior among students has taken place in US and Europe. This paper seeks to provide additional information to both educators and organizations about the ethical perceptions of Iranian students by investigating the effect of gender on students’ ethical behavior. The authors developed and administered a quantitative questionnaire to a sample of 203 individuals currently pursuing accredited degrees at one of the public universities in Iran. Statistical analysis revealed that male students have a significantly less (...)
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  • Investigating the Effects of Gender on Consumers' Moral Philosophies and Ethical Intentions.Connie R. Bateman & Sean R. Valentine - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):393 - 414.
    Using information collected from a convenience sample of graduate and undergraduate students affiliated with a Midwestern university in the United States, this study determined the extent to which gender (defined as sex differences) is related to consumers' moral philosophies and ethical intentions. Multivariate and univariate results indicated that women were more inclined than men to utilize both consequence-based and rulebased moral philosophies in questionable consumption situations. In addition, women placed more importance on an overall moral philosophy than did men, and (...)
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  • Ethical Orientations of Future Greek Business People: Is Anomia Responsible for Deviant Ethical Attitudes?Eleonora Karassavidou & Niki Glaveli - 2007 - Business Ethics 16 (2):114–123.
  • The Ethical Decision Making of Men and Women Executives in International Business Situations.Sean R. Valentine & Terri L. Rittenburg - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (2):125-134.
    While a number of studies have examined the impact of gender/sex on ethical decision-making, the findings of this body of research do not provide consistent answers. Furthermore, very few of these studies have incorporated cross-cultural samples. Consequently, this study of 222 American and Spanish business executives explored sex differences in ethical judgments and intentions to act ethically. While no significant differences between males and females were found with respect to ethical judgments, females exhibited higher intentions to act more ethically than (...)
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  • A Step Forward: Ethics Education Matters!Cubie L. L. Lau - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (4):565-584.
    Ethics education matters! Contrary to some common beliefs that ethical behavior is inborn, this study suggests that education does matter. This paper examines ethics education and its relationship with students’ ethical awareness and moral reasoning. Attitudes Towards Business Ethics Questionnaire and 10 vignettes were deployed as the major measurement instruments. It is hypothesized that students with ethics education will have both a greater ethical awareness and ability to make more ethical decisions. Hypotheses were tested in two undergraduate business courses at (...)
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  • Implicit Theories and Issue Characteristics as Determinants of Moral Awareness and Intentions.Kurt Wurthmann - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (1):93-116.
    Individuals’ implicit theories that people’s character is fixed versus malleable are associated with their holding beliefs that morality is primarily determined by fulfilling prescribed duties versus upholding basic rights of others, respectively. Three studies provide evidence that the ability to recognize that a situation can legitimately be considered from a moral point of view is interactively dependent upon the nature of perceivers’ implicit theories and the extent to which the issue involves a violation that emphasizes a failure to fulfill a (...)
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  • University Students' Perceptions Regarding Ethical Marketing Practices: Affecting Change Through Instructional Techniques. [REVIEW]Charles D. Bodkin & Thomas H. Stevenson - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (3):207 - 228.
    Many believe that colleges of business have a role to play in improving the level of marketing ethics practiced in the business world, while others believe that by the time students reach the level of university education, their ethical beliefs are so ingrained as to be virtually unalterable. The purpose of this study is to add to the literature regarding university students’ ethical value judgments. It utilizes scenario studies to assess base line ethical values of junior level undergraduate business administration (...)
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  • An Empirical Alternative to Sidani and Thornberry’s ‘Current Arab Work Ethic’: Examining the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile in an Arab Context.James C. Ryan & Syed A. A. Tipu - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 135 (1):177-198.
    While the concept of work ethic has been discussed in the Arab context :35–49, 2009), the significant conceptual and methodological limitations of the existing work ethic and work value research elucidate the need for a more robust investigation of the multidimensional work ethic construct in the Arab context. Multidimensionality of the work ethic concept has gained considerable attention in recent years as researchers attempt to move away from the religiously labeled Islamic and Protestant work ethic conceptualizations. The current study examines (...)
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  • A Social Cognitive Perspective on the Relationships Between Ethics Education, Moral Attentiveness, and PRESOR.Kurt Wurthmann - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (1):131-153.
    This research examines the relationships between education in business ethics, Reynolds’s (J Appl Psychol 93:1027–1041, 2008) “moral attentiveness” construct, or the extent to which individuals chronically perceive and reflect on morality and moral elements in their experiences, and Singhapakdi et al.’s (J Bus Ethics 15:1131–1140, 1996) measure of perceptions of the role of ethics and social responsibility (PRESOR). Education in business ethics was found to be positively associated with the two identified factors of moral attentiveness, “reflective” and “perceptual” moral attentiveness, (...)
