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  1. What Are Dual Process Models? Implications for Cultural Analysis in Sociology.Omar Lizardo, Robert Mowry, Brandon Sepulvado, Dustin S. Stoltz, Marshall A. Taylor, Justin Van Ness & Michael Wood - 2016 - Sociological Theory 34 (4):287-310.
    In this paper we introduce the idea of the dual process framework (DPF), an interdisciplinary approach to the study of learning, memory, thinking, and action. Departing from the successful reception of Vaisey (2009), we suggest that intradisciplinary debates in sociology regarding the merits of “dual process” formulations can benefit from a better understanding of the theoretical foundations of these models in cognitive and social psychology. We argue that the key is to distinguish the general DPF from more specific applications to (...)
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  • Morality Play: A Model for Developing Games of Moral Expertise.Dan Staines, Paul Formosa & Malcolm Ryan - forthcoming - Games and Culture.
    According to cognitive psychologists, moral decision-making is a dual-process phenomenon involving two types of cognitive processes: explicit reasoning and implicit intuition. Moral development involves training and integrating both types of cognitive processes through a mix of instruction, practice, and reflection. Serious games are an ideal platform for this kind of moral training, as they provide safe spaces for exploring difficult moral problems and practicing the skills necessary to resolve them. In this article, we present Morality Play, a model for the (...)
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  • Base-Rate Respect: From Ecological Rationality to Dual Processes.Aron K. Barbey & Steven A. Sloman - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):241-254.
    The phenomenon of base-rate neglect has elicited much debate. One arena of debate concerns how people make judgments under conditions of uncertainty. Another more controversial arena concerns human rationality. In this target article, we attempt to unpack the perspectives in the literature on both kinds of issues and evaluate their ability to explain existing data and their conceptual coherence. From this evaluation we conclude that the best account of the data should be framed in terms of a dual-process model of (...)
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  • System Structure and Cognitive Ability as Predictors of Performance in Dynamic System Control Tasks.Jan Hundertmark, Daniel V. Holt, Andreas Fischer, Nadia Said & Helen Fischer - 2015 - Journal of Dynamic Decision Making 1 (1).
    In dynamic system control, cognitive mechanisms and abilities underlying performance may vary depending on the nature of the task. We therefore investigated the effects of system structure and its interaction with cognitive abilities on system control performance. A sample of 127 university students completed a series of different system control tasks that were manipulated in terms of system size and recurrent feedback, either with or without a cognitive load manipulation. Cognitive abilities assessed included reasoning ability, working memory capacity, and cognitive (...)
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  • Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data.Robert Tobias - 2009 - Psychological Review 116 (2):408-438.
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  • A New Look at Habits and the Habit-Goal Interface.Wendy Wood & David T. Neal - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (4):843-863.
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  • Real Objects in Fictional Situations: An Argument for I-Desires as Indispensable States.Yuchen Guo - 2018 - Manuscrito 41 (2):29-52.
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  • Anxiety and Threat-Related Attention: Cognitive-Motivational Framework and Treatment.Karin Mogg & Brendan P. Bradley - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (3):225-240.
  • Short Term Gains, Long Term Pains: How Cues About State Aid Learning in Dynamic Environments.Bradley C. Love Todd M. Gureckis - 2009 - Cognition 113 (3):293.
  • Incubation, Insight, and Creative Problem Solving: A Unified Theory and a Connectionist Model.Ron Sun - 2010 - Psychological Review 117 (3):994-1024.
    This article proposes a unified framework for understanding creative problem solving, namely, the explicit–implicit interaction theory. This new theory of creative problem solving constitutes an attempt at providing a more unified explanation of relevant phenomena (in part by reinterpreting/integrating various fragmentary existing theories of incubation and insight). The explicit–implicit interaction theory relies mainly on 5 basic principles, namely, (a) the coexistence of and the difference between explicit and implicit knowledge, (b) the simultaneous involvement of implicit and explicit processes in most (...)
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  • The Role of Representation in Bayesian Reasoning: Correcting Common Misconceptions.Gerd Gigerenzer & Ulrich Hoffrage - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):264-267.
    The terms nested sets, partitive frequencies, inside-outside view, and dual processes add little but confusion to our original analysis (Gigerenzer & Hoffrage 1995; 1999). The idea of nested set was introduced because of an oversight; it simply rephrases two of our equations. Representation in terms of chances, in contrast, is a novel contribution yet consistent with our computational analysis System 1.dual process theory” is: Unless the two processes are defined, this distinction can account post hoc for almost everything. In contrast, (...)
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  • A Cognitive Social Simulation of Tribal Survival Strategies: The Importance of Cognitive and Motivational Factors.Ron Sun & Pierson Fleischer - 2012 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 12 (3-4):287-321.
