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  1. Temporal Logics of Agency.Johan van Benthem & Eric Pacuit - 2010 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (4):389-393.
  • Announcement as Effort on Topological Spaces.Hans van Ditmarsch, Sophia Knight & Aybüke Özgün - 2019 - Synthese 196 (7):2927-2969.
    We propose a multi-agent logic of knowledge, public announcements and arbitrary announcements, interpreted on topological spaces in the style of subset space semantics. The arbitrary announcement modality functions similarly to the effort modality in subset space logics, however, it comes with intuitive and semantic differences. We provide axiomatizations for three logics based on this setting, with S5 knowledge modality, and demonstrate their completeness. We moreover consider the weaker axiomatizations of three logics with S4 type of knowledge and prove soundness and (...)
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  • Composing Models.Jan van Eijck & Yanjing Wang - 2011 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 21 (3-4):397-425.
    • We study a new composition operation on (epistemic) multiagent models and update actions that takes vocabulary extensions into account.
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  • DEL-Sequents for Progression.Guillaume Aucher - 2011 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 21 (3-4):289-321.
    Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL) deals with the representation and the study in a multi-agent setting of knowledge and belief change. It can express in a uniform way epistemic statements about: 1. what is true about an initial situation 2. what is true about an event occurring in this situation 3. what is true about the resulting situation after the event has occurred. We axiomatize within the DEL framework what we can infer about (iii) given (i) and (ii). Given three formulas (...)
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  • The Language of Social Software.Eijck Jan van - 2010 - Synthese 177 (S1):77 - 96.
    Computer software is written in languages like C, Java or Haskell. In many cases social software is expressed in natural language. The paper explores connections between the areas of natural language analysis and analysis of social protocols, and proposes an extended program for natural language semantics, where the goals of natural language communication are derived from the demands of specific social protocols.
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  • Dynamic Logics of Knowledge and Access.Tomohiro Hoshi & Eric Pacuit - 2010 - Synthese 177 (1):29 - 49.
    A recurring issue in any formal model representing agents' (changing) informational attitudes is how to account for the fact that the agents are limited in their access to the available inference steps, possible observations and available messages. This may be because the agents are not logically omniscient and so do not have unlimited reasoning ability. But it can also be because the agents are following a predefined protocol that explicitly limits statements available for observation and/or communication. Within the broad literature (...)
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  • What Will They Say?—Public Announcement Games.Ågotnes Thomas & Ditmarsch Hans van - 2011 - Synthese 179 (S1):57 - 85.
    Dynamic epistemic logic describes the possible information-changing actions available to individual agents, and their knowledge pre-and post conditions. For example, public announcement logic describes actions in the form of public, truthful announcements. However, little research so far has considered describing and analysing rational choice between such actions, i.e., predicting what rational self-interested agents actually will or should do. Since the outcome of information exchange ultimately depends on the actions chosen by all the agents in the system, and assuming that agents (...)
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  • Dynamic Update with Probabilities.Johan van Benthem, Jelle Gerbrandy & Barteld Kooi - 2009 - Studia Logica 93 (1):67 - 96.
    Current dynamic-epistemic logics model different types of information change in multi-agent scenarios. We generalize these logics to a probabilistic setting, obtaining a calculus for multi-agent update with three natural slots: prior probability on states, occurrence probabilities in the relevant process taking place, and observation probabilities of events. To match this update mechanism, we present a complete dynamic logic of information change with a probabilistic character. The completeness proof follows a compositional methodology that applies to a much larger class of dynamic-probabilistic (...)
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  • A General Framework for Dynamic Epistemic Logic: Towards Canonical Correspondences.Shota Motoura - 2017 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 27 (1-2):50-89.
    We propose a general framework for dynamic epistemic logics. It consists of a generic language for DELs and a class of structures, called model transition systems, that describe model transformations in a static way. An MTS can be viewed as a two-layered Kripke model and consequently inherits standard concepts such as bisimulation and bounded morphism from the ordinary Kripke models. In the second half of this article we add the global operator to the language, which enables us to define the (...)
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  • A Logic for Extensional Protocols.Ben Rodenhäuser - 2011 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 21 (3-4):477-502.
    We study a logic for reasoning about agents that pass messages according to a protocol. Protocols are specified extensionally, as sets of sequences of ?legal? actions assigned to each state in a Kripke model. Message-passing events that are licensed by the protocol are modeled as updates in the style of dynamic epistemic logic. We also consider changes to the protocol by introducing message-encoding modalities, corresponding to communications actions that lead to protocol extensions. While in our general framework, messages are arbitrary (...)
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  • Verifying One Hundred Prisoners and a Lightbulb.Hans van Ditmarsch & Jan van Eijck - 2010 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 20 (3):173-191.
