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  1. Where Are the Months? Mental Images of Circular Time in a Large Online Sample.Bruno Laeng & Anders Hofseth - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Temporal Frames of Reference: Conceptual Analysis and Empirical Evidence From German, English, Mandarin Chinese and Tongan.Andrea Bender, Sieghard Beller & Giovanni Bennardo - 2010 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 10 (3-4):283-307.
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  • Lateralisation of Emotions: Evidence From Pupil Size Measurement.L. Lichtenstein-Vidne, S. Gabay, N. Cohen & A. Henik - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (4):699-711.
  • Cultural and Individual Differences in Metaphorical Representations of Time.Li Heng - 2018 - Dissertation, Northumbria University
    concepts cannot be directly perceived through senses. How do people represent abstract concepts in their minds? According to the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, people tend to rely on concrete experiences to understand abstract concepts. For instance, cognitive science has shown that time is a metaphorically constituted conception, understood relative to concepts like space. Across many languages, the “past” is associated with the “back” and the “future” is associated with the “front”. However, space-time mappings in people’s spoken metaphors are not always consistent (...)
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  • Contours of Time: Topographic Construals of Past, Present, and Future in the Yupno Valley of Papua New Guinea.Rafael Núñez, Kensy Cooperrider, D. Doan & Jürg Wassmann - 2012 - Cognition 124 (1):25-35.
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  • Congruity Effects in Time and Space: Behavioral and ERP Measures.Ursina Teuscher, Marguerite McQuire, Jennifer Collins & Seana Coulson - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (3):563-578.
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  • The Sound of Time: Cross-Modal Convergence in the Spatial Structuring of Time.Daniël Lakens, Gün R. Semin & Margarida V. Garrido - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (2):437-443.
    In a new integration, we show that the visual-spatial structuring of time converges with auditory-spatial left–right judgments for time-related words. In Experiment 1, participants placed past and future-related words respectively to the left and right of the midpoint on a horizontal line, reproducing earlier findings. In Experiment 2, neutral and time-related words were presented over headphones. Participants were asked to indicate whether words were louder on the left or right channel. On critical experimental trials, words were presented equally loud binaurally. (...)
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  • Hand Position and Response Assignment Modulate the Activation of the Valence‐Space Conceptual Metaphor.Emilia Castaño, Elizabeth Gilboy, Sara Feijóo, Elisabet Serrat, Carles Rostan, Joseph Hilferty & Toni Cunillera - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (7):2342-2363.
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  • Variability in the Alignment of Number and Space Across Languages and Tasks.Andrea Bender, Annelie Rothe-Wulf & Sieghard Beller - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Innate and Cultural Spatial Time: A Developmental Perspective.Barbara Magnani & Alessandro Musetti - 2017 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11.
    We reviewed literature to understand when a spatial map for time is available in the brain. We carefully defined the concepts of metrical map of time and of conceptual representation of time as the mental time line (MTL) in order to formulate our position. It is that both metrical map and conceptual representation of time are spatial in nature. The former should be innate, related to motor/implicit timing, it should represent all magnitudes with an analogic and bi-dimensional structure. The latter (...)
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  • Spatial Congruity Effects Reveal Metaphorical Thinking, Not Polarity Correspondence.Sarah Dolscheid & Daniel Casasanto - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • A Mental Timeline for Duration From the Age of 5 Years Old.Jennifer T. Coull, Katherine A. Johnson & Sylvie Droit-Volet - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • When the Sad Past Is Left: The Mental Metaphors Between Time, Valence, and Space.Nicolas Spatola, Julio Santiago, Brice Beffara, Martial Mermillod, Ludovic Ferrand & Marc Ouellet - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • The Space–Time Congruency Effect: A Meta‐Analysis.Linda von Sobbe, Edith Scheifele, Claudia Maienborn & Rolf Ulrich - 2019 - Cognitive Science 43 (1):e12709.
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  • Mapping Spatial Frames of Reference Onto Time: A Review of Theoretical Accounts and Empirical Findings. [REVIEW]Andrea Bender & Sieghard Beller - 2014 - Cognition 132 (3):342-382.
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  • Cross-Cultural Differences in Mental Representations of Time: Evidence From an Implicit Nonlinguistic Task.Orly Fuhrman & Lera Boroditsky - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1430-1451.
    Across cultures people construct spatial representations of time. However, the particular spatial layouts created to represent time may differ across cultures. This paper examines whether people automatically access and use culturally specific spatial representations when reasoning about time. In Experiment 1, we asked Hebrew and English speakers to arrange pictures depicting temporal sequences of natural events, and to point to the hypothesized location of events relative to a reference point. In both tasks, English speakers (who read left to right) arranged (...)
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  • The Continuity of Metaphor: Evidence From Temporal Gestures.Esther Walker & Kensy Cooperrider - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (2):481-495.
