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  1. (Social) Metacognition and (Self-)Trust.Kourken Michaelian - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (4):481-514.
    What entitles you to rely on information received from others? What entitles you to rely on information retrieved from your own memory? Intuitively, you are entitled simply to trust yourself, while you should monitor others for signs of untrustworthiness. This article makes a case for inverting the intuitive view, arguing that metacognitive monitoring of oneself is fundamental to the reliability of memory, while monitoring of others does not play a significant role in ensuring the reliability of testimony.
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  • Science, Human Nature, and a New Paradigm for Ethics Education.Marc Lampe - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):543-549.
    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to “self-deception” and “personal bias.” Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning (...)
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  • Self-Deception: A Teleofunctional Approach.David Livingstone Smith - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (1):181-199.
    This paper aims to offer an alternative to the existing philosophical theories of self-deception. It describes and motivates a teleofunctional theory that models self-deception on the subintentional deceptions perpetrated by non-human organisms. Existing theories of self-deception generate paradoxes, are empirically implausible, or fail to account for the distinction between self-deception and other kinds of motivated irrationality. Deception is not a uniquely human phenomenon: biologists have found that many non-human organisms deceive and are deceived. A close analysis of the pollination strategy (...)
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  • Morgan’s Canon, Meet Hume’s Dictum: Avoiding Anthropofabulation in Cross-Species Comparisons.Cameron Buckner - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (5):853-871.
    How should we determine the distribution of psychological traits—such as Theory of Mind, episodic memory, and metacognition—throughout the Animal kingdom? Researchers have long worried about the distorting effects of anthropomorphic bias on this comparative project. A purported corrective against this bias was offered as a cornerstone of comparative psychology by C. Lloyd Morgan in his famous “Canon”. Also dangerous, however, is a distinct bias that loads the deck against animal mentality: our tendency to tie the competence criteria for cognitive capacities (...)
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  • Denial in Addiction.Hanna Pickard - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (3):277-299.
    I argue that denial plays a central but insufficiently recognized role in addiction. The puzzle inherent in addiction is why drug use persists despite negative consequences. The orthodox conception of addiction resolves this puzzle by appeal to compulsion; but there is increasing evidence that addicts are not compelled to use but retain choice and control over their consumption in many circumstances. Denial offers an alternative explanation: there is no puzzle as to why drug use persists despite negative consequences if these (...)
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  • Self-Deception as Affective Coping. An Empirical Perspective on Philosophical Issues.Federico Lauria, Delphine Preissmann & Fabrice Clément - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 41:119-134.
    In the philosophical literature, self-deception is mainly approached through the analysis of paradoxes. Yet, it is agreed that self-deception is motivated by protection from distress. In this paper, we argue, with the help of findings from cognitive neuroscience and psychology, that self-deception is a type of affective coping. First, we criticize the main solutions to the paradoxes of self-deception. We then present a new approach to self-deception. Self-deception, we argue, involves three appraisals of the distressing evidence: (a) appraisal of the (...)
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  • Let’s Not Agree to Disagree: The Role of Strategic Disagreement in Science.Carlos Santana - forthcoming - Synthese:1-19.
    Supposedly, stubbornness on the part of scientists—an unwillingness to change one’s position on a scientific issue even in the face of countervailing evidence—helps efficiently divide scientific labor. Maintaining disagreement is important because it keeps scientists pursuing a diversity of leads rather than all working on the most promising, and stubbornness helps preserve this disagreement. Planck’s observation that “Science progresses one funeral at a time” might therefore be an insight into epistemically beneficial stubbornness on the part of researchers. In conversation with (...)
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  • An Indecent Proposal: The Dual Functions of Indirect Speech.Aleksandr Chakroff, Kyle A. Thomas, Omar S. Haque & Liane Young - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (1):199-211.
    People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be “a way to take care of things without all the paperwork.” Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical (...)
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  • Self-Deception and Shifting Degrees of Belief.Chi Yin Chan & Darrell P. Rowbottom - 2019 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (8):1204-1220.