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  • Can Business Ethics Be Trained? A Study of the Ethical Decision-Making Process in Business Students.Barbara A. Ritter - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 68 (2):153-164.
    The purpose of this paper is to examine the various guidelines presented in the literature for instituting an ethics curriculum and to empirically study their effectiveness. Three questions are addressed concerning the trainability of ethics material and the proper integration and implementation of an ethics curriculum. An empirical study then tested the effect of ethics training on moral awareness and reasoning. The sample consisted of two business classes, one exposed to additional ethics curriculum (experimental), and one not exposed (control). For (...)
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  • An Empirical Investigation of the Ethical Perceptions of Future Managers with a Special Emphasis on Gender – Turkish Case.M. G. Serap Atakan, Sebnem Burnaz & Y. Ilker Topcu - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):573-586.
    This study presents an empirical investigation of the ethical perceptions of the future managers - Turkish university students majoring in the Business Administration and Industrial Engineering departments of selected public and private Turkish universities - with a special emphasis on gender. The perceptions of the university students pertaining to the business world, the behaviors of employees, and the factors leading to unethical behavior are analyzed. The statistically significant differences reveal that female students have more ethical perceptions about the Turkish business (...)
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  • Gender Differences in Double Standards.Iris Vermeir & Patrick Van Kenhove - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):281 - 295.
    The purpose of the present study is to investigate gender differences in the use of double standards in ethical judgements of questionable conduct instigated by business or consumers. We investigate if consumers are more critical towards unethical corporate versus consumer actions and if these double standards depend on the gender of the respondent. In the first study, we compared evaluations of four specific unethical actions [cfr. DePaulo, 1987, in: J. Saegert (ed.) Proceedings of the Division of Consumer Psychology (American Psychological (...)
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  • The Role of Gender and Age in Business Students’ Values, CSR Attitudes, and Responsible Management Education: Learnings From the PRME International Survey.Debbie Haski-Leventhal, Mehrdokht Pournader & Andrew McKinnon - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (1):219-239.
    As demand grows from various stakeholders for responsible management education in business schools, it is essential to understand how corporate social responsibility and RME are perceived by various subgroups of business students. Following the principles of theories on moral orientation and moral development, we examined the role of gender and age in determining four indicators of business students’ moral approach in the context of business schools committed to RME and CSR. Based on nearly 1300 responses to a survey, conducted with (...)
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  • Influence of Biological Sex and Gender Roles on Ethicality.Damodar Suar & Jyotiranjan Gochhayat - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 134 (2):199-208.
    Earlier evidence predominantly supports that women are more ethical than men. With the replication of such a hypothesis for testing, this study further examined whether feminine gender roles are a better predictor of ethical attitudes, ethical behaviors, and corporate responsibility values than the biological sex. Four hundred ten management students from two technical institutes in eastern India participated in this study. Along with the socio-demographic variables in the questionnaire, inventories were used to assess gender roles, ethical attitudes, ethical behaviors, and (...)
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  • Associations Between Hofstede’s Cultural Constructs and Social Desirability Response Bias.Richard A. Bernardi - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 65 (1):43 - 53.
    This paper examines the associations among social desirability response bias, cultural constructs and gender. The study includes the responses of 1537 students from 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Nepal, South Africa, Spain, and the United States. The results of the analysis indicate that, on average, social desirability response bias decreases (increases) as a country’s Individualism (Uncertainty Avoidance) increases. The analysis also indicates that women scored significantly higher on Paulhus’ Image Management Subscale on an (...)
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  • An Examination of the Association Between Gender and Reporting Intentions for Fraudulent Financial Reporting.Steven Kaplan, Kurt Pany, Janet Samuels & Jian Zhang - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):15-30.
    We report the results of a study that examines the association between gender and individuals’ intentions to report fraudulent financial reporting using non-anonymous and anonymous reporting channels. In our experimental study, we examine whether reporting intentions in response to discovering a fraudulent financial reporting act are associated with the participants’ gender, the perpetrator’s gender, and/or the interaction between the participants’ and perpetrator’s gender. We find that female participants’ reporting intentions for an anonymous channel are higher than for male participants; the (...)
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  • Reasoned Ethical Engagement: Ethical Values of Consumers as Primary Antecedents of Instrumental Actions Towards Multinationals.Maxwell Chipulu, Alasdair Marshall, Udechukwu Ojiako & Caroline Mota - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (1):221-238.
    Consumer actions towards multinationals encompass not just expressions of dissatisfaction and ethical identity but also what are problematically termed ‘instrumental actions’ entailing perceived purposes and likely impacts. This term may seem inappropriate where insufficient information exists for instrumentally linking means to ends, yet we consider it useful for describing purposive consumer action in its subjective aspect because it reflects the psychological reality whereby complexity-reducing social constructions give consumer actions instrumentally rational form for purposes of meaningful understanding and justification. This paper (...)
