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  1. The Rhetoric and Reality of Anthropomorphism in Artificial Intelligence.David Watson - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (3):417-440.
    Artificial intelligence has historically been conceptualized in anthropomorphic terms. Some algorithms deploy biomimetic designs in a deliberate attempt to effect a sort of digital isomorphism of the human brain. Others leverage more general learning strategies that happen to coincide with popular theories of cognitive science and social epistemology. In this paper, I challenge the anthropomorphic credentials of the neural network algorithm, whose similarities to human cognition I argue are vastly overstated and narrowly construed. I submit that three alternative supervised learning (...)
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  • Ethics of the Health-Related Internet of Things: A Narrative Review.Brent Mittelstadt - 2017 - Ethics and Information Technology 19 (3):1-19.
    The internet of things is increasingly spreading into the domain of medical and social care. Internet-enabled devices for monitoring and managing the health and well-being of users outside of traditional medical institutions have rapidly become common tools to support healthcare. Health-related internet of things (H-IoT) technologies increasingly play a key role in health management, for purposes including disease prevention, real-time tele-monitoring of patient’s functions, testing of treatments, fitness and well-being monitoring, medication dispensation, and health research data collection. H-IoT promises many (...)
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  • The Ethics of Algorithms: Mapping the Debate.Brent Mittelstadt, Patrick Allo, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Sandra Wachter & Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Big Data and Society 3 (2).
    In information societies, operations, decisions and choices previously left to humans are increasingly delegated to algorithms, which may advise, if not decide, about how data should be interpreted and what actions should be taken as a result. More and more often, algorithms mediate social processes, business transactions, governmental decisions, and how we perceive, understand, and interact among ourselves and with the environment. Gaps between the design and operation of algorithms and our understanding of their ethical implications can have severe consequences (...)
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  • A Modal Type Theory for Formalizing Trusted Communications.Giuseppe Primiero & Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2012 - Journal of Applied Logic 10 (1):92-114.
    This paper introduces a multi-modal polymorphic type theory to model epistemic processes characterized by trust, defined as a second-order relation affecting the communication process between sources and a receiver. In this language, a set of senders is expressed by a modal prioritized context, whereas the receiver is formulated in terms of a contextually derived modal judgement. Introduction and elimination rules for modalities are based on the polymorphism of terms in the language. This leads to a multi-modal non-homogeneous version of a (...)
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  • What Is the Model of Trust for Multi-agent Systems? Whether or Not E-Trust Applies to Autonomous Agents.Massimo Durante - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3):347-366.
    A socio-cognitive approach to trust can help us envisage a notion of networked trust for multi-agent systems based on different interacting agents. In this framework, the issue is to evaluate whether or not a socio-cognitive analysis of trust can apply to the interactions between human and autonomous agents. Two main arguments support two alternative hypothesis; one suggests that only reliance applies to artificial agents, because predictability of agents’ digital interaction is viewed as an absolute value and human relation is judged (...)
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  • Can We Make Sense of the Notion of Trustworthy Technology?Philip J. Nickel, Maarten Franssen & Peter Kroes - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3):429-444.
    In this paper we raise the question whether technological artifacts can properly speaking be trusted or said to be trustworthy. First, we set out some prevalent accounts of trust and trustworthiness and explain how they compare with the engineer’s notion of reliability. We distinguish between pure rational-choice accounts of trust, which do not differ in principle from mere judgments of reliability, and what we call “motivation-attributing” accounts of trust, which attribute specific motivations to trustworthy entities. Then we consider some examples (...)
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  • Robotrust and Legal Responsibility.Ugo Pagallo - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3):367-379.
    The paper examines some aspects of today’s debate on trust and e-trust and, more specifically, issues of legal responsibility for the production and use of robots. Their impact on human-to-human interaction has produced new problems both in the fields of contractual and extra-contractual liability in that robots negotiate, enter into contracts, establish rights and obligations between humans, while reshaping matters of responsibility and risk in trust relations. Whether or not robotrust concerns human-to-robot or even robot-to-robot relations, there is a new (...)
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  • Trust in Technology: A Distinctive and a Problematic Relation. [REVIEW]Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3):283-286.
    The use of tools and artefacts is a distinctive and problematic phenomenon in the history of humanity, and as such it has been a topic of discussion since the beginning of Western culture, from the myths of the Ancient Greek through Humanism and Romanticism to Heidegger. Several questionable aspects have been brought to the fore: the relation between technology and arts, the effects of the use of technology both on the world and on the user and the nature of the (...)
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  • The Case of Online Trust.Matteo Turilli, Antonino Vaccaro & Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3):333-345.
    This paper contributes to the debate on online trust addressing the problem of whether an online environment satisfies the necessary conditions for the emergence of trust. The paper defends the thesis that online environments can foster trust, and it does so in three steps. Firstly, the arguments proposed by the detractors of online trust are presented and analysed. Secondly, it is argued that trust can emerge in uncertain and risky environments and that it is possible to trust online identities when (...)
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  • In AI We Trust Incrementally: A Multi-Layer Model of Trust to Analyze Human-Artificial Intelligence Interactions.Andrea Ferrario, Michele Loi & Eleonora Viganò - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-17.
    Real engines of the artificial intelligence revolution, machine learning models, and algorithms are embedded nowadays in many services and products around us. As a society, we argue it is now necessary to transition into a _phronetic_ paradigm focused on the ethical dilemmas stemming from the conception and application of AIs to define actionable recommendations as well as normative solutions. However, both academic research and society-driven initiatives are still quite far from clearly defining a solid program of study and intervention. In (...)
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  • Distributed Morality in an Information Society.Luciano Floridi - 2013 - Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):727-743.