    A major problem posed by cases of self-deception concerns the inconsistent behavior of the self-deceived subject (SDS). How can this be accounted for, in terms of propositional attitudes and other mental states? In this paper, we argue that key problems with two recent putative solutions, due to Mele and Archer, are avoided by “the shifting view” that has been advanced elsewhere in order to explain cases where professed beliefs conflict with actions. We show that self-deceived agents may possess highly unstable (...)
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  • The Selfish Goal: Autonomously Operating Motivational Structures as the Proximate Cause of Human Judgment and Behavior.Julie Y. Huang & John A. Bargh - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (2):121-135.
  • Deception: A Functional Account.Marc Artiga & Cédric Paternotte - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (3):579-600.
    Deception has recently received a significant amount of attention. One of main reasons is that it lies at the intersection of various areas of research, such as the evolution of cooperation, animal communication, ethics or epistemology. This essay focuses on the biological approach to deception and argues that standard definitions put forward by most biologists and philosophers are inadequate. We provide a functional account of deception which solves the problems of extant accounts in virtue of two characteristics: deceptive states have (...)
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  • Making Sense of Self-Deception: Distinguishing Self-Deception From Delusion, Moral Licensing, Cognitive Dissonance and Other Self-Distortions.Elias L. Khalil - 2017 - Philosophy 92 (4):539-563.
    There has been no systematic study in the literature of how self-deception differs from other kinds of self-distortion. For example, the term ‘cognitive dissonance’ has been used in some cases as a rag-bag term for all kinds of self-distortion. To address this, a narrow definition is given: self-deception involves injecting a given set of facts with an erroneous fact to make anex antesuboptimal decision seem as if it wereex anteoptimal. Given this narrow definition, this paper delineates self-deception from deception as (...)
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  • On Dreams and Motivation: Comparison of Freud’s and Hobson’s Views.Simon Boag - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Why Do We Remember? The Communicative Function of Episodic Memory.Johannes B. Mahr & Gergely Csibra - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
    Episodic memory has been analyzed in a number of different ways in both philosophy and psychology, and most controversy has centered on its self-referential,autonoeticcharacter. Here, we offer a comprehensive characterization of episodic memory in representational terms and propose a novel functional account on this basis. We argue that episodic memory should be understood as a distinctive epistemic attitude taken toward an event simulation. In this view, episodic memory has a metarepresentational format and should not be equated with beliefs about the (...)
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  • Beyond Dualities in Behavioural Economics: What Can G. H. Mead’s Conceptions of Self and Reflexivity Contribute to the Current Debate?Carsten Herrmann-Pillath - 2019 - Journal of Economic Methodology 26 (2):118-132.
    ABSTRACTDual systems theories play an important role in the conceptual foundations of behavioural economics, such as distinguishing between ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ responses to stimuli. After critically reflecting their empirical validity in the light of recent research in psychology and the neurosciences, I argue that their major flaw is the inadequate treatment of reflection. I introduce the distinction between ‘reflectivity’ and ‘reflexivity’, showing that human action involves complex brain connectivities that integrate the two systems, as understood traditionally. G. H. Mead’s distinction (...)
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  • Self-Deception Reduces Cognitive Load: The Role of Involuntary Conscious Memory Impairment.Zengdan Jian, Wenjie Zhang, Ling Tian, Wei Fan & Yiping Zhong - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • The Myth of Cognitive Agency: Subpersonal Thinking as a Cyclically Recurring Loss of Mental Autonomy.Thomas Metzinger - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4:931.
    This metatheoretical paper investigates mind wandering from the perspective of philosophy of mind. It has two central claims. The first is that, on a conceptual level, mind wandering can be fruitfully described as a specific form of mental autonomy loss. The second is that, given empirical constraints, most of what we call “conscious thought” is better analyzed as a subpersonal process that more often than not lacks crucial properties traditionally taken to be the hallmark of personal-level cognition - such as (...)
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  • Sleep and Dreaming in the Predictive Processing Framework.Alessio Bucci & Matteo Grasso - 2017 - Philosophy and Predictive Processing.
    Sleep and dreaming are important daily phenomena that are receiving growing attention from both the scientific and the philosophical communities. The increasingly popular predictive brain framework within cognitive science aims to give a full account of all aspects of cognition. The aim of this paper is to critically assess the theoretical advantages of Predictive Processing (PP, as proposed by Clark 2013, Clark 2016; and Hohwy 2013) in defining sleep and dreaming. After a brief introduction, we overview the state of the (...)