    This is a case-study in knowledge representation and dynamic epistemic protocol verification. We analyze the ‘one hundred prisoners and a lightbulb’ puzzle. In this puzzle it is relevant what the agents know, how their knowledge changes due to observations, and how they affect the state of the world by changing facts, i.e., by their actions. These actions depend on the history of previous actions and observations. Part of its interest is that all actions are local, i.e. not publicly observable, and (...)
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  • Decisions, Actions, and Games, a Logical Perspective.Johan van Benthem - unknown
    Over the past decades, logicians interested in rational agency and intelligent interaction studied major components of these phenomena, such as knowledge, belief, and preference. In recent years, standard ‘static’ logics describing information states of agents have been generalized to dynamic logics describing actions and events that produce information, revise beliefs, or change preferences, as explicit parts of the logical system. Van Ditmarsch, van der Hoek & Kooi 2007, Baltag, van Ditmarsch & Moss 2008, van Benthem, to appear A, are up-to-date (...)
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  • Knowledge, Time, and Paradox: Introducing Sequential Epistemic Logic.Wesley Holliday - 2018 - In Jaakko Hintikka on Knowledge and Game-Theoretical Semantics. Springer Verlag.
    Epistemic logic in the tradition of Hintikka provides, as one of its many applications, a toolkit for the precise analysis of certain epistemological problems. In recent years, dynamic epistemic logic has expanded this toolkit. Dynamic epistemic logic has been used in analyses of well-known epistemic “paradoxes”, such as the Paradox of the Surprise Examination and Fitch’s Paradox of Knowability, and related epistemic phenomena, such as what Hintikka called the “anti-performatory effect” of Moorean announcements. In this paper, we explore a variation (...)
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  • Reasoning About Permitted Announcements.P. Balbiani & P. Seban - 2011 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (4):445-472.
    We formalize what it means to have permission to say something. We adapt the dynamic logic of permission by van der Meyden (J Log Comput 6(3):465–479, 1996 ) to the case where atomic actions are public truthful announcements. We also add a notion of obligation. Our logic is an extension of the logic of public announcements introduced by Plaza ( 1989 ) with dynamic modal operators for permission and for obligation. We axiomatize the logic and show that it is decidable.
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  • Reasoning with Protocols Under Imperfect Information.Eric Pacuit & Sunil Simon - 2011 - Review of Symbolic Logic 4 (3):412-444.
    We introduce and study a PDL-style logic for reasoning about protocols, or plans, under imperfect information. Our paper touches on a number of issues surrounding the relationship between an agent’s abilities, available choices, and information in an interactive situation. The main question we address is under what circumstances can the agent commit to a protocol or plan, and what can she achieve by doing so?
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  • Logic in a Social Setting.Johan van Benthem - 2011 - Episteme 8 (3):227-247.
    Taking Backward Induction as its running example, this paper explores avenues for a logic of information-driven social action. We use recent results on limit phenomena in knowledge updating and belief revision, procedural rationality, and a ‘Theory of Play’ analyzing how games are played by different agents.
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  • Merging DEL and ETL.Tomohiro Hoshi - 2010 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (4):413-430.
    This paper surveys the interface between the two major logical trends that describe agents’ intelligent interaction over time: dynamic epistemic logic (DEL) and epistemic temporal logic (ETL). The initial attempt to “merge” DEL and ETL was made in van Benthem et al. (Merging frameworks for interaction: DEL and ETL, 2007) and followed up by van Benthem et al. (J Phil Logic 38(5):491–526, 2009) and Hoshi (Epistemic dynamics and protocol information. Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University Stanford, 2009a). The merged framework provides a (...)
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  • Hidden Protocols: Modifying Our Expectations in an Evolving World.Hans Van Ditmarsch, Sujata Ghosh, Rineke Verbrugge & Yanjing Wang - 2014 - Artificial Intelligence 208 (1):18--40.
    When agents know a protocol, this leads them to have expectations about future observations. Agents can update their knowledge by matching their actual observations with the expected ones. They eliminate states where they do not match. In this paper, we study how agents perceive protocols that are not commonly known, and propose a semantics-driven logical framework to reason about knowledge in such scenarios. In particular, we introduce the notion of epistemic expectation models and a propositional dynamic logic-style epistemic logic for (...)
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  • The Logic of Observation and Belief Revision in Scientific Communities.Hanna Sofie van Lee & Sonja Smets - forthcoming - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie:1-24.
    Scientists collect evidence in order to confirm or falsify scientific theories. Unfortunately, scientific evidence may sometimes be false or deceiving and as a consequence lead individuals to believe in a false theory. By interaction between scientists, such false beliefs may spread through the entire community. There is currently a debate about the effect of various network configurations on the epistemic reliability of scientific communities. To contribute to this debate from a logical perspective, this paper introduces an epistemic logical framework of (...)
