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  1. How to Tackle the Conundrum of Quality Appraisal in Systematic Reviews of Normative Literature/Information? Analysing the Problems of Three Possible Strategies.Marcel Mertz - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):1-12.
    In the last years, there has been an increase in publication of systematic reviews of normative literature or of normative information in bioethics. The aim of a systematic review is to search, select, analyse and synthesise literature in a transparent and systematic way in order to provide a comprehensive and unbiased overview of the information sought, predominantly as a basis for informed decision-making in health care. Traditionally, one part of the procedure when conducting a systematic review is an appraisal of (...)
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  • Instrumentalist Analyses of the Functions of Ethics Concept-Principles: A Proposal for Synergetic Empirical and Conceptual Enrichment.Eric Racine, M. Ariel Cascio, Marjorie Montreuil & Aline Bogossian - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (4):253-278.
    Bioethics has made a compelling case for the role of experience and empirical research in ethics. This may explain why the movement for empirical ethics has such a firm grounding in bioethics. However, the theoretical framework according to which empirical research contributes to ethics—and the specific role it can or should play—remains manifold and unclear. In this paper, we build from pragmatic theory stressing the importance of experience and outcomes in establishing the meaning of ethics concepts. We then propose three (...)
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  • Vulnerability of Pregnant Women in Clinical Research.Indira S. E. van der Zande, Rieke van der Graaf, Martijn A. Oudijk & Johannes J. M. van Delden - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (10):657-663.
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  • A Systematic Review of Empirical Bioethics Methodologies.Rachel Davies, Jonathan C. S. Ives & Michael Dunn - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):15.
    Despite the increased prevalence of bioethics research that seeks to use empirical data to answer normative research questions, there is no consensus as to what an appropriate methodology for this would be. This review aims to search the literature, present and critically discuss published Empirical Bioethics methodologies.
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  • Systematic Reviews in Bioethics: Types, Challenges, and Value.R. Mcdougall - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (1):89-97.
    There has recently been interest in applying the techniques of systematic review to bioethics literature. In this paper, I identify the three models of systematic review proposed to date in bioethics: systematic reviews of empirical bioethics research, systematic reviews of normative bioethics literature, and systematic reviews of reasons. I argue that all three types yield information useful to scholarship in bioethics, yet they also face significant challenges particularly in relation to terminology and time. Drawing on my recent experience conducting a (...)
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  • A Plea for Minimally Biased Naturalistic Philosophy.Andrea Polonioli - 2019 - Synthese 196 (9):3841-3867.
    Naturalistic philosophers rely on literature search and review in a number of ways and for different purposes. Yet this article shows how processes of literature search and review are likely to be affected by widespread and systematic biases. A solution to this problem is offered here. Whilst the tradition of systematic reviews of literature from scientific disciplines has been neglected in philosophy, systematic reviews are important tools that minimize bias in literature search and review and allow for greater reproducibility and (...)
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  • In Pursuit of Goodness in Bioethics: Analysis of an Exemplary Article.Bjørn Hofmann & Morten Magelssen - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):60.
    What is good bioethics? Addressing this question is key for reinforcing and developing the field. In particular, a discussion of potential quality criteria can heighten awareness and contribute to the quality of bioethics publications. Accordingly, the objective of this article is threefold: first, we want to identify a set of criteria for quality in bioethics. Second, we want to illustrate the added value of a novel method: in-depth analysis of a single article with the aim of deriving quality criteria. The (...)
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  • Smart-Glasses: Exposing and Elucidating the Ethical Issues.Bjørn Hofmann, Dušan Haustein & Laurens Landeweerd - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (3):701-721.
    The objective of this study is to provide an overview over the ethical issues relevant to the assessment, implementation, and use of smart-glasses. The purpose of the overview is to facilitate deliberation, decision making, and the formation of knowledge and norms for this emerging technology. An axiological question-based method for human cognitive enhancement including an extensive literature search on smart-glasses is used to identify relevant ethical issues. The search is supplemented with relevant ethical issues identified in the literature on human (...)
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  • The Concept of “Genetic Responsibility” and Its Meanings: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Medical Sociology Literature.Jon Leefmann, Manuel Schaper & Silke Schicktanz - 2017 - Frontiers in Sociology 18 (1):1-22.
