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  1. If I Am Free, You Can’T Own Me: Autonomy Makes Entities Less Ownable.Christina Starmans & Ori Friedman - 2016 - Cognition 148:145-153.
    Although people own myriad objects, land, and even ideas, it is currently illegal to own other humans. This reluctance to view people as property raises interesting questions about our conceptions of people and about our conceptions of ownership. We suggest that one factor contributing to this reluctance is that humans are normally considered to be autonomous, and autonomy is incompatible with being owned by someone else. To investigate whether autonomy impacts judgments of ownership, participants recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk read (...)
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  • Children Hold Owners Responsible When Property Causes Harm.Celina K. Bowman-Smith, Brandon W. Goulding & Ori Friedman - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
    Since ancient times, legal systems have held owners responsible for harm caused by their property. Across 4 experiments, we show that children aged 3–7 also hold owners responsible for such harm. Older children judge that owners should repair harm caused by property, and younger children may do this as well. Younger and older children judge that owners should apologize for harm, even when children do not believe the owners allowed the harm to occur. Children are also as likely to hold (...)
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  • The Need to Belong Motivates Demand for Authentic Objects.George E. Newman & Rosanna K. Smith - 2016 - Cognition 156:129-134.
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  • Identical but Not Interchangeable: Preschoolers View Owned Objects as Non-Fungible.Stephanie McEwan, Madison L. Pesowski & Ori Friedman - 2016 - Cognition 146:16-21.
    Owned objects are typically viewed as non-fungible-they cannot be freely interchanged. We report three experiments (total N=312) demonstrating this intuition in preschool-aged children. In Experiment 1, children considered an agent who takes one of two identical objects and leaves the other for a peer. Children viewed this as acceptable when the agent took his own item, but not when he took his peer's item. In Experiment 2, children considered scenarios where one agent took property from another. Children said the victim (...)
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  • Dirty Money: The Role of Moral History in Economic Judgments.Arber Tasimi & Susan A. Gelman - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S3).
    Although traditional economic models posit that money is fungible, psychological research abounds with examples that deviate from this assumption. Across eight experiments, we provide evidence that people construe physical currency as carrying traces of its moral history. In Experiments 1 and 2, people report being less likely to want money with negative moral history. Experiments 3–5 provide evidence against an alternative account that people's judgments merely reflect beliefs about the consequences of accepting stolen money rather than moral sensitivity. Experiment 6 (...)
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