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  1. Zoomorphism.Bence Nanay - 2021 - Erkenntnis 86 (1):171-186.
    Anthropomorphism is the methodology of attributing human-like mental states to animals. Zoomorphism is the converse of this: it is the attribution of animal-like mental states to humans. Zoomorphism proceeds by first understanding what kind of mental states animals have and then attributing these mental states to humans. Zoomorphism has been widely used as scientific methodology especially in cognitive neuroscience. But it has not been taken seriously as a philosophical explanatory paradigm: as a way of explaining the building blocks of the (...)
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  • Passive Frame Theory: A New Synthesis.Ezequiel Morsella, Godwin Christine, Jantz Tiffany, Krieger Stephen & Gazzaley Adam - forthcoming - Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
    Passive frame theory attempts to illuminate what consciousness is, in mechanistic and functional terms; it does not address the “implementation” level of analysis (how neurons instantiate conscious states), an enigma for various disciplines. However, in response to the commentaries, we discuss how our framework provides clues regarding this enigma. In the framework, consciousness is passive albeit essential. Without consciousness, there would not be adaptive skeletomotor action.
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  • Intellectualizing Know How.Benjamin Elzinga - 2019 - Synthese (2):1-20.
    Following Gilbert Ryle’s arguments, many philosophers took it for granted that someone knows how to do something just in case they have the ability to do it. Within the last couple decades, new intellectualists have challenged this longstanding anti-intellectualist assumption. Their central contention is that mere abilities aren’t on the same rational, epistemic level as know how. My goal is to intellectualize know how without over-intellectualizing it. Intelligent behavior is characteristically flexible or responsive to novelty, and the distinctive feature of (...)
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  • On the Remembrance of Things Future: The Psychobiology of Divination.Roland Fischer - 1979 - Diogenes 27 (108):17-38.
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  • Map-Like Representations of an Abstract Conceptual Space in the Human Brain.Levan Bokeria, Richard N. Henson & Robert M. Mok - 2021 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 15.
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  • Similarity-Based Cognition: Radical Enactivism Meets Cognitive Neuroscience.Miguel Segundo-Ortin & Daniel D. Hutto - 2019 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 1):5-23.
    Similarity-based cognition is commonplace. It occurs whenever an agent or system exploits the similarities that hold between two or more items—e.g., events, processes, objects, and so on—in order to perform some cognitive task. This kind of cognition is of special interest to cognitive neuroscientists. This paper explicates how similarity-based cognition can be understood through the lens of radical enactivism and why doing so has advantages over its representationalist rival, which posits the existence of structural representations or S-representations. Specifically, it is (...)
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  • Mental Time Travel? A Neurocognitive Model of Event Simulation.Donna Rose Addis - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (2):233-259.
    Mental time travel is defined as projecting the self into the past and the future. Despite growing evidence of the similarities of remembering past and imagining future events, dominant theories conceive of these as distinct capacities. I propose that memory and imagination are fundamentally the same process – constructive episodic simulation – and demonstrate that the ‘simulation system’ meets the three criteria of a neurocognitive system. Irrespective of whether one is remembering or imagining, the simulation system: acts on the same (...)
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  • The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning.Michael R. Waldmann (ed.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    Causal reasoning is one of our most central cognitive competencies, enabling us to adapt to our world. Causal knowledge allows us to predict future events, or diagnose the causes of observed facts. We plan actions and solve problems using knowledge about cause-effect relations. Without our ability to discover and empirically test causal theories, we would not have made progress in various empirical sciences. In the past decades, the important role of causal knowledge has been discovered in many areas of cognitive (...)
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  • Demonstrative Thought: A Pragmatic View.Felipe Nogueira de Carvalho - 2016 - Berlim, Alemanha: De Gruyter.