    The acquisition of genetic information (GI) confronts both the affected individuals and healthcare providers with difficult, ambivalent decisions. Genetic responsibility (GR) has become a key concept in both ethical and socioempirical literature addressing how and by whom decision-making with respect to the morality of GI is approached. However, despite its prominence, the precise meaning of the concept of GR remains vague. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review on the usage of the concept of GR in qualitative, socioempirical studies, to (...)
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  • Steps Toward Improving Ethical Evaluation in Health Technology Assessment: A Proposed Framework.Nazila Assasi, Jean-Eric Tarride, Daria O’Reilly & Lisa Schwartz - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):34.
    BackgroundWhile evaluation of ethical aspects in health technology assessment has gained much attention during the past years, the integration of ethics in HTA practice still presents many challenges. In response to the increasing demand for expansion of health technology assessment methodology to include ethical issues more systematically, this article reports on a multi-stage study that aimed at construction of a framework for improving the integration of ethics in HTA.MethodsThe framework was developed through the following phases: 1) a systematic review and (...)
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  • A Plea for Minimally Biased Empirical Philosophy.Andrea Polonioli - unknown
    Naturalistic philosophers rely on literature search and review in a number of ways and for different purposes. Yet this article shows how processes of literature search and review are likely to be affected by widespread and systematic biases. A solution to this problem is offered here. Whilst the tradition of systematic reviews of literature from scientific disciplines has been neglected in philosophy, systematic reviews are important tools that minimize bias in literature search and review and allow for greater reproducibility and (...)
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  • Ethical Issues Surrounding the Provider Initiated Opt – Out Prenatal HIV Screening Practice in Sub – Saharan Africa: A Literature Review.Luchuo Engelbert Bain, Kris Dierickx & Kristien Hens - 2015 - BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1-12.
    BackgroundPrevention of mother to child transmission of HIV remains a key public health priority in most developing countries. The provider Initiated Opt – Out Prenatal HIV Screening Approach, recommended by the World Health Organization lately has been adopted and translated into policy in most Sub – Saharan African countries. To better ascertain the ethical reasons for or against the use of this approach, we carried out a literature review of the ethics literature.MethodsPapers published in English and French Languages between 1990 (...)
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  • The Use of Empirical Research in Bioethics: A Survey of Researchers in Twelve European Countries.Tenzin Wangmo & Veerle Provoost - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):79.
    The use of empirical research methods in bioethics has been increasing in the last decades. It has resulted in discussions about the ‘empirical turn of bioethics’ and raised questions related to the value of empirical work for this field, methodological questions about its quality and rigor, and how this integration of the normative and the empirical can be achieved. The aim of this paper is to describe the attitudes of bioethics researchers in this field towards the use of empirical research, (...)
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  • Conscientious Objection to Participation in Abortion by Midwives and Nurses: A Systematic Review of Reasons.Valerie Fleming, Lucy Frith, Ans Luyben & Beate Ramsayer - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):31.
    Freedom of conscience is a core element of human rights respected by most European countries. It allows abortion through the inclusion of a conscience clause, which permits opting out of providing such services. However, the grounds for invoking conscientious objection lack clarity. Our aim in this paper is to take a step in this direction by carrying out a systematic review of reasons by midwives and nurses for declining, on conscience grounds, to participate in abortion. We conducted a systematic review (...)
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  • Did We Describe What You Meant? Findings and Methodological Discussion of an Empirical Validation Study for a Systematic Review of Reasons.Marcel Mertz, Neema Sofaer & Daniel Strech - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):69.
    The systematic review of reasons is a new way to obtain comprehensive information about specific ethical topics. One such review was carried out for the question of why post-trial access to trial drugs should or need not be provided. The objective of this study was to empirically validate this review using an author check method. The article also reports on methodological challenges faced by our study.
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  • What Do the Various Principles of Justice Mean Within the Concept of Benefit Sharing?Bege Dauda, Yvonne Denier & Kris Dierickx - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (2):281-293.
    The concept of benefit sharing pertains to the act of giving something in return to the participants, communities, and the country that have participated in global health research or bioprospecting activities. One of the key concerns of benefit sharing is the ethical justifications or reasons to support the practice of the concept in global health research and bioprospecting. This article evaluates one of such ethical justifications and its meaning to benefit sharing, namely justice. We conducted a systematic review to map (...)
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  • The Evolution of Public Health Ethics Frameworks: Systematic Review of Moral Values and Norms in Public Health Policy.Mahmoud Abbasi, Reza Majdzadeh, Alireza Zali, Abbas Karimi & Forouzan Akrami - 2018 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 21 (3):387-402.
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