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  • “Strategically Wrong”: Bias and Argumentation.Santibanez Yanez Cristian - unknown
    The brain is composed of mutually inconsistent modules that contain contradictory beliefs. What consequences could this view have on argumentation? In order to sketch an answer, first the family of concepts of what is called generalized deception is discussed; then, this discussion is applied to the problem of the social influence bias to observe both how the mind works strategically wrong and what kind of arguments are used within this mental design in a social argumentative context.
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  • Stimulating the Right Temporoparietal Junction with tDCS Decreases Deception in Moral Hypocrisy and Unfairness.Honghong Tang, Peixia Ye, Shun Wang, Ruida Zhu, Song Su, Luqiong Tong & Chao Liu - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Behavioural Deception and Formal Models of Communication.Gregory McWhirter - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (3):757-780.
    Having a satisfactory definition of behavioural deception is important for understanding several types of evolutionary questions. No definition offered in the literature so far is adequate on all fronts. After identifying characteristics that are important for a definition, a new definition of behavioural deception is offered. The new definition, like some other proposed attempts, relies on formal game-theoretic models of signalling. Unlike others, it incorporates explicit consideration of the population in which the potentially deceptive interactions occur. The general structure of (...)
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  • Truth and Consequences: When Is It Rational to Accept Falsehoods?Taner Edis & Maarten Boudry - 2019 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 19 (1-2):147-169.
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  • Künstliche Intelligenz: Chancen und Risiken.Mannino Adriano, David Althaus, Jonathan Erhardt, Lukas Gloor, Adrian Hutter & Thomas Metzinger - 2015 - Diskussionspapiere der Stiftung Für Effektiven Altruismus 2:1-17.
    Die Übernahme des KI-Unternehmens DeepMind durch Google für rund eine halbe Milliarde US-Dollar signalisierte vor einem Jahr, dass von der KI-Forschung vielversprechende Ergebnisse erwartet werden. Spätestens seit bekannte Wissenschaftler wie Stephen Hawking und Unternehmer wie Elon Musk oder Bill Gates davor warnen, dass künstliche Intelligenz eine Bedrohung für die Menschheit darstellt, schlägt das KI-Thema hohe Wellen. Die Stiftung für Effektiven Altruismus (EAS, vormals GBS Schweiz) hat mit der Unterstützung von Experten/innen aus Informatik und KI ein umfassendes Diskussionspapier zu den Chancen (...)
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  • Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake.Luis E. Echarte, Javier Bernacer, Denis Larrivee, J. V. Oron & Miguel Grijalba-Uche - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  • Neural Mechanisms of Motivated Forgetting.Michael C. Anderson & Simon Hanslmayr - 2014 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 18 (6):279-292.
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  • Picture Yourself: Self-Focus and the Endowment Effect in Preschool Children.Bruce Hood, Sandra Weltzien, Lauren Marsh & Patricia Kanngiesser - 2016 - Cognition 152:70-77.
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  • Seis décadas de estudios sobre el autoengaño: problemas perennes y nuevos interrogantes.Gustavo Fernández Acevedo - 2018 - Páginas de Filosofía 19 (22):9-32.
    En las últimas seis décadas el fenómeno del autoengaño ha sido objeto de creciente interés no sólo en el ámbito de la filosofía, dentro de la cual fue tradicionalmente estudiado, sino también en el de distintas ciencias, entre ellas la psicología, las neurociencias, la biología evolucionista y las ciencias sociales. Este incremento en el interés ha redundado en una proliferación de interrogantes y propuestas teóricas de muy diversas clases, sin que hasta la fecha se haya logrado una teoría unificada que (...)
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  • The Puzzle of Self‐Deception.Maria Baghramian & Anna Nicholson - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (11):1018-1029.
    It is commonly accepted that people can, and regularly do, deceive themselves. Yet closer examination reveals a set of conceptual puzzles that make self-deception difficult to explain. Applying the conditions for other-deception to self-deception generates what are known as the ‘paradoxes’ of belief and intention. Simply put, the central problem is how it is possible for me to believe one thing, and yet intentionally cause myself to simultaneously believe its contradiction. There are two general approaches taken by philosophers to account (...)