    How can we explain our capacity to think about particulars in our external environment? Many philosophers have answered this question in terms of a sophisticated conception of space and time and the movement of objects therein. A more recent reaction against this view sought to explain this capacity solely in terms of perceptual mechanisms of object individuation. Neither explanation remains fully satisfactory. This book argues for a more desirable middle ground in terms of a pragmatist approach to demonstrative thought, where (...)
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  • Consciousness, Art, and the Brain: Lessons From Marcel Proust.Russell Epstein - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (2):213-40.
    In his novel Remembrance of Things Past, Marcel Proust argues that conventional descriptions of the phenomenology of consciousness are incomplete because they focus too much on the highly-salient sensory information that dominates each moment of awareness and ignore the network of associations that lies in the background. In this paper, I explicate Proust’s theory of conscious experience and show how it leads him directly to a theory of aesthetic perception. Proust’s division of awareness into two components roughly corresponds to William (...)
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  • Using Posterior EEG Theta Band to Assess the Effects of Architectural Designs on Landmark Recognition in an Urban Setting.James D. Rounds, Jesus Gabriel Cruz-Garza & Saleh Kalantari - 2020 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 14.
    The process of urban landmark-based navigation has proven to be difficult to study in a rigorous fashion, primarily due to confounding variables and the problem of obtaining reliable data in real-world contexts. The development of high-resolution, immersive virtual reality technologies has opened exciting new possibilities for gathering data on human wayfinding that could not otherwise be readily obtained. We developed a research platform using a virtual environment and electroencephalography to better understand the neural processes associated with landmark usage and recognition (...)
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  • Path Integration and Cognitive Mapping Capacities in Down and Williams Syndromes.Mathilde Bostelmann, Paolo Ruggeri, Antonella Rita Circelli, Floriana Costanzo, Deny Menghini, Stefano Vicari, Pierre Lavenex & Pamela Banta Lavenex - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Williams and Down syndromes are neurodevelopmental disorders with distinct genetic origins and different spatial memory profiles. In real-world spatial memory tasks, where spatial information derived from all sensory modalities is available, individuals with DS demonstrate low-resolution spatial learning capacities consistent with their mental age, whereas individuals with WS are severely impaired. However, because WS is associated with severe visuo-constructive processing deficits, it is unclear whether their impairment is due to abnormal visual processing or whether it reflects an inability to build (...)
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  • Learning My Way: A Pilot Study of Navigation Skills in Cerebral Palsy in Immersive Virtual Reality.Emilia Biffi, Chiara Gagliardi, Cristina Maghini, Chiara Genova, Daniele Panzeri, Davide Felice Redaelli & Anna Carla Turconi - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Purpose: Human navigation skills are essential for everyday life and rely on several cognitive abilities, among which visual-spatial competences that are impaired in subjects with cerebral palsy. In this work, we proposed navigation tasks in immersive virtual reality to 15 children with CP and 13 typically developing peers in order to assess the individual navigation strategies and their modifiability in a situation resembling real life.Methods: We developed and adapted to IVR an application based on a 5-way maze in a playground (...)
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  • Comment on Susanna Siegel, The Rationality of Perception.Peter Railton - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 101 (3):735-754.
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  • Cognitive Maps and the Language of Thought.Michael Rescorla - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):377-407.
    Fodor advocates a view of cognitive processes as computations defined over the language of thought (or Mentalese). Even among those who endorse Mentalese, considerable controversy surrounds its representational format. What semantically relevant structure should scientific psychology attribute to Mentalese symbols? Researchers commonly emphasize logical structure, akin to that displayed by predicate calculus sentences. To counteract this tendency, I discuss computational models of navigation drawn from probabilistic robotics. These models involve computations defined over cognitive maps, which have geometric rather than logical (...)
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  • Predication and Cartographic Representation.Michael Rescorla - 2009 - Synthese 169 (1):175 - 200.
    I argue that maps do not feature predication, as analyzed by Frege and Tarski. I take as my foil (Casati and Varzi, Parts and places, 1999), which attributes predication to maps. I argue that the details of Casati and Varzi’s own semantics militate against this attribution. Casati and Varzi emphasize what I call the Absence Intuition: if a marker representing some property (such as mountainous terrain) appears on a map, then absence of that marker from a map coordinate signifies absence (...)
