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  1. An Alternative Conceptualisation of Corporate Social Responsibility.Ke Huang - forthcoming - Philosophy.
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility and the Social Enterprise.Nelarine Cornelius, Mathew Todres, Shaheena Janjuha-Jivraj, Adrian Woods & James Wallace - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):355-370.
    In this article, we contend that due to their size and emphasis upon addressing external social concerns, the corporate relationship between social enterprises, social awareness and action is more complex than whether or not these organisations engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR). This includes organisations that place less emphasis on CSR as well as other organisations that may be very proficient in CSR initiatives, but are less successful in recording practices. In this context, we identify a number of internal CSR (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility in SMEs: A Shift From Philanthropy to Institutional Works?Kenneth Amaeshi, Emmanuel Adegbite, Chris Ogbechie, Uwafiokun Idemudia, Konan Anderson Seny Kan, Mabumba Issa & Obianuju I. J. Anakwue - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (2):385-400.
    Corporate Social Responsibility amongst Small and Medium Enterprises is often characterised in the literature as unstructured, informal and ad hoc discretionary philanthropic activities. Drawing insights from recent theoretical/analytical frameworks :52–78, 2010), and on empirical data collected from both Nigeria and Tanzania, we found that CSR practices in SMEs are much more nuanced than previously presented. In addition, SMEs undertake their CSR practices to varying degrees in multiple spaces—i.e. the workplace, marketplace, community and the ecological environment. These CSR practices go beyond (...)
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  • From Rationality to Emotionally Embedded Relations: Envy as a Signal of Power in Stakeholder Relations.Marjo Siltaoja & Merja Lähdesmäki - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (4):837-850.
    Although stakeholder salience theory has received a great deal of scholarly attention in the business ethics and management literature, the theory has been criticized for overemphasizing rationality in managerial perceptions. We argue that it is important to better understand what socially constructed emotions signal in business relations, and we posit the role of envy as a discursive resource used to signal and construct the asymmetrical power relations between small business owner–managers and their stakeholders. Our study is based on a qualitative (...)
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  • The Attitude of a Town's Pub Licensees to Their Responsibilities.John D. Pratten - 2005 - Business Ethics 14 (3):250-260.
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  • Global Competition and Corporate Responsibilities of Small and Medium‐Sized Enterprises.Georges Enderle - 2004 - Business Ethics 13 (1):50-63.
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  • Responsibility and Informal CSR in Formal Cameroonian SMEs.Geert Demuijnck & Hubert Ngnodjom - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (4):-653-665.
    In this article, we explore the implicit conceptions of business ethics and social responsibility of owners−managers of small and medium enterprises (SME) in Cameroon. While using a hermeneutical approach, our main objective is to clarify how Sub-Saharan African business people themselves understand and define corporate responsibility in their particular economic and political environment. Our aim is not to deliver an empirical study of business practices and management behavior in SMEs. We wish to discuss which responsibilities they themselves judge to be (...)
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  • Proactive CSR: An Empirical Analysis of the Role of its Economic, Social and Environmental Dimensions on the Association Between Capabilities and Performance. [REVIEW]Nuttaneeya Ann Torugsa, Wayne O’Donohue & Rob Hecker - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (2):383-402.
    Proactive corporate social responsibility (CSR) involves business practices adopted voluntarily by firms that go beyond regulatory requirements in order to actively support sustainable economic, social and environmental development, and thereby contribute broadly and positively to society. This empirical study examines the role of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of proactive CSR on the association between three specific capabilities—shared vision, stakeholder management and strategic proactivity—and financial performance in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Using quantitative data collected from a sample of (...)
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  • How Do European SME Owner—Managers Make Sense of 'Stakeholder Management'?: Insights From a Cross-National Study.Hans-Jörg Schlierer, Andrea Werner, Silvana Signori, Elisabeth Garriga, Heidi von Weltzien Hoivik, Annick Van Rossem & Yves Fassin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):39 - 51.