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  • Autoengaño Y Evidencia.Gustavo Fernández Acevedo - 2018 - Manuscrito 41 (3):125-161.
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  • The Complementarity of Mindshaping and Mindreading.Uwe Peters - 2019 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 18 (3):533-549.
    Why do we engage in folk psychology, that is, why do we think about and ascribe propositional attitudes such as beliefs, desires, intentions etc. to people? On the standard view, folk psychology is primarily for mindreading, for detecting mental states and explaining and/or predicting people’s behaviour in terms of them. In contrast, McGeer (1996, 2007, 2015), and Zawidzki (2008, 2013) maintain that folk psychology is not primarily for mindreading but for mindshaping, that is, for moulding people’s behavior and minds (e.g., (...)
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  • The Slow Decay and Quick Revival of Self-Deception.Zoë Chance, Francesca Gino, Michael I. Norton & Dan Ariely - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  • Are Proselfs More Deceptive and Hypocritical? Social Image Concerns in Appearing Fair.Honghong Tang, Shun Wang, Zilu Liang, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Song Su & Chao Liu - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • A Duty of Ignorance.David Matheson - 2013 - Episteme 10 (2):193-205.
    Conjoined with the claim that there is a moral right to privacy, each of the major contemporary accounts of privacy implies a duty of ignorance for those against whom the right is held. In this paper I consider and respond to a compelling argument that challenges these accounts (or the claim about a right to privacy) in the light of this implication. A crucial premise of the argument is that we cannot ever be morally obligated to become ignorant of information (...)
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  • The Evolution of Testimony: Receiver Vigilance, Speaker Honesty and the Reliability of Communication.Kourken Michaelian - 2013 - Episteme 10 (1):37-59.
    Drawing on both empirical evidence and evolutionary considerations, Sperber et al. argue that humans have a suite of evolved mechanisms for . On their view, vigilance plays a crucial role in ensuring the reliability and hence the evolutionary stability of communication. This article responds to their argument for vigilance, drawing on additional empirical evidence (from deception detection research) and evolutionary considerations (from animal signalling research) to defend a more optimistic, quasi-Reidian view of communication. On this alternative view, the lion's share (...)
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  • Organizational Structures and Practices Are Better Predictors of Suicide Terror Threats Than Individual Psychological Dispositions.Hector Qirko - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):374-375.
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  • Cognitive Simplicity and Self-Deception Are Crucial in Martyrdom and Suicide Terrorism.Bernhard Fink & Robert Trivers - 2014 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 37 (4):366-367.
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  • El Reto Afectivo de la Investigación Interdisciplinar.Luis E. Echarte Alonso - 2016 - Scientia et Fides 4 (2):155-183.
    The affective challenge of interdisciplinary research: In this paper I analyze the affective problem related to interdisciplinary research using, as a guiding theme, some of my autobiographical memories linked to Mariano Artigas. Starting from a theory of feelings that connects emotions closely to reasons, I defend that many problems in developing interdisciplinary research are caused by the current divorce reason/emotion in which many researchers are educated. Secondly, I identify three types of feelings in a hierarchical relationship, whose scope may be (...)
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  • The Influence of Self-Control and Social Status on Self-Deception.Mengmeng Ren, Bowei Zhong, Wei Fan, Hongmei Dai, Bo Yang, Wenjie Zhang, Zongxiang Yin, Juan Liu, Jin Li & Youlong Zhan - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
  • The Effect of Negative Feedback on Positive Beliefs in Self-Deception.Juan Liu, Wenjie Zhang, Youlong Zhan, Lixin Song, Peipei Guan, Dan Kang, Jie Jian, Ronghua Cai & Mei Li - 2019 - Frontiers in Psychology 10.
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  • Performance, Self-Explanation, and Agency.Ron Mallon - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (10):2777-2798.
    Social constructionist explanations of human thought and behavior hold that our representations produce and regulate the categories, thoughts, and behaviors of those they represent. Performative versions of constructionist accounts explain these thoughts and behaviors as part of an intentional, strategic performance that is elicited and regulated by our representations of ourselves. This paper has four aims. First, I sketch a causal model of performative social constructionist claims. Second, I articulate a puzzling feature of performative claims that makes them seem especially (...)