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  • Memory as Triage: Facing Up to the Hard Question of Memory.Nikola Andonovski - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-30.
    The Hard Question of memory is the following: how are memory representations stored and organized so as to be made available for retrieval in the appropriate circumstances and format? In this essay, I argue that philosophical theories of memory should engage with the Hard Question directly and seriously. I propose that declarative memory is a faculty performing a kind of cognitive triage: management of information for a variety of uses under significant computational constraints. In such triage, memory representations are preferentially (...)
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  • The Language of Thought Hypothesis.Murat Aydede - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A comprehensive introduction to the Language of Though Hypothesis (LOTH) accessible to general audiences. LOTH is an empirical thesis about thought and thinking. For their explication, it postulates a physically realized system of representations that have a combinatorial syntax (and semantics) such that operations on representations are causally sensitive only to the syntactic properties of representations. According to LOTH, thought is, roughly, the tokening of a representation that has a syntactic (constituent) structure with an appropriate semantics. Thinking thus consists in (...)
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  • The Origins of Causal Cognition in Early Hominins.Martin Stuart-Fox - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (2):247-266.
    Studies of primate cognition have conclusively shown that humans and apes share a range of basic cognitive abilities. As a corollary, these same studies have also focussed attention on what makes humans unique, and on when and how specifically human cognitive skills evolved. There is widespread agreement that a major distinguishing feature of the human mind is its capacity for causal reasoning. This paper argues that causal cognition originated with the use made of indirect natural signs by early hominins forced (...)
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  • Cognitive Self-Management Requires the Phenomenal Registration of Intrinsic State Properties.Frederic Peters - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (4):1113-1135.
    Cognition is not, and could not possibly be, entirely representational in character. There is also a phenomenal form of cognitive expression that registers the intrinsic properties of mental states themselves. Arguments against the reality of this intrinsic phenomenal dimension to mental experience have focused either on its supposed impossibility, or secondly, the non-appearance of any such qualities to introspection. This paper argues to the contrary, that the registration of cognitive state properties does take place independently of representational content; and necessarily (...)
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  • The Reflexivity of Cognitive Science: The Scientist as Model of Human Nature.Jamie Cohen-Cole - 2005 - History of the Human Sciences 18 (4):107-139.
    This article examines how experimental psychology experienced a revolution as cognitive science replaced behaviorism in the mid-20th century. This transition in the scientific account of human nature involved making normal what had once been normative: borrowing ideas of democratic thinking from political culture and conceptions of good thinking from philosophy of science to describe humans as active, creatively thinking beings, rather than as organisms that simply respond to environmental conditions. Reflexive social and intellectual practices were central to this process as (...)
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  • Mapas, Lenguaje y Conceptos: Hacia Una Teoría Pluralista Del Formato de Los Conceptos.Mariela Aguilera - 2020 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 24 (1):121-146.
    A great number of investigations suggest that cognition involves both linguistic and cartographic representations. These researches have motivated a pluralist conception of cognition; also, they have been used to clarify how maps differ from linguistic representations. However, the computational processes underlying the interphase between both kinds of representations deserve further attention. In this paper, I argue that, despite their differences, cartographic representations coexist and interact with linguistic representations in interesting ways.
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  • Steps Toward an Integrative Clinical Systems Psychology.Felix Tretter & Henriette Löffler-Stastka - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Dissociable Functions of Reward Inference in the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex and the Striatum.Shingo Tanaka, Xiaochuan Pan, Mineki Oguchi, Jessica E. Taylor & Masamichi Sakagami - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Credit Assignment in Multiple Goal Embodied Visuomotor Behavior.Constantin A. Rothkopf & Dana H. Ballard - 2010 - Frontiers in Psychology 1.
