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  1. Robots of Just War: A Legal Perspective.Ugo Pagallo - 2011 - Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):307-323.
  • Cognitive Automata and the Law: Electronic Contracting and the Intentionality of Software Agents. [REVIEW]Giovanni Sartor - 2009 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 17 (4):253-290.
    I shall argue that software agents can be attributed cognitive states, since their behaviour can be best understood by adopting the intentional stance. These cognitive states are legally relevant when agents are delegated by their users to engage, without users’ review, in choices based on their the agents’ own knowledge. Consequently, both with regard to torts and to contracts, legal rules designed for humans can also be applied to software agents, even though the latter do not have rights and duties (...)
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  • Intelligent Agents and Contracts: Is a Conceptual Rethink Imperative? [REVIEW]Emad Abdel Rahim Dahiyat - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):375-390.
    The emergence of intelligent software agents that operate autonomously with little or no human intervention has generated many doctrinal questions at a conceptual level and has challenged the traditional rules of contract especially those relating to the intention as an essential requirement of any contract conclusion. In this paper, we will try to explore some of these challenges, and shed light on the conflict between the traditional contract theory and the transactional practice in the case of using intelligent software agents. (...)
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  • Artificial Agents Among Us: Should We Recognize Them as Agents Proper?Laukyte Migle - 2017 - Ethics and Information Technology 19 (1):1-17.
  • AI Systems Under Criminal Law: A Legal Analysis and a Regulatory Perspective.Francesca Lagioia & Giovanni Sartor - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-33.
    Criminal liability for acts committed by AI systems has recently become a hot legal topic. This paper includes three different contributions. The first contribution is an analysis of the extent to which an AI system can satisfy the requirements for criminal liability: accomplishing an actus reus, having the corresponding mens rea, possessing the cognitive capacities needed for responsibility. The second contribution is a discussion of criminal activity accomplished by an AI entity, with reference to a recent case involving an online (...)
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  • Legal Personhood and the Firm: Avoiding Anthropomorphism and Equivocation.David Gindis - 2016 - Journal of Institutional Economics 12 (3):499-513..
    From the legal point of view, "person" is not co-extensive with "human being." Nor is it synonymous with "rational being" or "responsible subject." Much of the confusion surrounding the issue of the firm’s legal personality is due to the tendency to address the matter with only these, all too often conflated, definitions of personhood in mind. On the contrary, when the term "person" is defined in line with its original meaning as "mask" worn in the legal drama, it is easy (...)
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  • Personhood and Legal Status: Reflections on the Democratic Rights of Corporations.Ludvig Beckman - 2018 - Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy 47 (1):13-28.
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  • Contracting Agents: Legal Personality and Representation. [REVIEW]Francisco Andrade, Paulo Novais, José Machado & José Neves - 2007 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 15 (4):357-373.
    The combined use of computers and telecommunications and the latest evolution in the field of Artificial Intelligence brought along new ways of contracting and of expressing will and declarations. The question is, how far we can go in considering computer intelligence and autonomy, how can we legally deal with a new form of electronic behaviour capable of autonomous action? In the field of contracting, through Intelligent Electronic Agents, there is an imperious need of analysing the question of expression of consent, (...)
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  • Imagining a Non-Biological Machine as a Legal Person.David J. Calverley - 2008 - AI and Society 22 (4):523-537.
    As non-biological machines come to be designed in ways which exhibit characteristics comparable to human mental states, the manner in which the law treats these entities will become increasingly important both to designers and to society at large. The direct question will become whether, given certain attributes, a non-biological machine could ever be viewed as a legal person. In order to begin to understand the ramifications of this question, this paper starts by exploring the distinction between the related concepts of (...)
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  • Robotrust and Legal Responsibility.Ugo Pagallo - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):367-379.
    The paper examines some aspects of today’s debate on trust and e-trust and, more specifically, issues of legal responsibility for the production and use of robots. Their impact on human-to-human interaction has produced new problems both in the fields of contractual and extra-contractual liability in that robots negotiate, enter into contracts, establish rights and obligations between humans, while reshaping matters of responsibility and risk in trust relations. Whether or not robotrust concerns human-to-robot or even robot-to-robot relations, there is a new (...)
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  • Artificial Intelligence and Robot Responsibilities: Innovating Beyond Rights.Hutan Ashrafian - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (2):317-326.
    The enduring innovations in artificial intelligence and robotics offer the promised capacity of computer consciousness, sentience and rationality. The development of these advanced technologies have been considered to merit rights, however these can only be ascribed in the context of commensurate responsibilities and duties. This represents the discernable next-step for evolution in this field. Addressing these needs requires attention to the philosophical perspectives of moral responsibility for artificial intelligence and robotics. A contrast to the moral status of animals may be (...)
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  • From Responsible Robotics Towards a Human Rights Regime Oriented to the Challenges of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence.Liu Hin-Yan & Zawieska Karolina - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
  • Killers, Fridges, and Slaves: A Legal Journey in Robotics. [REVIEW]Ugo Pagallo - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (4):347-354.
    This paper adopts a legal perspective to counter some exaggerations of today’s debate on the social understanding of robotics. According to a long and well-established tradition, there is in fact a relative strong consensus among lawyers about some key notions as, say, agency and liability in the current use of robots. However, dealing with a field in rapid evolution, we need to rethink some basic tenets of the contemporary legal framework. In particular, time has come for lawyers to acknowledge that (...)
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