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  • The Effects and the Mechanisms of Board Gender Diversity: Evidence From Financial Manipulation.Aida Sijamic Wahid - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-21.
    This study examines the impact of board gender diversity on financial misconduct. The findings suggest firms with gender-diverse boards commit fewer financial reporting mistakes and engage in less fraud. The findings hold after accounting for the potentially endogenous nature of board demographic characteristics via instrumental variable approach. Furthermore, the findings are consistent in pre- and post-regulation periods and hold for firms with good and bad governance. The findings do not seem driven by differences in effort or quality, in terms of (...)
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  • The Relative Importance of Ethics as a Selection Criterion for Entry-Level Public Accountants: Does Gender Make a Difference?Nabil Ibrahim & John Angelidis - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (S1):49 - 58.
    This paper examines public accountants' perceptions of the relative importance of business ethics as a selection criterion for entry-level public accounting positions. Also, it seeks to determine whether gender differences do exist with respect to these perceptions. The data were collected through a survey of 335 professional accountants in four southeastern states. The results show that, among the eight selection factors that were studied, technical competence in accounting, communication skills, and interpersonal skills were the most influential, while professionalism and leadership (...)
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  • A Comparative Study of Ethical Perceptions of Managers and Non–Managers.Noel Y. M. Siu & Kit-Chun Joanna Lam - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S1):167 - 183.
    This study provides a comparison of the ethical perceptions of managers and non-managers, including professionals, teachers, sales persons and clerks, as well as technical and plant workers. Data of working individuals were collected in Hong Kong in the form of questionnaires which contain vignettes of questionable ethical issues. Factor analysis was used to identify the major ethical dimensions which were then used as the basis of comparison. Regression analyses were used to study the effect of various variables on ethical perceptions (...)
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  • Uncharted Territory: Investigating Individual Business Ethics in Cyprus.Maria Krambia-Kapardis & Anastasios Zopiatis - 2008 - Business Ethics 17 (2):138–148.
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  • Does a 'Care Orientation' Explain Gender Differences in Ethical Decision Making? A Critical Analysis and Fresh Findings.Roberta Bampton & Patrick Maclagan - 2009 - Business Ethics 18 (2):179-191.
    Over the past two decades there has been a great deal of research conducted into the question of gender differences in ethical decision making in organisations. Much of this has been based on questionnaire surveys, typically asking respondents (often students, sometimes professionals) to judge the moral acceptability of actions as described in short cases or vignettes. Overall the results seem inconclusive, although what differences have been noted tend to show women as 'more ethical' than men. The authors of this paper (...)
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  • Ethical Attitudes of Accountants: Recent Evidence From a Practitioners’ Survey.Tisha L. N. Emerson, Stephen J. Conroy & Charles W. Stanley - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (1):73-87.
    Recent highly publicized ethical breaches including those at Enron and WorldCom have focused attention on ethical behavior within the accounting profession. At the heart of the debate is whether ethical attitudes of accountants are to blame. Using a nationally representative sample of accounting practitioners and a multidisciplinary student sample at two Southern United States universities, we compare sample responses to 25 ethically charged vignettes to test whether they differ. Overall, we find no significant difference - even for a specific "accounting (...)
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  • University Students’ Perceptions Regarding Ethical Marketing Practices: Affecting Change Through Instructional Techniques.Charles D. Bodkin & Thomas H. Stevenson - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (3):207-228.
    Many believe that colleges of business have a role to play in improving the level of marketing ethics practiced in the business world, while others believe that by the time students reach the level of university education, their ethical beliefs are so ingrained as to be virtually unalterable. The purpose of this study is to add to the literature regarding university students' ethical value judgments. It utilizes scenario studies to assess base line ethical values of junior level undergraduate business administration (...)
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  • A Comparative Study of Ethical Perceptions of Managers and Non-Managers.Noel Y. M. Siu & Kit-Chun Joanna Lam - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (S1):167-183.
    This study provides a comparison of the ethical perceptions of managers and non-managers, including professionals, teachers, sales persons and clerks, as well as technical and plant workers. Data of working individuals were collected in Hong Kong in the form of questionnaires which contain vignettes of questionable ethical issues. Factor analysis was used to identify the major ethical dimensions which were then used as the basis of comparison. Regression analyses were used to study the effect of various variables on ethical perceptions (...)
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  • Associations Between Hofstede’s Cultural Constructs and Social Desirability Response Bias.Richard A. Bernardi - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 65 (1):43-53.
    This paper examines the associations among social desirability response bias, cultural constructs and gender. The study includes the responses of 1537 students from 12 countries including Australia, Canada, China, Colombia, Ecuador, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Nepal, South Africa, Spain, and the United States. The results of the analysis indicate that, on average, social desirability response bias decreases as a country's Individualism increases. The analysis also indicates that women scored significantly higher on Paulhus' Image Management Subscale on an overall basis and (...)
