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  1. The Curious Case of Connectionism.Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2019 - Open Philosophy 2 (1):190-205.
    Connectionist research first emerged in the 1940s. The first phase of connectionism attracted a certain amount of media attention, but scant philosophical interest. The phase came to an abrupt halt, due to the efforts of Minsky and Papert, when they argued for the intrinsic limitations of the approach. In the mid-1980s connectionism saw a resurgence. This marked the beginning of the second phase of connectionist research. This phase did attract considerable philosophical attention. It was of philosophical interest, as it offered (...)
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  • What Could Cognition Be If Not Computation…Or Connectionism, or Dynamic Systems?Mark H. Bickhard - 2015 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 35 (1):53-66.
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  • On the Subsymbolic Nature of a PDP Architecture That Uses a Nonmonotonic Activation Function.Michael R. W. Dawson & C. Darren Piercey - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (2):197-218.
    PDP networks that use nonmonotonic activation functions often produce hidden unit regularities that permit the internal structure of these networks to be interpreted (Berkeley et al., 1995; McCaughan, 1997; Dawson, 1998). In particular, when the responses of hidden units to a set of patterns are graphed using jittered density plots, these plots organize themselves into a set of discrete stripes or bands. In some cases, each band is associated with a local interpretation. On the basis of these observations, Berkeley (2000) (...)
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  • What the <0.70, 1.17, 0.99, 1.07> is a Symbol?Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):93-105.
    The notion of a ‘symbol’ plays an important role in the disciplines of Philosophy, Psychology, Computer Science, and Cognitive Science. However, there is comparatively little agreement on how this notion is to be understood, either between disciplines, or even within particular disciplines. This paper does not attempt to defend some putatively ‘correct’ version of the concept of a ‘symbol.’ Rather, some terminological conventions are suggested, some constraints are proposed and a taxonomy of the kinds of issue that give rise to (...)
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  • Moving the Goal Posts: A Reply to Dawson and Piercey. [REVIEW]Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (4):471-478.
    Berkeley [Minds Machines 10 (2000) 1] described a methodology that showed the subsymbolic nature of an artificial neural network system that had been trained on a logic problem, originally described by Bechtel and Abrahamsen [Connectionism and the mind. Blackwells, Cambridge, MA, 1991]. It was also claimed in the conclusion of this paper that the evidence was suggestive that the network might, in fact, count as a symbolic system. Dawson and Piercey [Minds Machines 11 (2001) 197] took issue with this latter (...)
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  • What the is a Symbol?Istvan S. N. Berkeley - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):93-105.
    The notion of a ‘ symbol ’ plays an important role in the disciplines of Philosophy, Psychology, Computer Science, and Cognitive Science. However, there is comparatively little agreement on how this notion is to be understood, either between disciplines, or even within particular disciplines. This paper does not attempt to defend some putatively ‘correct’ version of the concept of a ‘ symbol.’ Rather, some terminological conventions are suggested, some constraints are proposed and a taxonomy of the kinds of issue that (...)
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