    The vast majority of empirical research on stakeholder management has traditionally focused on multinational corporations. Only in recent years, scholars have begun to pay attention to the stakeholder management concept in relation to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The few existing studies in this area, however, discuss SMEs as a context free category or remain focused on single country analysis. This cross-national empirical research investigates SME owner—managers' perceptions of stakeholder management in six European countries. The comparative analysis is followed by (...)
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  • Capabilities, Proactive CSR and Financial Performance in SMEs: Empirical Evidence From an Australian Manufacturing Industry Sector. [REVIEW]Nuttaneeya Ann Torugsa, Wayne O’Donohue & Rob Hecker - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (4):483-500.
    Proactive corporate social responsibility (CSR) involves business strategies and practices adopted voluntarily by firms that go beyond regulatory requirements in order to manage their social responsibilities, and thereby contribute broadly and positively to society. Proactive CSR has been less researched in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) compared to large firms; and, whether SMEs are ideally placed to gain competitive advantage through such activity therefore remains a point of debate. This study examines empirically the association between three specified capabilities (shared vision, (...)
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  • Keeping at Arm’s Length or Searching for Social Proximity? Corporate Social Responsibility as a Reciprocal Process Between Small Businesses and the Local Community.Merja Lähdesmäki & Timo Suutari - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):481 - 493.
    This article examines the relationship between corporate social responsibility and locality in the small business context. This issue is addressed by studying the interplay between small businesses and local community based on the embeddedness literature and using the concept of social proximity. On the basis of 25 thematic interviews with owner-managers a typology is constructed which illustrates the owner-managers' perceptions of the relationship between the business and the local community. The findings emphasize the importance of reciprocity as it is suggested (...)
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  • Small Business and the Environment in the UK and the Netherlands: Toward Stakeholder Cooperation.Robert Rutherfoord - 2000 - Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (4):945-965.
    In this paper, the approaches of a sample of small firms to environmental issues in the UK and the Netherlands are compared.The study makes a contribution by addressing the lack of research on small firms and the environment, as well as offering insights intothe influence that cultural. institutional, and political frameworks can have on small firm owner-managers' attitudes to external issues. The environment is considered here as an ethical issue, drawing on work on the environmental responsibility of business by both (...)
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  • Global Competition and Corporate Responsibilities of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises.Georges Enderle - 2004 - Business Ethics: A European Review 13 (1):50-63.
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  • A ‘Business Opportunity’ Model of Corporate Social Responsibility for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises.Heledd Jenkins - 2009 - Business Ethics: A European Review 18 (1):21-36.
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  • Going Green: The Evolution of Micro-Business Environmental Practices.Simon Parry - 2012 - Business Ethics: A European Review 21 (2):220-237.
  • Investigating Stakeholder Theory and Social Capital: CSR in Large Firms and SMEs.Angeloantonio Russo & Francesco Perrini - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):207-221.
    The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been widely investigated, but a generally accepted theoretical framework does not yet exist. This paper argues that the idiosyncrasies of large firms and SMEs explains the different approaches to CSR, and that the notion of social capital is a more useful way of understanding the CSR approach of SMEs, whereas stakeholder theory more closely addresses the CSR approach of large firms. Based on the extant literature, we present a comparison of large firm (...)
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  • SMEs and the Fallacy of Formalising CSR.Yves Fassin - 2008 - Business Ethics 17 (4):364-378.
    There exists increasing pressure for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices, including social reporting. Curiously in this promotional programme of CSR reporting, the only group whose ideas are not sought in this debate are the SME leaders themselves. The present ethnographic field analysis, based on discussions within entrepreneurs' circles, tends to suggest that the argument for expanding formalisation of CSR to SMEs rests upon several fallacies. It implicitly assumes that an apparent solution for (...)
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  • Little Big Firms? Corporate Social Responsibility in Small Businesses That Do Not Compete Against Big Ones.Rune Dahl Fitjar - 2011 - Business Ethics 20 (1):30-44.
    This article examines the drivers and barriers for corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Norwegian graduate uniform industry, which is a market devoid of large corporations, consisting entirely of two small businesses. It finds that these small businesses' CSR activities are not particularly well explained by the existing literature on CSR in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which assumes the presence of large competitors. This raises the question of whether small businesses that do not compete against large corporations may actually behave (...)