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  • Moral Motivation, Moral Phenomenology, And The Alief/Belief Distinction.Uriah Kriegel - 2012 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (3):469-486.
    In a series of publications, Tamar Gendler has argued for a distinction between belief and what she calls ?alief?. Gendler's argument for the distinction is a serviceability argument: the distinction is indispensable for explaining a whole slew of phenomena, typically involving ?belief-behaviour mismatch?. After embedding Gendler's distinction in a dual-process model of moral cognition, I argue here that the distinction also suggests a possible (dis)solution of what is perhaps the organizing problem of contemporary moral psychology: the apparent tension between the (...)
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  • Consciousness, Context, and Know-How.Charles Wallis - 2008 - Synthese 160 (1):123 - 153.
    In this paper I criticize the most significant recent examples of the practical knowledge analysis of knowledge-how in the philosophical literature: David Carr [1979, Mind, 88, 394–409; 1981a, American Philosophical Quarterly, 18, 53–61; 1981b, Journal of Philosophy of Education, 15(1), 87–96] and Stanley & Williamson [2001, Journal of Philosophy, 98(8), 411–444]. I stress the importance of know-how in our contemporary understanding of the mind, and offer the beginnings of a treatment of know-how capable of providing insight in to the use (...)
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  • Towards Better Computational Models of the Balance Scale Task: A Reply to Shultz and Takane.Han L. J. van der Maas, Philip T. Quinlan & Brenda R. J. Jansen - 2007 - Cognition 103 (3):473-479.
  • When Should We Expect Indirect Effects in Human Contingency Learning.D. Sternberg & James L. McClelland - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 206--211.
  • Computational Models of Implicit Learning.Axel Cleeremans & Zoltán Dienes - 2008 - In Ron Sun (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 396--421.
  • Knowledge Integration in Creative Problem Solving.Ron Sun - unknown
    Most psychological theories of problem solving have focused on modeling explicit processes that gradually bring the solver closer to the solution in a mostly explicit and deliberative way. This approach to problem solving is typically inefficient when the problem is too complex, ill-understood, or ambiguous. In such a case, a ‘creative’ approach to problem solving might be more appropriate. In the present paper, we propose a computational psychological model implementing the Explicit-Implicit Interaction theory of creative problem solving that involves integrating (...)
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  • Mixed Effects of Distractor Tasks on Incubation.Ron Sun - unknown
    suggests that incubation is a diverse phenomenon, involving diverse cognitive processes. Hence, distracting activities can..
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  • Motivational Representations Within a Computational Cognitive Architecture.Ron Sun - unknown
    This paper discusses essential motivational representations necessary for a comprehensive computational cognitive architecture. It hypothesizes the need for implicit drive representations, as well as explicit goal representations. Drive representations consist of primary drives — both low-level primary drives (concerned mostly with basic physiological needs) and high-level primary drives (concerned more with social needs), as well as derived (secondary) drives. On the basis of drives, explicit goals may be generated on the fly during an agent’s interaction with various situations. These motivational (...)
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  • Social Institution, Cognition, and Survival: A Cognitive–Social Simulation.Ron Sun & Isaac Naveh - 2007 - Mind and Society 6 (2):115-142.
    Although computational models of cognitive agents that incorporate a wide range of cognitive functionalities have been developed in cognitive science, most of the work in social simulation still assumes rudimentary cognition on the part of the agents. In contrast, in this work, the interaction of cognition and social structures/processes is explored, through simulating survival strategies of tribal societies. The results of the simulation demonstrate interactions between cognitive and social factors. For example, we show that cognitive capabilities and tendencies may be (...)
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  • The Importance of Cognitive Architectures: An Analysis Based on CLARION.Ron Sun - unknown
    Research in computational cognitive modeling investigates the nature of cognition through developing process-based understanding by specifying computational models of mechanisms (including representations) and processes. In this enterprise, a cognitive architecture is a domaingeneric computational cognitive model that may be used for a broad, multiple-level, multipledomain analysis of behavior. It embodies generic descriptions of cognition in computer algorithms and programs. Developing cognitive architectures is a difficult but important task. In this article, discussions of issues and challenges in developing cognitive architectures will (...)
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  • Modeling Meta-Cognition in a Cognitive Architecture.Ron Sun, Xi Zhang & Robert Mathews - unknown
    This paper describes how meta-cognitive processes (i.e., the self monitoring and regulating of cognitive processes) may be captured within a cognitive architecture Clarion. Some currently popular cognitive architectures lack sufficiently complex built-in meta-cognitive mechanisms. However, a sufficiently complex meta-cognitive mechanism is important, in that it is an essential part of cognition and without it, human cognition may not function properly. We contend that such a meta-cognitive mechanism should be an integral part of a cognitive architecture. Thus such a mechanism has (...)