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  • Ethical Attitudes of Accountants: Recent Evidence From a Practitioners' Survey. [REVIEW]Tisha L. N. Emerson, Stephen J. Conroy & Charles W. Stanley - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 71 (1):73 - 87.
    Recent highly publicized ethical breaches including those at Enron and WorldCom have focused attention on ethical behavior within the accounting profession. At the heart of the debate is whether ethical attitudes of accountants are to blame. Using a nationally representative sample of accounting practitioners and a multidisciplinary student sample at two Southern United States universities, we compare sample responses to 25 ethically charged vignettes to test whether they differ. Overall, we find no significant difference – even for a specific “accounting (...)
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  • Investigating the Effects of Gender on Consumers’ Moral Philosophies and Ethical Intentions.Connie R. Bateman & Sean R. Valentine - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (3):393-414.
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  • Ethical Perceptions of Business Students in a New Zealand University: Do Gender, Age and Work Experience Matter?Gabriel Eweje & Margaret Brunton - 2010 - Business Ethics: A European Review 19 (1):95-111.
  • Does a ‘Care Orientation’ Explain Gender Differences in Ethical Decision Making? A Critical Analysis and Fresh Findings.Roberta Bampton & Patrick Maclagan - 2009 - Business Ethics: A European Review 18 (2):179-191.
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  • Uncharted Territory: Investigating Individual Business Ethics in Cyprus.Maria Krambia-Kapardis & Anastasios Zopiatis - 2008 - Business Ethics: A European Review 17 (2):138-148.
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  • Ethical Orientations of Future Greek Business People: Is Anomia Responsible for Deviant Ethical Attitudes?Eleonora Karassavidou & Niki Glaveli - 2007 - Business Ethics: A European Review 16 (2):114-123.
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  • The Significance of Gender in Predicting the Cognitive Moral Development of Business Practitioners Using the Sociomoral Reflection Objective Measure.Beverly Kracher & Robert P. Marble - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):503-526.
    This study constitutes a contribution to the discussion about moral reasoning in business. Kohlberg’s (1971, in Cognitive Development and Epistemology (Academic Press, New York), 1976, in Moral Development and Behavior: Theory and Research and Social Issues (Holt, Rienhart and Winston, New York)) cognitive moral development (CMD) theory is one explanation of moral reasoning. One unresolved debate on the topic of CMD is the charge that Kohlbergian-type CMD theory is gender biased. This research puts forth the proposal that the issue may (...)
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  • Factors Affecting Ethical Attitudes in Mainland China and Hong Kong.Kit-Chun Lam & Guicheng Shi - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (4):463-479.
    In this article, we analyzed the effect of various factors on moral judgment and ethical attitudes of working persons. It was found that the effect of various socio-demographic factors on ethical attitudes varied between the two different categories of ethical issues under study, issues which involve explicit violation of laws vis-à-vis issues which involved social concerns. Our results did not support the implication of Callahan’s hypothesis that males are more sensitive to rule-based ethical issues while women are to issues involving (...)
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  • A Review of The Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996–2003. [REVIEW]Michael J. O’Fallon & Kenneth D. Butterfield - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (4):375-413.
    This review summarizes and critiques the empirical ethical decision-making literature from 1996–2003. One hundred and seventy-four articles were published in top business journals during this period. Tables are included that summarize the findings by dependent variable – awareness, judgment, intent, and behavior. We compare this review with past reviews in order to draw conclusions regarding trends in the ethical decision-making literature and to surface directions for future research.
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  • Gender Differences in Ethics Research: The Importance of Controlling for the Social Desirability Response Bias. [REVIEW]Derek Dalton & Marc Ortegren - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (1):73-93.
    Gender is one of the most frequently studied variables within the ethics literature. In prior studies that find gender differences, females consistently report more ethical responses than males. However, prior research also indicates that females are more prone to responding in a socially desirable fashion. Consequently, it is uncertain whether gender differences in ethical decision-making exist because females are more ethical or perhaps because females are more prone to the social desirability response bias. Using a sample of 30 scenarios from (...)
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  • Does the Ethical Culture of Organisations Promote Managers' Occupational Well-Being? Investigating Indirect Links Via Ethical Strain.Mari Huhtala, Taru Feldt, Anna-Maija Lämsä, Saija Mauno & Ulla Kinnunen - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 101 (2):231-247.
    The present study had two major aims: first, to examine the construct validity of the Finnish 58-item Corporate Ethical Virtues scale (CEV; Kaptein in J Org Behav 29:923–947, 2008) and second, to examine whether the associations between managers’ perceptions of ethical organisational culture and their occupational well-being (emotional exhaustion and work engagement) are indirectly linked by ethical strain, i.e. the tension which arises from the difference in the ethical values of the individual and the organisation he or she works for. (...)
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