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  • Micro-Business Community Responsibility in Australia: Approaches, Motivations and Barriers. [REVIEW]Suzanne Campin, Jo Barraket & Belinda Luke - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):489-513.
    Micro and small businesses contribute the majority of business activity in the most developed economies. They are typically embedded in local communities and therefore well placed to influence community wellbeing. While there has been considerable theoretical and empirical analysis of corporate citizenship and corporate social responsibility (CSR), the nature of micro-business community responsibility (mBCR) remains relatively under-explored. This article presents findings from an exploratory study of mBCR that examined the approaches, motivations and barriers of this phenomenon. Analysis of data from (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility in Supply Chains of Global Brands: A Boundaryless Responsibility? Clarifications, Exceptions and Implications.Kenneth M. Amaeshi, Onyeka K. Osuji & Paul Nnodim - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (1):223-234.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is increasingly becoming a popular business concept in developed economies. As typical of other business concepts, it is on its way to globalization through practices and structures of the globalized capitalist world order, typified in Multinational Corporations (MNCs). However, CSR often sits uncomfortably in this capitalist world order, as MNCs are often challenged by the global reach of their supply chains and the possible irresponsible practices inherent along these chains. The possibility of irresponsible practices puts global (...)
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  • 'Giving Something Back': A Study of Corporate Social Responsibility in UK South Asian Small Enterprises.Ian Worthington, Monder Ram & Trevor Jones - 2006 - Business Ethics 15 (1):95–108.
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  • Socially Responsible Investors and the Microentrepreneur: A Canadian Case.Richard Hudson & Roger Wehrell - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 60 (3):281-292.
    Socially responsible investors buy financial securities with two goals: to make a market-based return, and to make companies act in a more socially responsible way. Most research on socially responsible investment deals with investing in stocks traded on major exchanges. We add the case of loaning small amounts of funds to microentrepreneurs through a discussion of a particular case. The case is that of Calmeadow which, in conjunction with the Royal Bank of Canada, set up a microlending project in rural (...)
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  • Keeping at Arm’s Length or Searching for Social Proximity? Corporate Social Responsibility as a Reciprocal Process Between Small Businesses and the Local Community.Merja Lähdesmäki & Timo Suutari - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 108 (4):481-493.
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  • Reflexivity in Sustainability Accounting and Management: Transcending the Economic Focus of Corporate Sustainability.Anselm Schneider - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (3):525-536.
    In order to enable firms to successfully deal with issues of corporate sustainability, the firms' stakeholders would need to participate in sustainability accounting and management. In practice, however, participative sustainability accounting and management are often unfeasible. The resulting consequence is the risk of misbalancing single aspects of sustainability. The purpose of this article is to show that reflexivity in sustainability accounting and management, that is, an ongoing reflection on the relationship between the goals of corporate sustainability and the overarching objective (...)
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  • Small Business Champions for Corporate Social Responsibility.Heledd Jenkins - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 67 (3):241-256.
    While Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has traditionally been the domain of the corporate sector, recognition of the growing significance of the Small and Medium Sized Enterprise (SME) sector has led to an emphasis on their social and environmental impact, illustrated by an increasing number of initiatives aimed at engaging SMEs in the CSR agenda. CSR has been well researched in large companies, but SMEs have received less attention in this area. This paper presents the findings from a U.K. wide study (...)
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  • Investigating the Impact of Firm Size on Small Business Social Responsibility: A Critical Review.Jan Lepoutre & Aimé Heene - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 67 (3):257-273.
    The impact of smaller firm size on corporate social responsibility (CSR) is ambiguous. Some contend that small businesses are socially responsible by nature, while others argue that a smaller firm size imposes barriers on small firms that constrain their ability to take responsible action. This paper critically analyses recent theoretical and empirical contributions on the size–social responsibility relationship among small businesses. More specifically, it reviews the impact of firm size on four antecedents of business behaviour: issue characteristics, personal characteristics, organizational (...)
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  • Corporate Social Responsibility in Small-and Medium-Size Enterprises: Investigating Employee Engagement in Fair Trade Companies.Iain A. Davies & Andrew Crane - 2010 - Business Ethics 19 (2):126-139.
