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  1. The Shaping of a Society’s Economic Ethos: A Longitudinal Study of Individuals’ Morality of Profit-Making Worldview. [REVIEW]Walton Padelford & Darin W. White - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (1):67 - 75.
    This study investigates the processes involved in the shaping of a society’s economic ethos. The discussion of ethics and economics has a very long history across multiple disciplines. The founder of modern economics, Adam Smith, likewise had a keen interest in this topic. However, with the development of economic science, scholarly assessment has shifted toward positive analysis while normative analysis has been left mainly to philosophers. By utilizing the newly developed morality of profit-making scale (MPM), the authors sought to understand (...)
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  • Consumer Perceptions of Business Ethical Behavior in Former Eastern Block Countries.John Tsalikis & Bruce Seaton - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 82 (4):919-928.
    The Business Ethics Index (BEI), measuring consumer perceptions of ethical business behavior, was extended to four ex-communist countries (Russia, Poland, Romania, and Bulgaria). For Bulgaria, the two past dimensions are on the negative side of the scale. However, Bulgarians seem to be optimistic for the future ethical behavior of businesses. The same optimism about the future is observed for all four countries with Romania having the highest scores. Three hypotheses are proposed for the unusually high scores of the past ethical (...)
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  • The International Business Ethics Index: Japan.John Tsalikis & Bruce Seaton - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 80 (2):379-385.
    The Business Ethics Index (BEI) was expanded in Japan. The overall BEI for Japan stands at 99.1 – slightly on the negative side. The component BEI patterns were similar to those in the U.S. In an open-ended question about their ethical experiences as consumers, the Japanese were concerned about customer service and good management practices.
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  • Business Unethicality as an Impediment to Consumer Trust: The Moderating Role of Demographic and Cultural Characteristics. [REVIEW]Leonidas C. Leonidou, Olga Kvasova, Constantinos N. Leonidou & Simos Chari - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (3):397-415.
    The article reports the findings of a study conducted among 387 consumers regarding their perceptions of the unethicality of business practices of firms and how these affect their response behavior, in terms of trust, satisfaction, and loyalty. The study confirmed that high levels of perceived corporate unethicality decrease consumer trust. This in turn reduces consumer satisfaction, which ultimately has negative effects on customer loyalty. It was also revealed that, although both consumer gender and urbanity have a moderating effect on the (...)
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  • The International Business Ethics Index: Asian Emerging Economies.John Tsalikis, Bruce Seaton & Tiger Li - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 80 (4):643-651.
    The systematic measurement of consumers’ sentiments toward business ethical practices is expanded to two emerging economies in Asia (China and India). The Chinese were very optimistic about the future ethical behavior of businesses, while the Indians recorded the lowest BEI scores yet. Chinese consumers were very concerned with product issues, while Indians were concerned equally about low quality products and excessive prices.
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  • Business Ethics Index: Latin America.John Tsalikis, Bruce Seaton & Phillip L. Shepherd - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 119 (2):1-10.
    For almost 10 years, the Business Ethics Index (BEI) has measured consumers’ perceptions of business ethical behavior in the USA and numerous other countries. This article expands the BEI to five Latin American countries (Brazil, Bolivia, Mexico, Argentina, and Colombia). The BEI of Argentina and Bolivia were similar in magnitude to the USA, whereas those for Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico were distinctly higher. The component sub-indices showed divergent patterns. The major ethical concerns for Brazil and Bolivia concerned service, whereas Mexico (...)
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  • The Business Ethics Index as a Leading Economic Indicator.John Tsalikis - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (4):519 - 653.
    Theoretical justification for the Business Ethics Index (BEI) from the emerging economics of trust literature is discussed. The BEI results for 2007, 2008, and 2009 are presented. While the Personal/Past BEI component shows no significant difference from the previous years, the Vicarious/Past component shows a dramatic drop to levels previously never recorded.However, when it came to the perception of the future business ethical behavior, respondents were significantly more optimistic than in previous measurements.This finding was more than a little surprising given (...)
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  • The Shaping of a Society’s Economic Ethos: A Longitudinal Study of Individuals’ Morality of Profit-Making Worldview.Walton Padelford & Darin W. White - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (1):67-75.
    This study investigates the processes involved in the shaping of a society's economic ethos. The discussion of ethics and economics has a very long history across multiple disciplines. The founder of modern economics, Adam Smith, likewise had a keen interest in this topic. However, with the development of economic science, scholarly assessment has shifted toward positive analysis while normative analysis has been left mainly to philosophers. By utilizing the newly developed morality of profit-making scale, the authors sought to understand how (...)
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  • The International Business Ethics Index: European Union.John Tsalikis & Bruce Seaton - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (3):229-238.
    The present study expands the systematic measurement of consumers’ sentiments towards business ethical practices to the international arena. Data for the Business Ethics Index (BEI) were gathered in three countries of the European Union (UK, Germany, Spain). The Germans were the most pessimistic while the British were the most optimistic about the future ethical behaviour of businesses.
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  • Business Ethics Index: USA 2006.John Tsalikis & Bruce Seaton - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 72 (2):163-175.
    This study continues the systematic measurement of consumers’ sentiments toward business ethical practices first measured in 2004. The Business Ethics Index (BEI) comprises the four measurements representing the dimensions of “personal–vicarious” and “past–future”. A professional telephone interviewing company was hired to collect five consecutive waves of 1045 telephone interviews in an omnibus procedure. The collection of the five waves represented a sampling process which enables the creation of confidence intervals for this, and subsequent, measurements of the BEI. The overall BEI (...)
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  • Un/Ethical Company and Brand Perceptions: Conceptualising and Operationalising Consumer Meanings. [REVIEW]Katja H. Brunk - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 111 (4):551-565.
    Based on three empirical studies, this research sets out to conceptualise and subsequently operationalise the construct of consumer perceived ethicality (CPE) of a company or brand. Study 1 investigates consumer meanings of the term ethical and reveals that, contrary to philosophical scholars' exclusively consequentialist or nonconsequentialist positions, consumers' ethical judgments are a function of both these evaluation principles, illustrating that not any one scholarly definition of ethics alone is capable of capturing the content domain. The resulting conceptualisation identifies six key (...)
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