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  • Dynamic Epistemic Logic II: Logics of Information Change.Eric Pacuit - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (9):815-833.
    This is the second paper in a two-part series introducing logics for reasoning about the dynamics of knowledge and beliefs. Part I introduced different logical systems that can be used to reason about the knowledge and beliefs of a group of agents. In this second paper, I show how to adapt these logical systems to reason about the knowledge and beliefs of a group of agents during the course of a social interaction or rational inquiry. Inference, communication and observation are (...)
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  • Dynamic Epistemic Logic with Branching Temporal Structures.Tomohiro Hoshi & Audrey Yap - 2009 - Synthese 169 (2):259 - 281.
    van Bentham et al. (Merging frameworks for interaction: DEL and ETL, 2007) provides a framework for generating the models of Epistemic Temporal Logic ( ETL : Fagin et al., Reasoning about knowledge, 1995; Parikh and Ramanujam, Journal of Logic, Language, and Information, 2003) from the models of Dynamic Epistemic Logic ( DEL : Baltag et al., in: Gilboa (ed.) Tark 1998, 1998; Gerbrandy, Bisimulations on Planet Kripke, 1999). We consider the logic TDEL on the merged semantic framework, and its extension (...)
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  • Natural Language and Logic of Agency.Johan van Benthem - 2014 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (3):367-382.
    This light piece reflects on analogies between two often disjoint streams of research: the logical semantics and pragmatics of natural language and dynamic logics of general information-driven agency. The two areas show significant overlap in themes and tools, and yet, the focus seems subtly different in each, defying a simple comparison. We discuss some unusual questions that emerge when the two are put side by side, without any pretense at covering the whole literature or at reaching definitive conclusions.
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  • Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Yanjing Wang - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (3):647-654.
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  • Action Models in Inquisitive Logic.Thom van Gessel - forthcoming - Synthese:1-41.
    Information exchange can be viewed as a process of asking questions and answering them. While dynamic epistemic logic traditionally focuses on statements, recent developments have been concerned with ways of incorporating questions. One approach, based on the framework of inquisitive semantics, is inquisitive dynamic epistemic logic ). In this system, agents are represented with issues as well as information. On the dynamic level, it can model actions that raise new issues. Compared to other approaches, a limitation of \ is that (...)
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  • Reverse Public Announcement Operators on Expanded Models.Ryuichi Sebastian Haney - 2018 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 27 (3):205-224.
    Past public announcement operators have been defined in Hoshi and Yap :259–281, 2009) and Yap, to describe an agent’s knowledge before an announcement occurs. These operators rely on branching-time structures that do not mirror the traditional, relativization-based semantics of public announcement logic, and favor a historical reading of past announcements. In this paper, we introduce reverse public announcement operators that are interpreted on expanded models. Our model expansion adds accessibility links from an epistemic model \ to a filtrated submodel of (...)
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  • Revocable Belief Revision.Hans van Ditmarsch - 2013 - Studia Logica 101 (6):1185-1214.
    Krister Segerberg proposed irrevocable belief revision, to be contrasted with standard belief revision, in a setting wherein belief of propositional formulas is modelled explicitly. This suggests that in standard belief revision is revocable: one should be able to unmake (‘revoke’) the fresh belief in the revision formula, given yet further information that contradicts it. In a dynamic epistemic logical setting for belief revision, for multiple agents, we investigate what the requirements are for revocable belief revision. By this we not merely (...)
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  • Belief Change in Branching Time: AGM-Consistency and Iterated Revision. [REVIEW]Giacomo Bonanno - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (1):201-236.
    We study belief change in the branching-time structures introduced in Bonanno (Artif Intell 171:144–160, 2007 ). First, we identify a property of branching-time frames that is equivalent (when the set of states is finite) to AGM-consistency, which is defined as follows. A frame is AGM-consistent if the partial belief revision function associated with an arbitrary state-instant pair and an arbitrary model based on that frame can be extended to a full belief revision function that satisfies the AGM postulates. Second, we (...)
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  • Logic for Update Products and Steps Into the Past.Joshua Sack - 2010 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 161 (12):1431-1461.
    This paper provides a sound and complete proof system for a language that adds to Dynamic Epistemic Logic a discrete previous-time operator as well as single symbol formulas that partially reveal the most recent event that occurred. The completeness theorem is by filtration followed by model unraveling and other model transformations. Decidability follows from the completeness proof. The degree to which it is important to include the additional single symbol formulas is addressed in a discussion about the difficulties of the (...)
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  • Priority Structures in Deontic Logic.Johan Benthem, Davide Grossi & Fenrong Liu - 2014 - Theoria 80 (2):116-152.