    Employee buy-in is a key factor in ensuring small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) engagement with corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this exploratory study, we use participant observation and semi-structured interviews to investigate the way in which three fair trade SMEs utilise human resource management (and selection and socialisation in particular) to create employee engagement in a strong triple bottomline philosophy, while simultaneously coping with resource and size constraints. The conclusions suggest that there is a strong desire for, but tradeoff within (...)
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  • Why and How Does Social Responsibility Differ Among SMEs? A Social Capital Systemic Approach.Cristina Aragón, Lorea Narvaiza & Maite Altuna - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (2):365-384.
    The existing analysis of heterogeneous social responsibility in small and medium enterprises has considered the effects of individual factors. However, no holistic analysis has been performed on how different factors of heterogeneity interact and how they collectively affect SR in SMEs. Here, we propose a new systemic approach—employing the social capital concept—with the aim of identifying how and why SR is built diversely in SMEs. In particular, we focus on a positive and holistic perspective that integrates the factors proposed in (...)
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  • Generating Regional-Scale Improvements in SME Corporate Responsibility Performance: Lessons From Responsibility Northwest.Sarah Roberts, Rob Lawson & Jeremy Nicholls - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 67 (3):275-286.
    This paper describes the research carried out into small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and corporate responsibility (CR) in the Northwest of England during Phase I of Responsibility Northwest, a partnership programme designed to significantly increase the CR of the region. By engaging with significant numbers of SMEs and SME support providers across the region, key insights were gained in three key areas: • The current attitudes to, understanding of, and management of CR issues in the SME sector.• The barriers to (...)
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  • The Influence of Christian Identity on SME Owner–Managers' Conceptualisations of Business Practice.Andrea Werner - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):449 - 462.
    This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study to understand how active adherence to the Christian faith influences the way SME owner-managers conceptualise their business practices. The study was based on in-depth interviews with 21 Christian SME owner-managers in Germany and the UK. Using a socio-psychological approach, the data analysis yielded a range of linguistic and conceptual resources that are peculiar to Christian discourse and that have the potential to influence business activity in rather distinctive ways. This paper (...)
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  • Beyond the Moral Portrayal of Social Entrepreneurs: An Empirical Approach to Who They Are and What Drives Them.Sophie Bacq, Chantal Hartog & Brigitte Hoogendoorn - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 133 (4):703-718.
    This paper questions the taken-for-granted moral portrayal depicted in the extant literature and popular media of the devoted social entrepreneurial hero with a priori good ethical and moral credentials. We confront this somewhat ‘idealistic’ and biased portrayal with insights from unique large-scale data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2009 survey on social entrepreneurship covering Belgium and The Netherlands. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions indicate that the intention and dominance of perceived social value creation over economic value creation is indeed what (...)
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  • Strategizing Corporate Social Responsibility: Evidence From an Italian Medium-Sized, Family-Owned Company.Francesco Perrini & Mario Minoja - 2008 - Business Ethics 17 (1):47–63.
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  • Sustainability-Related Identities and the Institutional Environment: The Case of New Zealand Owner–Managers of Small- and Medium-Sized Hospitality Businesses.Eva Kiefhaber, Kathryn Pavlovich & Katharina Spraul - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-15.
    While it is well known that SME owner–managers’ sustainability values and attitudes impact their company’s sustainability activities, they often face profit-driven institutional orders. In a qualitative study, we investigate which identities are critical for their engagement in sustainability and how these identities interrelate with their institutional environment. We applied a qualitative design with narratives from 29 owner–managers of hospitality businesses who belong to a New Zealand-based sustainability network. Our study revealed no single overarching sustainability identity; instead, six identities could be (...)
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  • SMEs and CSR Theory: Evidence and Implications From an Italian Perspective.Francesco Perrini - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 67 (3):305-316.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has acquired an unquestionably high degree of relevance for a large number of different actors. Among others, academics and practitioners are developing a wide range of knowledge and best practices to further improve socially responsible competences. Within this context, one frequent question is according to what theory should general knowledge of CSR be developed, and in particular the relationship between CSR and small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). This paper suggests that research on large firms should be (...)
