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  1. Research Travel and Disciplinary Identities in the University of Cambridge, 1885–1955.Michael Heffernan & Heike Jöns - 2013 - British Journal for the History of Science 46 (2):255-286.
    This article considers the role of overseas academic travel in the development of the modern research university, with particular reference to the University of Cambridge from the 1880s to the 1950s. The Cambridge academic community, relatively sedentary at the beginning of this period, became progressively more mobile and globalized through the early twentieth century, facilitated by regular research sabbaticals. The culture of research travel diffused at varying rates, and with differing consequences, across the arts and humanities and the field, laboratory (...)
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  • The Coming of Age of the Academic Career: Differentiation and Professionalization of German Academic Positions From the 19th Century to the Present.Cathelijn J. F. Waaijer - 2015 - Minerva 53 (1):43-67.
    In modern academic career systems there are a large number of entry positions, much smaller numbers of intermediate positions, and still fewer full professorships. We examine how this system has developed in Germany, the country where the modern academic system was introduced, tracing the historical development of academic positions since the early 19th century. We show both a differentiation and professionalization. At first, professorships and private lecturer positions were the only formal positions, but later, lower formal academic positions emerged. Over (...)
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