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  • The Dark Triad and the PID-5 Maladaptive Personality Traits: Accuracy, Confidence and Response Bias in Judgments of Veracity.Benno G. Wissing & Marc-André Reinhard - 2017 - Frontiers in Psychology 8.
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  • Accuracy, Bias, Self-Fulfilling Prophecies, and Scientific Self-Correction.Lee Jussim - 2017 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 40.
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  • Beliefs as Signals: A New Function for Belief.Eric Funkhouser - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (6):809-831.
    Beliefs serve at least two broad functions. First, they help us navigate the world. Second, they serve as signals to manipulate others. Philosophers and psychologists have focused on the first function while largely overlooking the second. This article advances a conception of signals and makes a prima facie case for a social signaling function for at least some beliefs. Truth and rational support are often irrelevant to the signaling function. If some beliefs evolved for a signaling function, then we should (...)
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  • Feelings of the Future.Beyon Miloyan & Thomas Suddendorf - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (4):196-200.
  • How Convenient! The Epistemic Rationale of Self-Validating Belief Systems.Maarten Boudry & Johan Braeckman - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (3):341-364.
    This paper offers an epistemological discussion of self-validating belief systems and the recurrence of ?epistemic defense mechanisms? and ?immunizing strategies? across widely different domains of knowledge. We challenge the idea that typical ?weird? belief systems are inherently fragile, and we argue that, instead, they exhibit a surprising degree of resilience in the face of adverse evidence and criticism. Borrowing from the psychological research on belief perseverance, rationalization and motivated reasoning, we argue that the human mind is particularly susceptible to belief (...)
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  • Is Self-Deception an Effective Non-Cooperative Strategy?Eric Funkhouser - 2017 - Biology and Philosophy 32 (2):221-242.
    Robert Trivers has proposed perhaps the only serious adaptationist account of self-deception—that the primary function of self-deception is to better deceive others. But this account covers only a subset of cases and needs further refinement. A better evolutionary account of self-deception and cognitive biases more generally will more rigorously recognize the various ways in which false beliefs affect both the self and others. This article offers formulas for determining the optimal doxastic orientation, giving special consideration to conflicted self-deception as an (...)
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  • Self-Deception’s Adaptive Value: Effects of Positive Thinking and the Winner Effect.Jason Kido Lopez & Matthew J. Fuxjager - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (1):315-324.
    There is a puzzle about why self-deception, a process that obscures the truth, is so pervasive in human behavior given that tracking the truth seems important for our survival and reproduction. William von Hippel and Robert Trivers argue that, despite appearances, there is good reason to think that self-deception is an adaptation by arguing: self-deception leads to a positive self-perception and a positive self-perception increases an individual’s fitness. D.S. Neil Van Leeuwen, however, gives persuasive arguments against both steps. In response, (...)
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  • Collaborating Agents: Values, Sociality, and Moral Responsibility.John M. Doris - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
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  • Showing Our Seams: A Reply to Eric Funkhouser.Neil Levy - 2018 - Philosophical Psychology 31 (7):991-1006.
    ABSTRACTIn a recent paper published in this journal, Eric Funkhouser argues that some of our beliefs have the primary function of signaling to others, rather than allowing us to navigate the world. Funkhouser’s case is persuasive. However, his account of beliefs as signals is underinclusive, omitting both beliefs that are signals to the self and less than full-fledged beliefs as signals. The latter set of beliefs, moreover, has a better claim to being considered as constituting a psychological kind in its (...)
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  • The Nature of Visual Self-Recognition.Thomas Suddendorf & David L. Butler - 2013 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (3):121-127.
    Visual self-recognition is often controversially cited as an indicator of self-awareness and assessed with the mirror-mark test. Great apes and humans, unlike small apes and monkeys, have repeatedly passed mirror tests, suggesting that the underlying brain processes are homologous and evolved 14-18 million years ago. However, neuroscientific, developmental, and clinical dissociations show that the medium used for self-recognition (mirror vs photograph vs video) significantly alters behavioral and brain responses, likely due to perceptual differences among the different media and prior experience. (...)
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