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  • Scoring Firms’ Codes of Ethics: An Explorative Study of Quality Drivers.Giovanni Maria Garegnani, Emilia Piera Merlotti & Angeloantonio Russo - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (4):541-557.
    Research in the field of management has increasingly focused on strategies and tools related to corporate sustainability. Of the tools examined, codes of ethics have been found to play a primary role. Many studies have investigated the content of such codes, as well as their capacity to condition the behaviour of people within organizations. However, few studies have considered the intrinsic quality of codes of ethics. This study aims to investigate the impact that specific factors—firm size, degree of internationalization and (...)
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  • Pushing Forward Sme Csr Through a Network: An Account From the Catalan Model.David Murillo & Josep M. Lozano - 2009 - Business Ethics 18 (1):7-20.
    This paper presents the results of a Catalan project in which an academic institution acted as a practitioner to promote corporate social responsibility (CSR) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The project involved the establishment of a working network with intermediate organisations and the creation of specific tools for the purpose. The paper is set up as a case study, emphasising inclusion, representativity and legitimacy as key elements for the successful construction of a network to promote CSR in SMEs. It (...)
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  • When Ethics Matters – Interpreting the Ethical Discourse of Small Nature-Based Entrepreneurs.M. Lahdesmaki - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 61 (1):55-68.
    This article examines the unique ethical concerns faced by small nature-based entrepreneurs in their everyday business operations. By using qualitative, empirical data, six kinds of business situations were identified to bring about moral consideration for all the entrepreneurs in this study. The business situations identified were the selection of raw material suppliers, reconciling the quality of production and the lack of resources, the pricing process, the content of marketing information, the close relationships to employees and the collaboration with other entrepreneurs. (...)
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  • The Attitude of a Town's Pub Licensees to Their Responsibilities.John D. Pratten - 2005 - Business Ethics 14 (3):250–260.
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  • The Vulnerability and Strength Duality in Ethnic Business: A Model of Stakeholder Salience and Social Capital.Alejandra Marin, Ronald K. Mitchell & Jae Hwan Lee - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 130 (2):271-289.
  • Influence of National Institutions on the Corporate Social Responsibility Practices of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Food-Processing Industry: Differences Between France and Morocco.Jamal El Baz, Issam Laguir, Magalie Marais & Raffaele Staglianò - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 134 (1):117-133.
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  • CSR and Related Terms in SME Owner–Managers’ Mental Models in Six European Countries: National Context Matters.Hans-Jörg Schlierer, Heidi Weltzien Hoivik, Elisabet Garriga, Silvana Signori, Annick Rossem, Andrea Werner & Yves Fassin - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (2):433-456.
    As a contribution to the emerging field of corporate social responsibility cognition, this article reports on the findings of an exploratory study that compares SME owner–managers’ mental models with regard to CSR and related concepts across six European countries. Utilising Repertory Grid Technique, we found that the SME owner–managers’ mental models show a few commonalities as well as a number of differences across the different country samples. We interpret those differences by linking individual cognition to macro-environmental variables, such as language, (...)
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  • Does the Notion of 'Doing Well by Doing Good' Prevail Among Entrepreneurial Ventures in a Developing Nation?Noor Hazlina Ahmad & T. Ramayah - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 106 (4):479-490.
    The rise in ethical and social responsibility awareness in contemporary businesses has led to assumptions that the associated behaviours would enable competitive advantage to be attained as a firm distinguishes itself from its competitors through such practices. This paper reports on a study conducted on the prevalence of such practices among entrepreneurial ventures in an emerging economy (Malaysia), and the effect of such practices on both financial and non-financial performance. A sequential inter-method mixing design was employed in which during stage (...)
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  • How Do European SME Owner–Managers Make Sense of 'Stakeholder Management'?: Insights From a Cross-National Study. [REVIEW]Hans-Jörg Schlierer, Andrea Werner, Silvana Signori, Elisabeth Garriga, Heidi Weltzien Hoivik, Annick Rossem & Yves Fassin - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (1):39-51.