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  • Where Am I? Who Am I? The Relation Between Spatial Cognition, Social Cognition and Individual Differences in the Built Environment.Michael J. Proulx, Orlin S. Todorov, Amanda Taylor Aiken & Alexandra A. de Sousa - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Training of Tonal Similarity Ratings in Non-Musicians: A “Rapid Learning” Approach.Mathias S. Oechslin, Damian Läge & Oliver Vitouch - 2012 - Frontiers in Psychology 3.
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  • Dream to Predict? REM Dreaming as Prospective Coding.Sue Llewellyn - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Spatial Navigation, Episodic Memory, Episodic Future Thinking, and Theory of Mind in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence for Impairments in Mental Simulation?Sophie E. Lind, Dermot M. Bowler & Jacob Raber - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  • Binary Theorizing Does Not Account for Action Control.Bernhard Hommel - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Learning Where to Look for High Value Improves Decision Making Asymmetrically.Jaron T. Colas & Joy Lu - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Low-Resolution Place and Response Learning Capacities in Down Syndrome.Mathilde Bostelmann, Floriana Costanzo, Lorelay Martorana, Deny Menghini, Stefano Vicari, Pamela Banta Lavenex & Pierre Lavenex - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • How Albot0 Finds Its Way Home: A Novel Approach to Cognitive Mapping Using Robots.Wai K. Yeap - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (4):707-721.
  • Introduction to the Topic on Modeling Spatial Cognition.Glenn Gunzelmann - 2011 - Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (4):628-631.
    Our ability to process spatial information is fundamental for understanding and interacting with the environment, and it pervades other components of cognitive functioning from language to mathematics. Moreover, technological advances have produced new capabilities that have created research opportunities and astonishing applications. In this Topic on Modeling Spatial Cognition, research crossing a variety of disciplines and methodologies is described, all focused on developing models to represent the capacities and limitations of human spatial cognition.
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  • Rationalizable Irrationalities of Choice.Peter Dayan - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (2):204-228.
    Although seemingly irrational choice abounds, the rules governing these mis-steps that might provide hints about the factors limiting normative behavior are unclear. We consider three experimental tasks, which probe different aspects of non-normative choice under uncertainty. We argue for systematic statistical, algorithmic, and implementational sources of irrationality, including incomplete evaluation of long-run future utilities, Pavlovian actions, and habits, together with computational and statistical noise and uncertainty. We suggest structural and functional adaptations that minimize their maladaptive effects.
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  • Naive Geography and Geopolitical Semiotics: The Semiotic Analysis of Geomental Maps of Russians.Natalya Zelyanskaya, Konstantin Belousov & Dilara Ichkineeva - 2017 - Semiotica 2017 (215):235-253.
    Name der Zeitschrift: Semiotica Jahrgang: 2017 Heft: 215 Seiten: 235-253.
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  • Subjectivism, Postmodernism, and Social Space.Alexandros Ph Lagopoulos - 2011 - Semiotica 2011 (183):129-182.
    The aim of this paper is to review the main aspects of a major super-paradigm running through spatial studies, a paradigm that I have called “subjectivism” and that may also be called the “conceptual” paradigm, with emphasis placed on postmodern approaches to space; it is opposed to another super-paradigm, the “objectivist” or “materialist” paradigm. While the objectivist paradigm approaches space as a material entity, the conceptual paradigm studies the conceptual world of social subjects, either the meaning that spatial objects have (...)
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  • Goal‐Proximity Decision‐Making.Vladislav D. Veksler, Wayne D. Gray & Michael J. Schoelles - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (4):757-774.
    Reinforcement learning (RL) models of decision-making cannot account for human decisions in the absence of prior reward or punishment. We propose a mechanism for choosing among available options based on goal-option association strengths, where association strengths between objects represent previously experienced object proximity. The proposed mechanism, Goal-Proximity Decision-making (GPD), is implemented within the ACT-R cognitive framework. GPD is found to be more efficient than RL in three maze-navigation simulations. GPD advantages over RL seem to grow as task difficulty is increased. (...)