    This article proposes a systematic application of recent developments in the logic of preference to a number of topics in deontic logic. The key junction is the well-known Hansson conditional for dyadic obligations. These conditionals are generalized by pairing them with reasoning about syntactic priority structures. The resulting two-level approach to obligations is tested first against standard scenarios of contrary-to-duty obligations, leading also to a generalization for the Kanger-Anderson reduction of deontic logic. Next, the priority framework is applied to model (...)
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  • Combinations of Stit and Actions.Ming Xu - 2010 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (4):485-503.
    We present a simple theory of actions against the background of branching time, based on which we propose two versions of an extended stit theory, one equipped with particular actions and the other with sets of such actions. After reporting some basic results of a formal development of such a theory, we briefly explore its connection to a version of branching ETL.
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  • Automata for Epistemic Temporal Logic with Synchronous Communication.Swarup Mohalik & R. Ramanujam - 2010 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 19 (4):451-484.
    We suggest that developing automata theoretic foundations is relevant for knowledge theory, so that we study not only what is known by agents, but also the mechanisms by which such knowledge is arrived at. We define a class of epistemic automata, in which agents’ local states are annotated with abstract knowledge assertions about others. These are finite state agents who communicate synchronously with each other and information exchange is ‘perfect’. We show that the class of recognizable languages has good closure (...)
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  • Merging Frameworks for Interaction.Johan van Benthem, Jelle Gerbrandy, Tomohiro Hoshi & Eric Pacuit - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (5):491-526.
    A variety of logical frameworks have been developed to study rational agents interacting over time. This paper takes a closer look at one particular interface, between two systems that both address the dynamics of knowledge and information flow. The first is Epistemic Temporal Logic (ETL) which uses linear or branching time models with added epistemic structure induced by agents’ different capabilities for observing events. The second framework is Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL) that describes interactive processes in terms of epistemic event (...)
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  • Logics of Temporal-Epistemic Actions.Bryan Renne, Joshua Sack & Audrey Yap - 2016 - Synthese 193 (3):813-849.
    We present Dynamic Epistemic Temporal Logic, a framework for reasoning about operations on multi-agent Kripke models that contain a designated temporal relation. These operations are natural extensions of the well-known “action models” from Dynamic Epistemic Logic. Our “temporal action models” may be used to define a number of informational actions that can modify the “objective” temporal structure of a model along with the agents’ basic and higher-order knowledge and beliefs about this structure, including their beliefs about the time. In essence, (...)
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  • To Know or Not to Know: Epistemic Approaches to Security Protocol Verification.Francien Dechesne & Yanjing Wang - 2010 - Synthese 177 (S1):51-76.
    Security properties naturally combine temporal aspects of protocols with aspects of knowledge of the agents. Since BAN-logic, there have been several initiatives and attempts to incorpórate epistemics into the analysis of security protocols. In this paper, we give an overview of work in the field and present it in a unified perspective, with comparisons on technical subtleties that have been employed in different approaches. Also, we study to which degree the use of epistemics is essential for the analysis of security (...)
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  • On Axiomatizations of Public Announcement Logic.Yanjing Wang & Qinxiang Cao - 2013 - Synthese 190 (S1).
    In the literature, different axiomatizations of Public Announcement Logic (PAL) have been proposed. Most of these axiomatizations share a “core set” of the so-called “reduction axioms”. In this paper, by designing non-standard Kripke semantics for the language of PAL, we show that the proof system based on this core set of axioms does not completely axiomatize PAL without additional axioms and rules. In fact, many of the intuitive axioms and rules we took for granted could not be derived from the (...)
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  • Toward a Dynamic Logic of Questions.Johan van Benthem & Ştefan Minică - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (4):633-669.
    Questions are triggers for explicit events of ‘issue management’. We give a complete logic in dynamic-epistemic style for events of raising, refining, and resolving an issue, all in the presence of information flow through observation or communication. We explore extensions of the framework to multi-agent scenarios and long-term temporal protocols. We sketch a comparison with some alternative accounts.
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  • Toward a Dynamic Logic of Questions.Johan Benthem & Ştefan Minică - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (4):633 - 669.
    Questions are triggers for explicit events of 'issue management'. We give a complete logic in dynamic-epistemic style for events of raising, refining, and resolving an issue, all in the presence of information flow through observation or communication. We explore extensions of the framework to multiagent scenarios and long-term temporal protocols. We sketch a comparison with some alternative accounts.
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  • Actions as Events.Ming Xu - 2012 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 41 (4):765 - 809.
    We present a theory of actions based on a theory of events in branching time, in which "particular" or "token" actions are taken to be sets of transitions from their initial states to the outcomes. We also present a simple theory of composition of events by which composite events can be formed out of other events. Various kinds of actions, including instantaneous group actions and sequential group actions, are introduced by way of composition, and an extended stit theory of agency (...)
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