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  • Predictive Uncertainty in Auditory Sequence Processing.Niels Chr Hansen & Marcus T. Pearce - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  • Sculpting the Space of Actions. Explaining Human Action by Integrating Intentions and Mechanisms.Machiel Keestra - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Amsterdam
    How can we explain the intentional nature of an expert’s actions, performed without immediate and conscious control, relying instead on automatic cognitive processes? How can we account for the differences and similarities with a novice’s performance of the same actions? Can a naturalist explanation of intentional expert action be in line with a philosophical concept of intentional action? Answering these and related questions in a positive sense, this dissertation develops a three-step argument. Part I considers different methods of explanations in (...)
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  • Theoretical Status of Computational Cognitive Modeling.Ron Sun - unknown
    This article explores the view that computational models of cognition may constitute valid theories of cognition, often in the full sense of the term ‘‘theory”. In this discussion, this article examines various (existent or possible) positions on this issue and argues in favor of the view above. It also connects this issue with a number of other relevant issues, such as the general relationship between theory and data, the validation of models, and the practical benefits of computational modeling. All the (...)
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  • The Phenomenology of Habits: Integrating First-Person and Neuropsychological Studies of Memory.Christian Tewes - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Rule Following and Rule Use in the Balance-Scale Task.Thomas R. Shultz & Yoshio Takane - 2007 - Cognition 103 (3):460-472.
  • How the Dual Process Model of Human Cognition Can Inform Efforts to de‐Implement Ineffective and Harmful Clinical Practices: A Preliminary Model of Unlearning and Substitution.Christian D. Helfrich, Adam J. Rose, Christine W. Hartmann, Leti Bodegom‐Vos, Ian D. Graham, Suzanne J. Wood, Barbara R. Majerczyk, Chester B. Good, Leonard M. Pogach, Sherry L. Ball, David H. Au & David C. Aron - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (1):198-205.
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  • Conceptualizing Changes in Behavior in Intervention Research: The Range of Possible Changes Model.Andres De Los Reyes & Alan E. Kazdin - 2006 - Psychological Review 113 (3):554-583.
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  • Implicit and Explicit Components of Dual Adaptation to Visuomotor Rotations.Mathias Hegele & Herbert Heuer - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):906-917.
    Concurrent adaptation to two different visuomotor transformations has been shown to be possible as long as discriminative contextual cues are available. The authors examined explicit and implicit components of visually cued dual adaptation in younger and older adults. They found that only young adults, but not old adults, produced appropriate adaptive shifts of hand-movement direction to compensate for the visuomotor rotations. Aftereffects, conceived as a measure of implicit knowledge, were only poorly developed. Furthermore, only participants in the younger group exhibited (...)
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  • The Effect of Subjective Awareness Measures on Performance in Artificial Grammar Learning Task.Ivan I. Ivanchei & Nadezhda V. Moroshkina - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 57:116-133.
  • An Integrated Model of Clinical Reasoning: Dual‐Process Theory of Cognition and Metacognition.James A. Marcum - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):954-961.
  • Are People Successful at Learning Sequences of Actions on a Perceptual Matching Task?Reiko Yakushijin & Robert A. Jacobs - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (5):939-962.
    We report the results of an experiment in which human subjects were trained to perform a perceptual matching task. Subjects were asked to manipulate comparison objects until they matched target objects using the fewest manipulations possible. An unusual feature of the experimental task is that efficient performance requires an understanding of the hidden or latent causal structure governing the relationships between actions and perceptual outcomes. We use two benchmarks to evaluate the quality of subjects’ learning. One benchmark is based on (...)
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  • Two Models of Moral Judgment.Shane Bretz & Ron Sun - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S1):4-37.
    This paper compares two theories and their two corresponding computational models of human moral judgment. In order to better address psychological realism and generality of theories of moral judgment, more detailed and more psychologically nuanced models are needed. In particular, a motivationally based theory of moral judgment is developed in this paper that provides a more accurate account of human moral judgment than an existing emotion-reason conflict theory. Simulations based on the theory capture and explain a range of relevant human (...)
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  • Implicit Knowledge and Motor Skill: What People Who Know How to Catch Don’T Know.Nick Reed, Peter McLeod & Zoltan Dienes - 2010 - Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):63-76.
    People are unable to report how they decide whether to move backwards or forwards to catch a ball. When asked to imagine how their angle of elevation of gaze would change when they caught a ball, most people are unable to describe what happens although their interception strategy is based on controlling changes in this angle. Just after catching a ball, many people are unable to recognise a description of how their angle of gaze changed during the catch. Some people (...)
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  • Autonomous Generation of Symbolic Representations Through Subsymbolic Activities.Ron Sun - 2013 - Philosophical Psychology 26 (6):888 - 912.