    Reasoning about bedrock abstract concepts such as time, number, and valence relies on spatial metaphor and often on multiple spatial metaphors for a single concept. Previous research has documented, for instance, both future-in-front and future-to-right metaphors for time in English speakers. It is often assumed that these metaphors, which appear to have distinct experiential bases, remain distinct in online temporal reasoning. In two studies we demonstrate that, contra this assumption, people systematically combine these metaphors. Evidence for this combination was found (...)
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  • Do English and Mandarin Speakers Think About Time Differently?Lera Boroditsky, Orly Fuhrman & Kelly McCormick - 2011 - Cognition 118 (1):123-129.
    Time is a fundamental domain of experience. In this paper we ask whether aspects of language and culture affect how people think about this domain. Specifically, we consider whether English and Mandarin speakers think about time differently. We review all of the available evidence both for and against this hypothesis, and report new data that further support and refine it. The results demonstrate that English and Mandarin speakers do think about time differently. As predicted by patterns in language, Mandarin speakers (...)
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  • An Effect of Spatial–Temporal Association of Response Codes: Understanding the Cognitive Representations of Time.Antonino Vallesi, Malcolm A. Binns & Tim Shallice - 2008 - Cognition 107 (2):501-527.
  • Eye Movements Reveal Mental Looking Through Time.Kurt Stocker, Matthias Hartmann, Corinna S. Martarelli & Fred W. Mast - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (7):1648-1670.
    People often make use of a spatial “mental time line” to represent events in time. We investigated whether the eyes follow such a mental time line during online language comprehension of sentences that refer to the past, present, and future. Participants' eye movements were measured on a blank screen while they listened to these sentences. Saccade direction revealed that the future is mapped higher up in space than the past. Moreover, fewer saccades were made when two events are simultaneously taking (...)
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  • New Space–Time Metaphors Foster New Nonlinguistic Representations.Rose K. Hendricks & Lera Boroditsky - 2017 - Topics in Cognitive Science 9 (3):800-818.
    What is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like “breakfast is above dinner” or “breakfast is below dinner”. In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left–right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a (...)
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  • How Linguistic and Cultural Forces Shape Conceptions of Time: English and Mandarin Time in 3D.Orly Fuhrman, Kelly McCormick, Eva Chen, Heidi Jiang, Dingfang Shu, Shuaimei Mao & Lera Boroditsky - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (7):1305-1328.
    In this paper we examine how English and Mandarin speakers think about time, and we test how the patterns of thinking in the two groups relate to patterns in linguistic and cultural experience. In Mandarin, vertical spatial metaphors are used more frequently to talk about time than they are in English; English relies primarily on horizontal terms. We present results from two tasks comparing English and Mandarin speakers’ temporal reasoning. The tasks measure how people spatialize time in three-dimensional space, including (...)
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  • Eye Movements During Mental Time Travel Follow a Diagonal Line.Matthias Hartmann, Corinna S. Martarelli, Fred W. Mast & Kurt Stocker - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 30:201-209.
  • Time in the Mind: Using Space to Think About Time.Daniel Casasanto & Lera Boroditsky - 2008 - Cognition 106 (2):579-593.
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  • Left–Right Coding of Past and Future in Language: The Mental Timeline During Sentence Processing.Rolf Ulrich & Claudia Maienborn - 2010 - Cognition 117 (2):126-138.
  • Do Metaphors Move From Mind to Mouth? Evidence From a New System of Linguistic Metaphors for Time.Rose K. Hendricks, Benjamin K. Bergen & Tyler Marghetis - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (8):2950-2975.
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  • Keeping an Eye on Serial Order: Ocular Movements Bind Space and Time.Luca Rinaldi, Peter Brugger, Christopher J. Bockisch, Giovanni Bertolini & Luisa Girelli - 2015 - Cognition 142:291-298.
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  • Attentional Factors in Conceptual Congruency.Julio Santiago, Marc Ouellet, Antonio Román & Javier Valenzuela - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (6):1051-1077.
    Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words’ emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present paper, we show how attentional cueing (both exogenous and endogenous) to each conceptual dimension succeeds in modifying both the manifestation and the symmetry of the effect. The theoretical implications of this (...)
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  • The Mechanisms of Space‐Time Association: Comparing Motor and Perceptual Contributions in Time Reproduction.Marco Fabbri, Nicola Cellini, Monica Martoni, Lorenzo Tonetti & Vincenzo Natale - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (7):1228-1250.
    The spatial-temporal association indicates that time is represented spatially along a left-to-right line. It is unclear whether the spatial-temporal association is mainly related to a perceptual or a motor component. In addition, the spatial-temporal association is not consistently found using a time reproduction task. Our rationale for this finding is that, classically, a non-lateralized button for performing the task has been used. Using two lateralized response buttons, the aim of the study was to find a spatial-temporal association in a time (...)
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