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Jia Wang & Betty S. Coffey (1992). Board Composition and Corporate Philanthropy.

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  1.  4
    Corporate Governance as a Key Driver of Corporate Sustainability in France: The Role of Board Members and Investor Relations.Patricia Crifo, Elena Escrig-Olmedo & Nicolas Mottis - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-20.
    This paper examines the relationships between corporate governance and corporate sustainability by focusing on two main components of companies’ governance structure: boards of directors and investor relations officers. We propose an original empirical strategy based on the 120 biggest French capitalizations for the year 2013, allowing us to measure boards of directors’ independence and expertise, as well as investor relations officers’ convictions and communication on corporate sustainability. Our results show that corporate governance has an ambiguous impact on corporate sustainability because (...)
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  2. Is There Informational Value in Corporate Giving?Kiyoung Chang, Hoje Jo & Ying Li - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 151 (2):473-496.
    In this article, we propose that giving in cash and non-cash differ in their relation with the giving firm’s future corporate financial performance and only cash giving is associated with future CFP. Using a novel dataset from ASSET4 that differentiates corporate giving over a sample period of 2002–2012, we examine three competing hypotheses: agency cost hypothesis that cash giving reflects agency cost and destroys value for shareholders, investment hypothesis that cash giving is an investment by management that aims for better (...)
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  3.  5
    Does Equity Ownership Matter for Corporate Social Responsibility? A Literature Review of Theories and Recent Empirical Findings.Christian M. Faller & Dodo zu Knyphausen-Aufseß - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 150 (1):15-40.
    Based on the concept of shareholder primacy, many scholars have argued that it is more important for businesses to earn profits for their shareholders than to provide benefits to society at large. Corporate social responsibility is often regarded as an investment that comes at the expense of shareholders. In contrast, research analyzing the connections between the equity ownership structure of a company and its level of CSR engagement suggests that CSR offers benefits to shareholders that go beyond direct financial returns (...)
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  4. Corporate Philanthropy, Reputation Risk Management and Shareholder Value: A Study of Australian Corporate Giving.Kate Hogarth, Marion Hutchinson & Wendy Scaife - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 151 (2):375-390.
    This study examines the role of corporate philanthropy in the management of reputation risk and shareholder value of the top 100 ASX listed Australian firms for the 3 years 2011–2013. The results of this study demonstrate the business case for corporate philanthropy and hence encourage corporate philanthropy by showing increasing firms’ investment in corporate giving as a percentage of profit before tax, increases the likelihood of an increase in shareholder value. However, the proviso is that firms must also manage their (...)
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  5.  11
    Corporate Governance and Sustainability Performance: Analysis of Triple Bottom Line Performance.Nazim Hussain, Ugo Rigoni & René P. Orij - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 149 (2):411-432.
    The study empirically investigates the relationship between corporate governance and the triple bottom line sustainability performance through the lens of agency theory and stakeholder theory. We claim, in fact, that no single theory fully accounts for all the hypothesised relationships. We measure sustainability performance through manual content analysis on sustainability reports of the US-based companies. The study extends the existing literature by investigating the impact of selected corporate governance mechanisms on each dimension of sustainability performance, as defined by the GRI (...)
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  6.  3
    Alliance Network Centrality, Board Composition, and Corporate Social Performance.Craig D. Macaulay, Orlando C. Richard, Mike W. Peng & Maria Hasenhuttl - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 151 (4):997-1008.
    What critical characteristics do firms have that determine the scale and scope of corporate social responsibility activities they undertake? This paper examines two disparate predictors of corporate social performance. First, using the lens of the resource-based view, we examine the role of alliance network centrality on corporate social performance. We find that centrality enhances corporate social performance. Second, we investigate how board composition affects corporate social performance. Specifically, drawing on stakeholder theory, we find that the percentage of female directors predicts (...)
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  7.  8
    Business for Good? An Investigation Into the Strategies Firms Use to Maximize the Impact of Financial Corporate Philanthropy on Employee Attitudes.Emily S. Block, Ante Glavas, Michael J. Mannor & Laura Erskine - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 146 (1):167-183.
    Most research on the corporate philanthropy of organizations has focused on the external benefits of such initiatives for firms, such as benefits for firm reputation and opportunities. However, many firms justify their giving, in part, due to the positive impact it has on their employees. Little is known about the effectiveness of such efforts, or how they can be managed strategically to maximize impact. We hypothesize a main effect of office-level corporate philanthropy on average employee attitudes in that office, but (...)
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  8.  19
    Exploring the Relationship Between Board Characteristics and CSR: Empirical Evidence From Korea.Young Kyun Chang, Won-Yong Oh, Jee Hyun Park & Myoung Gyun Jang - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (2):225-242.
    Previous studies in Western contexts have examined the relationships between various board characteristics and CSR, yet the relationships need to be re-examined in non-Western contexts given differential theoretical premises across contexts. We specifically propose that the effects of board characteristics on CSR in Korea should be patterned distinctively from Western-based existing literature, focusing on three important board characteristics, such as a board’s independence, social ties, and diversity. Using a panel dataset from large Korean firms, we found that various relationships between (...)
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  9.  5
    Professors on the Board: Do They Contribute to Society Outside the Classroom?Charles H. Cho, Jay Heon Jung, Byungjin Kwak, Jaywon Lee & Choong-Yuel Yoo - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (2):393-409.
    According to our data, 38.5 % of S&P 1500 firms have at least one professor on their boards. Given the lack of research examining the roles and effects of academic faculty as members of boards of directors on corporate outcomes, this study investigates whether firms with professor–directors are more likely to exhibit higher corporate social responsibility performance ratings. Results indicate that firms with professor–directors do exhibit higher CSR performance ratings than those without. However, the influence of professor–directors on firm CSR (...)