    This paper explores an approach for autonomous generation of symbolic representations from an agent's subsymbolic activities within the agent-environment interaction. The paper describes a psychologically plausible general framework and its various methods for autonomously creating symbolic representations. The symbol generation is accomplished within, and is intrinsic to, a generic and comprehensive cognitive architecture for capturing a wide variety of psychological processes (namely, CLARION). This work points to ways of obtaining more psychologically/cognitively realistic symbolic and subsymbolic representations within the framework of (...)
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  • Potential of Full Human–Machine Symbiosis Through Truly Intelligent Cognitive Systems.Sun Ron - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-12.
    It is highly likely that, to achieve full human–machine symbiosis, truly intelligent cognitive systems—human-like —may have to be developed first. Such systems should not only be capable of performing human-like thinking, reasoning, and problem solving, but also be capable of displaying human-like motivation, emotion, and personality. In this opinion article, I will argue that such systems are indeed possible and needed to achieve true and full symbiosis with humans. A computational cognitive architecture is used in this article to illustrate, in (...)
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  • Implicit Cognition, Emotion, and Meta-Cognitive Control.Ron Sun & Robert C. Mathews - 2012 - Mind and Society 11 (1):107-119.
    The goal of this research is to understand the interaction of implicit and explicit psychological processes in dealing with emotional distractions and meta-cognitive control of such distractions. The questions are how emotional and meta-cognitive processes can be separated into implicit and explicit components, and how such a separation can be utilized to improve self-regulation of emotion, which can have significant theoretical and practical implications.
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  • Unconscious Symmetrical Inferences: A Role of Consciousness in Event Integration.Diego Alonso, Luis J. Fuentes & Bernhard Hommel - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):386-396.
    Explicit and implicit learning have been attributed to different learning processes that create different types of knowledge structures. Consistent with that claim, our study provides evidence that people integrate stimulus events differently when consciously aware versus unaware of the relationship between the events. In a first, acquisition phase participants sorted words into two categories , which were fully predicted by task-irrelevant primes—the labels of two other, semantically unrelated categories . In a second, test phase participants performed a lexical decision task, (...)
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  • Short-Term Gains, Long-Term Pains: How Cues About State Aid Learning in Dynamic Environments.Todd M. Gureckis & Bradley C. Love - 2009 - Cognition 113 (3):293-313.
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  • Awareness is Awareness is Awareness? Decomposing Different Aspects of Awareness and Their Role in Operant Learning of Pain Sensitivity.Susanne Becker, Dieter Kleinböhl & Rupert Hölzl - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1073-1084.
    Regarding awareness as a consistent concept has contributed to the controversy about implicit learning. The present study emphasized the importance of distinguishing aspects of awareness in order to determine whether learning is implicit. By decomposing awareness into awareness of contingencies, of the procedure being a learning task, and of the reinforcing stimuli, it was demonstrated that implicit operant learning modulated pain sensitivity. All of these aspects of awareness were demonstrated to not be necessary for learning. Additionally, discrimination of contingencies was (...)
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  • Explicit Pre-Training Instruction Does Not Improve Implicit Perceptual-Motor Sequence Learning.Daniel J. Sanchez & Paul J. Reber - 2013 - Cognition 126 (3):341-351.
  • Kinds of Behaviour.Robert Aunger & Valerie Curtis - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (3):317-345.
    Sciences able to identify appropriate analytical units for their domain, their natural kinds, have tended to be more progressive. In the biological sciences, evolutionary natural kinds are adaptations that can be identified by their common history of selection for some function. Human brains are the product of an evolutionary history of selection for component systems which produced behaviours that gave adaptive advantage to their hosts. These structures, behaviour production systems, are the natural kinds that psychology seeks. We argue these can (...)
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  • Dual-Processing Explains Base-Rate Neglect, but Which Dual-Process Theory and How?Jonathan St B. T. Evans & Shira Elqayam - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):261-262.
    We agree that current evolutionary accounts of base-rate neglect are unparsimonious, but we dispute the authors' account of the effect in terms of parallel associative and rule-based processes. We also question their assumption that cueing of nested set relations facilitates performance due to recruitment of explicit reasoning processes. In our account, such reasoning is always involved, but usually unsuccessful.
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  • Roles of Implicit Processes: Instinct, Intuition, and Personality.Ron Sun & Nick Wilson - 2014 - Mind and Society 13 (1):109-134.
    The goal of this research is to explore implicit and explicit processes in shaping an individual’s characteristic behavioral patterns, that is, personality. The questions addressed are how psychological processes may be separated into implicit and explicit types, and how such a separation figures into personality. In particular, it focuses on the role of instinct and intuition in determining personality. This paper argues that personality may be fundamentally based on instincts resulting from basic human motivation, along with related processes, within a (...)
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