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  1. The Ethical Profile of Global Marketing Negotiators.Jamal A. Al-Khatib, Mohammed I. Al-Habib, Naima Bogari & Najah Salamah - 2016 - Business Ethics: A European Review 25 (2):172-186.
    As international trade and business opportunities grow globally, insight into trading partners’ strategies is essential. One of the major strategies that impact trading partners’ relationships is negotiation strategy employed by each partner. These strategies assume even greater importance when these strategies have ethical content. This study examines the effects of marketing executives’ preferred ethical ideologies, opportunism and Machiavellianism on their perceived appropriateness of unethical negotiation tactics. Utilizing a sample of 995 marketing executives from six countries, cluster analysis and multivariate analysis (...)
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  • Generation Y’s Ethical Ideology and Its Potential Workplace Implications.Rebecca A. VanMeter, Douglas B. Grisaffe, Lawrence B. Chonko & James A. Roberts - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (1):93-109.
    Generation Y is a cohort of the population larger than the baby boom generation. Consisting of approximately 80 million people born between 1981 and 2000, Generation Y is the most recent cohort to enter the workforce. Workplaces are being redefined and organizations are being pressed to adapt as this new wave of workers is infused into business environments. One critical aspect of this phenomenon not receiving sufficient research attention is the impact of Gen Y ethical beliefs and ethical conduct in (...)
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  • Individual Differences in the Acceptability of Unethical Information Technology Practices: The Case of Machiavellianism and Ethical Ideology.Susan J. Winter, Antonis C. Stylianou & Robert A. Giacalone - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (3):275-296.
    While information technologies present organizations with opportunities to become more competitive, unsettled social norms and lagging legislation guiding the use of these technologies present organizations and individuals with ethical dilemmas. This paper presents two studies investigating the relationship between intellectual property and privacy attitudes, Machiavellianism and Ethical Ideology, and working in R&D and computer literacy in the form of programming experience. In Study 1, Machiavellians believed it was more acceptable to ignore the intellectual property and privacy rights of others. Programmers (...)
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  • The Relationships Between Ethical Climates, Ethical Ideologies and Organisational Commitment Within Indonesian Higher Education Institutions.Martinus Parnawa Putranta & Russel Philip John Kingshott - 2011 - Journal of Academic Ethics 9 (1):43-60.
    This research aimed to assess the potential of alternatives to extrinsic pecuniary rewards for cultivating employees’ commitment in denominational higher education institutions in Indonesia. Two ethics-related variables, namely ethical climates and ethical ideologies, were chosen as possible predictors. A model delineating the nexus between ethical climates types, ethical ideologies, and various forms of organisational commitment was developed and tested. A two-step structural equation modelling procedure was used as the primary means in testing the hypothesised relationships. The research involved staff of (...)
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  • Ethical Ideologies and Older Consumer Perceptions of Unethical Sales Tactics.Rosemary P. Ramsey, Greg W. Marshall, Mark W. Johnston & Dawn R. Deeter-Schmelz - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (2):191-207.
    Demographic differences among consumer groups have become increasingly important to the development of marketing strategies. Marketers depend heavily on the sales force to implement strategies at the consumer level and, not surprisingly, different groups may view the salesperson’s role differently. Unfortunately, unethical sales practices targeted at various consumer groups, and especially at seniors, have been utilized as well. The purpose of this study is to provide initial empirical evidence of the ethical ideological make-up of four age segments outlined by Strauss (...)
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  • Influence of Ethical Ideology on Job Stress.Abhishek Shukla & Rajeev Srivastava - 2017 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 6 (2):233-254.
    The relationship between ethical ideology and job stress appears to be complex. This study is based on a model presented by Forsyth, showing two dimensions that play an important role in ethical evaluation and behavior. Based on a survey of 561 employees of hotel industry in India, ethical ideologies were found to be negatively associated with job stress. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlations and multiple regressions. The result showed that relativism is negatively correlated with job stress. Further, it (...)
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  • Ethical Judgments: What Do We Know, Where Do We Go? [REVIEW]Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):575-597.
    Investigations into ethical judgments generally seem fuzzy as to the relevant research domain. We first attempted to clarify the construct and determine domain parameters. This attempt required addressing difficulties associated with pinpointing relevant literature, most notably the varied nomenclature used to refer to ethical judgments (individual evaluations of actions’ ethicality). Given this variation in construct nomenclature and the difficulties it presented in identifying pertinent focal studies, we elected to focus on research that cited papers featuring prominent and often-used measures of (...)
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  • The Ethics of Insurance Professionals: Comparison of Personal Versus Professional Ethics. [REVIEW]Kevin L. Eastman, Jacqueline K. Eastman & Alan D. Eastman - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (9):951 - 962.
    This paper considers the level of ethics for insurance professionals for professional situations (measured with three insurance scenarios) compared to personal (consumer) situations (measured by Muncy and Vitell's 1992 Consumer Ethics Scale). The results of the study illustrate that there are significant differences in the ethical behavior of insurance professionals in professional versus personal situations. The authors found that insurance professionals are more likely to actively engage in unethical behavior in order to benefit professionally than in a personal setting. In (...)