    The vast majority of empirical research on stakeholder management has traditionally focused on multinational corporations. Only in recent years, scholars have begun to pay attention to the stakeholder management concept in relation to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The few existing studies in this area, however, discuss SMEs as a context free category or remain focused on single country analysis. This cross-national empirical research investigates SME owner–managers’ perceptions of stakeholder management in six European countries. The comparative analysis is followed by (...)
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  • Construction of Owner–Manager Identity in Corporate Social Responsibility Discourse.Merja Lähdesmäki - 2012 - Business Ethics 21 (2):168-182.
    This article examines the different discursive resources on which small business owner–managers draw when understanding their sense of self in relation to corporate social responsibility. In the small business context, identity provides a justifiable framework to study corporate social responsibility, as decisions regarding socially responsible activities are mainly taken by managers and stem from their sense of who they are in the world. On the basis of 25 thematic interviews with owner–managers, two broad discursive resources were found that describe how (...)
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  • Environmental Respect: Ethics or Simply Business? A Study in the Small and Medium Enterprise (Sme) Context. [REVIEW]Jesús Cambra-Fierro, Susan Hart & Yolanda Polo-Redondo - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):645 - 656.
    In recent years there have been ever-growing concerns regarding environmental decline, causing some companies to focus on the implementation of environmentally friendly supply, production and distribution systems. Such concern may stem either from the set of beliefs and values of the company’s management or from certain pressure exerted by the market – consumers and institutions – in the belief that an environmentally respectful management policy will contribute to the transmission of a positive image of the company and its products. Sometimes, (...)
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  • The Relationship Between CSR and Corporate Strategy in Medium-Sized Companies: Evidence From Italy.Lucio Lamberti & Giuliano Noci - 2012 - Business Ethics 21 (4):402-416.
    The paper responds to the recent calls for further evidence on corporate social responsibility (CSR) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Drawing on the extant literature, the authors identify four characteristics contended by academicians as peculiarities of SMEs’ approach to CSR: the intrinsic relationship between CSR and corporate strategy motivated by the need to continuously dialogue with stakeholders; the centrality of the entrepreneur's ethos in CSR decisions; the coexistence and the cross-effect of economically instrumental and ethically motivated CSR policies; and (...)
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  • The Relevance of Stakeholder Theory and Social Capital Theory in the Context of CSR in SMEs: An Australian Perspective.Suman Sen & James Cowley - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):413-427.
    The concept of business responsibility, usually termed as corporate social responsibility (CSR), originated in the early 1930s after the Wall Street crash of 1929 exposed corporate irresponsibility in large organisations. The understanding of CSR has evolved since then and its scope has now broadened from mere compliance to corporate laws to active alignment of internal business goals with externally set societal aspirations. Unfortunately, the significance of this multidimensional concept within the small and medium enterprise (SME) sector has continued to be (...)
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  • Effective Elements to Establish an Ethical Infrastructure: An Exploratory Study of SMEs in the Madrid Region.José Luis Fernández & Javier Camacho - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (1):113-131.
    The purpose of this study is to identify the elements that can be implemented to achieve an ethical infrastructure, in small and medium enterprises. The ethical infrastructure is considered as a set of formal and informal systems, leadership, climate and culture, related to ethical issues. The research was carried out through interviews and focus groups with managers from 28 companies in Madrid, all signatories to the Global Compact. The identified key elements in SMEs are leadership, informal managerial and formal communication. (...)
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  • Adam Smith’s Contribution to Business Ethics, Then and Now.Michael Gonin - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (1):221-236.
    Smith defines the business enterprise primarily as the endeavor of an individual who remains fully embedded in the broader society and subject to its moral demands. For him, the conceptions of the local community and its normative framework, of the enterprise, and of the individuals within it need to be aligned with each other and developed together. Over time, four processes have, however, led to a widening gap between the business world and the local community. These are the dissemination of (...)
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  • CSR and Small Business in a European Policy Context: The Five “C”s of CSR and Small Business Research Agenda 2007.Laura J. Spence - 2007 - Business and Society Review 112 (4):533-552.