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# Natural logic for natural language

 A Generalized Syllogistic Inference System Based on Inclusion and Exclusion Relations.Koji Mineshima, Mitsuhiro Okada & Ryo Takemura - 2012 - Studia Logica 100 (4):753-785.We introduce a simple inference system based on two primitive relations between terms, namely, inclusion and exclusion relations. We present a normalization theorem, and then provide a characterization of the structure of normal proofs. Based on this, inferences in a syllogistic fragment of natural language are reconstructed within our system. We also show that our system can be embedded into a fragment of propositional minimal logic. Direct download (4 more)     Export citation     Bookmark   2 citations A System of Relational Syllogistic Incorporating Full Boolean Reasoning.Nikolay Ivanov & Dimiter Vakarelov - 2012 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (4):433-459.We present a system of relational syllogistic, based on classical propositional logic, having primitives of the following form: $$\begin{array}{ll}\mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are} \,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some} \,b;\\ \mathbf{Some}\, a \,{\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{some}\, b;\\ \mathbf{All}\, a\, {\rm are}\,R-{\rm related}\, {\rm to}\, \mathbf{all} \,b.\end{array}$$ Such primitives formalize sentences from natural language like ‘ All students read some textbooks’. Here a, b denote arbitrary sets (of objects), and R denotes an (...) Direct download (5 more)     Export citation     Bookmark   2 citations An Analytic Tableau System for Natural Logic.Reinhard Muskens - 2010 - In Maria Aloni, H. Bastiaanse, T. De Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds.), Logic, Language and Meaning. Springer. pp. 104-113.Logic has its roots in the study of valid argument, but while traditional logicians worked with natural language directly, modern approaches first translate natural arguments into an artificial language. The reason for this step is that some artificial languages now have very well developed inferential systems. There is no doubt that this is a great advantage in general, but for the study of natural reasoning it is a drawback that the original linguistic forms get lost in translation. An alternative approach (...) Direct download     Export citation     Bookmark We propose a model of natural language inference which identifies valid inferences by their lexical and syntactic features, without full semantic interpretation. We extend past work in natural logic, which has focused on semantic containment and monotonicity, by incorporating both semantic exclusion and implicativity. Our model decomposes an inference problem into a sequence of atomic edits linking premise to hypothesis; predicts a lexical semantic relation for each edit; propagates these relations upward through a semantic composition tree according to properties of (...) Direct download     Export citation     Bookmark   1 citation This paper presents the ﬁrst use of a computational model of natural logic—a system of logical inference which operates over natural language—for textual inference. Most current approaches to the PAS- CAL RTE textual inference task achieve robustness by sacriﬁcing semantic precision; while broadly effective, they are easily confounded by ubiquitous inferences involving monotonicity. At the other extreme, systems which rely on ﬁrst-order logic and theorem proving are precise, but excessively brittle. This work aims at a middle way. Our system ﬁnds (...) Direct download   Translate     Export citation     Bookmark   3 citations This paper is a brief history of natural logic at the interface of logic, linguistics, and nowadays also other disciplines. It merely summarizes some facts that deserve to be common knowledge. Direct download   Translate     Export citation     Bookmark   3 citations