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  • Wormholes in Virtual Space: From Cognitive Maps to Cognitive Graphs.William H. Warren, Daniel B. Rothman, Benjamin H. Schnapp & Jonathan D. Ericson - 2017 - Cognition 166:152-163.
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  • Learning Your Way Around Town: How Virtual Taxicab Drivers Learn to Use Both Layout and Landmark Information.Ehren L. Newman, Jeremy B. Caplan, Matthew P. Kirschen, Igor O. Korolev, Robert Sekuler & Michael J. Kahana - 2007 - Cognition 104 (2):231-253.
  • A Viewpoint-Independent Process for Spatial Reorientation.Marko Nardini, Rhiannon L. Thomas, Victoria C. P. Knowland, Oliver J. Braddick & Janette Atkinson - 2009 - Cognition 112 (2):241-248.
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  • Spatial Updating According to a Fixed Reference Direction of a Briefly Viewed Layout.Timothy P. McNamara Hui Zhang, Weimin Mou - 2011 - Cognition 119 (3):419.
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  • Cognitive Mapping in Mental Time Travel and Mental Space Navigation.Baptiste Gauthier & Virginie van Wassenhove - 2016 - Cognition 154:55-68.
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  • The Earth is Flat When Personally Significant Experiences with the Sphericity of the Earth Are Absent.Claus-Christian Carbon - 2010 - Cognition 116 (1):130-135.
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  • Above and Beyond the Concrete: The Diverse Representational Substrates of the Predictive Brain.Michael Gilead, Yaacov Trope & Nira Liberman - 2020 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 43:1-63.
    In recent years, scientists have increasingly taken to investigate the predictive nature of cognition. We argue that prediction relies on abstraction, and thus theories of predictive cognition need an explicit theory of abstract representation. We propose such a theory of the abstract representational capacities that allow humans to transcend the “here-and-now.” Consistent with the predictive cognition literature, we suggest that the representational substrates of the mind are built as a hierarchy, ranging from the concrete to the abstract; however, we argue (...)
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  • Don't Shoot the Giant Whose Shoulders We Are Standing On.Jan P. de Ruiter & Laura E. de Ruiter - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  • SAwSu: An Integrated Model of Associative and Reinforcement Learning.Vladislav D. Veksler, Christopher W. Myers & Kevin A. Gluck - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (3):580-598.
    Successfully explaining and replicating the complexity and generality of human and animal learning will require the integration of a variety of learning mechanisms. Here, we introduce a computational model which integrates associative learning (AL) and reinforcement learning (RL). We contrast the integrated model with standalone AL and RL models in three simulation studies. First, a synthetic grid-navigation task is employed to highlight performance advantages for the integrated model in an environment where the reward structure is both diverse and dynamic. The (...)
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  • Representing Spatial Structure Through Maps and Language: Lord of the Rings Encodes the Spatial Structure of Middle Earth.Max M. Louwerse & Nick Benesh - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (8):1556-1569.
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  • Odors Can Serve as Landmarks in Human Wayfinding.Kai Hamburger & Markus Knauff - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (11).
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  • Stepping Into a Map: Initial Heading Direction Influences Spatial Memory Flexibility.Stephanie A. Gagnon, Tad T. Brunyé, Aaron Gardony, Matthijs L. Noordzij, Caroline R. Mahoney & Holly A. Taylor - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (2):275-302.
    Learning a novel environment involves integrating first-person perceptual and motoric experiences with developing knowledge about the overall structure of the surroundings. The present experiments provide insights into the parallel development of these egocentric and allocentric memories by intentionally conflicting body- and world-centered frames of reference during learning, and measuring outcomes via online and offline measures. Results of two experiments demonstrate faster learning and increased memory flexibility following route perspective reading (Experiment 1) and virtual navigation (Experiment 2) when participants begin exploring (...)
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