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  • Ethical Ideology and Ethical Judgments in the Portuguese Accounting Profession.Pedro Augusto Marques & José Azevedo-Pereira - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (2):227-242.
    The purpose of the present study is to examine the attitudes of Portuguese chartered accountants with respect to questions of ethical nature that can arise in their professional activity. Respondents were asked to respond to the Ethics Position Questionnaire developed by Forsyth (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39(1), 175–184, 1980), in order to determine their idealism and relativism levels. Subsequently, they answered questions about five scenarios related to accounting practices, with the objective of measuring their ethical judgments. Based on (...)
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  • The Effects of Managers' Moral Philosophy on Project Decision Under Agency Problem Conditions.Cheng-Li Huang & Bao-Guang Chang - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (4):595 - 611.
    This study derives an improved model of managers' decision-making behavior regarding possibly failing projects. Instead of adopting cognitive moral development used by Rutledge and Karim (Accounting, Organization and Society 24, 173-184, 1999) this investigation uses the agency theory framework to consider individual moral philosophy for the improvement of decisions regarding possibly failing projects. This research hypothesizes that a manager with low relativism has a stronger tendency to discontinue a possibly failing project than one with high relativism when agency problem are (...)
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  • When Idealists Evade Taxes: The Influence of Personal Moral Philosophy on Attitudes to Tax Evasion – a Lebanese Study.Yusuf M. Sidani, Abdul Jalil Ghanem & Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas - 2014 - Business Ethics: A European Review 23 (2):183-196.
    This paper explores attitudes regarding tax evasion and the relationship between personal moral philosophy and such attitudes in a weak tax environment. The results confirm the multidimensionality of tax evasion attitudes. Idealism was negatively related to self-interest tax evasion attitudes while relativism was positively related to such attitudes. Idealism was also positively related to tax evasion attitudes stemming from concerns about the justice of the tax system. Idealists in a weak tax environment seemingly go through a cognitive reframing process where (...)
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  • An Emotion-Based Model of Salesperson Ethical Behaviors.Raj Agnihotri, Adam Rapp, Prabakar Kothandaraman & Rakesh K. Singh - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 109 (2):243-257.
    Academic research studies examining the ethical attitudes and behaviors of salespeople have produced several frameworks that explore the ethical decision-making processes to which salespeople adhere when faced with ethical dilemmas. Past literature enriches our understanding; however, a critical review of the relevant literature suggests that an emotional route to salesperson ethical decision-making has yet to be explored. Given the fact that individuals’ emotional capacities play an important role in decision-making when faced with an ethical dilemma, there is a need for (...)
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  • Psychometric Properties of the Reidenbach–Robin Multidimensional Ethics Scale.Joan Marie McMahon & Robert J. Harvey - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (1):27-39.
    The factor structure of the Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES; Reidenbach and Robin: 1988, Journal of Business Ethics 7, 871–879; 1990, Journal of Business Ethics 9, 639–653) was examined for the 8-item short form (N = 328) and the original 30-item pool (N = 260). The objectives of the study were: to verify the dimensionality of the MES; to increase the amount of true cross-scenario variance through the use of 18 scenarios varying in moral intensity (Jones: 1991, Academy of Management Review (...)
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  • The Ethical Orientations of Chinese Auditors and the Effect on the Judgements They Make.Gordon Woodbine, Ying Han Fan & Glennda Scully - 2012 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 1 (2):195-216.
    A study of 612 CPAs employed in four separate regions of the People’s Republic of China shows that they exhibit ethical orientations that are not significantly different from one another and that they do not, as a group identify with the Subjectivist description provided in the Forsyth et al. (Journal of Business Ethics 8(83):813–833, 2008) meta-analytic international study involving the Ethical Position Questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis did however establish the validity of the instrument as a measure of idealistic and relativistic (...)
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  • Ethical Antecedents of Cheating Intentions: Evidence of Mediation. [REVIEW]Jeremy J. Sierra & Michael R. Hyman - 2008 - Journal of Academic Ethics 6 (1):51--66.
    Although the pedagogy literature indicates significant relationships between cheating intentions and both personal and situational factors, no published research has examined the joint effect of personal moral philosophy and perceived moral intensity components on students’ cheating intentions. Hence, a structural equation model that relates magnitude of consequences, relativism, and idealism to willingness to cheat, is developed and tested. Using data from undergraduate business students, the empirical results provide insight into these relationships and evidence of mediation for magnitude of consequences on (...)
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  • Monitoring the Ethical Use of Sales Technology: An Exploratory Field Investigation. [REVIEW]Victoria Bush, Alan J. Bush & Linda Orr - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 95 (2):239 - 257.
    The use of technology in marketing has become an increasingly important competitive tool in developing and maintaining efficient and productive customer relationships. However, the ethics of using this technology has received little attention. This study investigates how and if marketing organizations are adapting their ethics policies to incorporate use of sales technology (ST). Based on in-depth interviews with executives from a variety of highly regulated to nonregulated business-to-business and business-to-consumer industries, our results show that, although most organizations indeed have codes (...)
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  • The Effects of Managers’ Moral Philosophy on Project Decision Under Agency Problem Conditions.Cheng-Li Huang & Bao-Guang Chang - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (4):595-611.
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