    The phenomenon of distributed knowledge is well-known in epistemic logic. In this paper, a similar phenomenon in ethics, somewhat neglected so far, is investigated, namely distributed morality. The article explains the nature of distributed morality, as a feature of moral agency, and explores the implications of its occurrence in advanced information societies. In the course of the analysis, the concept of infraethics is introduced, in order to refer to the ensemble of moral enablers, which, although morally neutral per se, can (...)
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  • Recent Developments in Computing and Philosophy.Anthony F. Beavers - 2011 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 42 (2):385-397.
    Because the label "computing and philosophy" can seem like an ad hoc attempt to tie computing to philosophy, it is important to explain why it is not, what it studies (or does) and how it differs from research in, say, "computing and history," or "computing and biology". The American Association for History and Computing is "dedicated to the reasonable and productive marriage of history and computer technology for teaching, researching and representing history through scholarship and public history" (http://theaahc.org). More pervasive, (...)
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  • Can We Trust Robots?Mark Coeckelbergh - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):53-60.
    Can we trust robots? Responding to the literature on trust and e-trust, this paper asks if the question of trust is applicable to robots, discusses different approaches to trust, and analyses some preconditions for trust. In the course of the paper a phenomenological-social approach to trust is articulated, which provides a way of thinking about trust that puts less emphasis on individual choice and control than the contractarian-individualist approach. In addition, the argument is made that while robots are neither human (...)
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  • Developing Artificial Agents Worthy of Trust: “Would You Buy a Used Car From This Artificial Agent?”. [REVIEW]F. S. Grodzinsky, K. W. Miller & M. J. Wolf - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (1):17-27.
    There is a growing literature on the concept of e-trust and on the feasibility and advisability of “trusting” artificial agents. In this paper we present an object-oriented model for thinking about trust in both face-to-face and digitally mediated environments. We review important recent contributions to this literature regarding e-trust in conjunction with presenting our model. We identify three important types of trust interactions and examine trust from the perspective of a software developer. Too often, the primary focus of research in (...)
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  • The Case of Online Trust.Matteo Turilli, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Antonino Vaccaro - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):333-345.
    This paper contributes to the debate on online trust addressing the problem of whether an online environment satisfies the necessary conditions for the emergence of trust. The paper defends the thesis that online environments can foster trust, and it does so in three steps. Firstly, the arguments proposed by the detractors of online trust are presented and analysed. Secondly, it is argued that trust can emerge in uncertain and risky environments and that it is possible to trust online identities when (...)
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  • The Case for E-Trust.Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (1):1-3.
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  • Can We Make Sense of the Notion of Trustworthy Technology?Philip J. Nickel, Maarten Franssen & Peter Kroes - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (3-4):429-444.
    In this paper we raise the question whether technological artifacts can properly speaking be trusted or said to be trustworthy. First, we set out some prevalent accounts of trust and trustworthiness and explain how they compare with the engineer’s notion of reliability. We distinguish between pure rational-choice accounts of trust, which do not differ in principle from mere judgments of reliability, and what we call “motivation-attributing” accounts of trust, which attribute specific motivations to trustworthy entities. Then we consider some examples (...)
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  • An Information-Based Solution for the Puzzle of Testimony and Trust.Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2010 - Social Epistemology 24 (4):285-299.
    In this paper, I offer a contribution to the debate on testimony that rests on three elements: the definition of semantic information, the analysis of trust as a second?order property of first?order relations, and Floridi?s Network Theory of Account (NTA). I argue that testimony transmits semantic information and it is neither grounded on trust nor justified by it. Instead, I show that testimony is an occurrence of a first?order relation of communication affected by the second?order property of trust. I then (...)
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  • The Semantics of Untrustworthiness.Giuseppe Primiero & Laszlo Kosolosky - 2016 - Topoi 35 (1):253-266.
    We offer a formal treatment of the semantics of both complete and incomplete mistrustful or distrustful information transmissions. The semantics of such relations is analysed in view of rules that define the behaviour of a receiving agent. We justify this approach in view of human agent communications and secure system design. We further specify some properties of such relations.
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  • Data Philanthropy and Individual Rights.Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (1):1-5.
  • The Debate on the Moral Responsibilities of Online Service Providers.Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (6):1575-1603.
    Online service providers —such as AOL, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Twitter—significantly shape the informational environment and influence users’ experiences and interactions within it. There is a general agreement on the centrality of OSPs in information societies, but little consensus about what principles should shape their moral responsibilities and practices. In this article, we analyse the main contributions to the debate on the moral responsibilities of OSPs. By endorsing the method of the levels of abstract, we first analyse the moral responsibilities (...)
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  • Trusting Digital Technologies Correctly.Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (4):565-568.
  • Levels of Trust in the Context of Machine Ethics.Herman T. Tavani - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (1):75-90.
    Are trust relationships involving humans and artificial agents possible? This controversial question has become a hotly debated topic in the emerging field of machine ethics. Employing a model of trust advanced by Buechner and Tavani :39–51, 2011), I argue that the “short answer” to this question is yes. However, I also argue that a more complete and nuanced answer will require us to articulate the various levels of trust that are also possible in environments comprising both human agents and AAs. (...)
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  • Trust and Multi-Agent Systems: Applying the Diffuse, Default Model of Trust to Experiments Involving Artificial Agents. [REVIEW]Jeff Buechner & Herman T. Tavani - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (1):39-51.
    We argue that the notion of trust, as it figures in an ethical context, can be illuminated by examining research in artificial intelligence on multi-agent systems in which commitment and trust are modeled. We begin with an analysis of a philosophical model of trust based on Richard Holton’s interpretation of P. F. Strawson’s writings on freedom and resentment, and we show why this account of trust is difficult to extend to artificial agents (AAs) as well as to other non-human entities. (...)
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