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  10.  14
    Religious Belief, Corporate Philanthropy, and Political Involvement of Entrepreneurs in Chinese Family Firms.Xingqiang Du - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (2):385-406.
    This study examines whether religious belief influences an entrepreneur’s political involvement and further explores the moderating role of corporate philanthropy. Using the data from the 2008 national survey of Chinese family firms, my study provides strong evidence to show that the likelihood of political involvement is significantly higher for entrepreneurs with religious beliefs than for their counterparts, suggesting that religious entrepreneurs in Chinese family firms are more likely to participate in political affairs. This finding echoes the view that religious believers (...)
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  11.  11
    Can Ivory Towers Be Green? The Impact of Organization Size on Organizational Social Performance.Meike Eilert, Kristen Walker & Jenny Dogan - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 140 (3):537-549.
    Organizations differ tremendously in the extent to which they engage in socially responsible behavior and the extent to which this behavior is evaluated by stakeholders. This research examines the complex role of organization size as a driver of perceptions of an organization’s socially responsible behavior and its social performance. Using a unique data set of 302 organizations in the higher education industry, we find that the strength of the organization size–organizational social performance relationship is contingent on whether the organization is (...)
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  12.  9
    Principal–Principal Conflicts and Corporate Philanthropy: Evidence From Chinese Private Firms.Sihai Li, Huiying Wu & Xianzhong Song - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 141 (3):605-620.
    The principal–principal perspective suggests that controlling shareholders have excessive influence on corporate philanthropy and may direct corporate funds to charitable causes to support their personal interests. Analysis of a sample of Chinese private firms listed on the Shenzhen or Shanghai stock exchange between 2004 and 2011 shows that there is a significant and negative relationship between corporate giving and the share held by the largest shareholders, suggesting that controlling shareholders are opportunistic in directing corporate charitable contributions; there is a significant (...)
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  13.  7
    Organizational Citizenship Behaviors of Directors: An Integrated Framework of Director Role-Identity and Boardroom Structure.Toru Yoshikawa & Helen Wei Hu - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (1):99-109.
    While directors’ task boundaries are usually ambiguous, some of their activities or behaviors clearly constitute their formal duties, whereas others are usually perceived as organizational citizenship behavior. Applying identity theory, we present a theoretical model that demonstrates one of the key drivers for directors to engage in OCB with a focus on their role identity. We argue that an individual director’s role identity is one of the key factors that motivate directors to engage in OCB. Furthermore, we propose that two (...)
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  14.  25
    Corporate Social Responsibility: Review and Roadmap of Theoretical Perspectives.Jędrzej George Frynas & Camila Yamahaki - 2016 - Business Ethics: A European Review 25 (3):258-285.
    Based on a survey and content analysis of 462 peer-reviewed academic articles over the period 1990–2014, this article reviews theories related to the external drivers of corporate social responsibility and the internal drivers of CSR that have been utilized to explain CSR. The article discusses the main tenets of the principal theoretical perspectives and their application in CSR research. Going beyond previous reviews that have largely failed to investigate theory applications in CSR scholarship, this article stresses the importance of theory-driven (...)
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  15.  12
    Corporate Social Responsibility in China: A Corporate Governance Approach.ChungMing Lau, Yuan Lu & Qiang Liang - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 136 (1):73-87.
    This study examines the effects of corporate governance mechanisms on CSR performance in an emerging economy, China. Because of the need of gaining legitimacy in the new institutional context, Chinese firms have to adopt global CSR practices in order to remain competitive. Using the corporate governance framework, this study examines how board composition, ownership, and TMT composition influence corporate social performance. The propositions are tested using data gathered from 471 firms in China. By and large, empirical findings supported the hypothesized (...)
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  16.  21
    Board Composition and Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Diversity, Gender, Strategy and Decision Making.Kathyayini Rao & Carol Tilt - 2016 - Journal of Business Ethics 138 (2):327-347.
    This paper aims to critically review the existing literature on the relationship between corporate governance, in particular board diversity, and both corporate social responsibility and corporate social responsibility reporting and to suggest some important avenues for future research in this field. Assuming that both CSR and CSRR are outcomes of boards’ decisions, this paper proposes that examining boards’ decision making processes with regard to CSR would provide more insight into the link between board diversity and CSR. Particularly, the paper stresses (...)
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  17.  8
    Is Corporate Philanthropy Used as Environmental Misconduct Dressing? Evidence From Chinese Family-Owned Firms.Xingqiang Du - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (2):341-361.
    In this study, I examine the hidden connection between corporate philanthropic giving and corporate environmental misconduct. Using survey data from Chinese family-owned firms, I provide strong and consistent evidence to show that corporate environmental misconduct is significantly positively associated with corporate philanthropic giving, suggesting that some Chinese family-owned firms act philanthropically to divert public attention from their environmentally unfriendly behavior. Moreover, the positive association between corporate environmental misconduct and corporate philanthropic giving is less pronounced for politically connected family-owned firms than (...)
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  18.  46
    Research on Corporate Philanthropy: A Review and Assessment.Arthur Gautier & Anne-Claire Pache - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (3):343-369.
    We review some 30 years of academic research on corporate philanthropy, taking stock of the current state of research about this rising practice and identifying gaps and puzzles that deserve further investigation. To do so, we examine a total of 162 academic papers in the fields of management, economics, sociology, and public policy, and analyze their content in a systematic fashion. We distinguish four main lines of inquiry within the literature: the essence of corporate philanthropy, its different drivers, the way (...)
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  19.  23
    Board Diversity and Corporate Social Responsibility.Maretno Harjoto, Indrarini Laksmana & Robert Lee - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (4):641-660.
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  20.  11
    Managerial Morality and Philanthropic Decision-Making: A Test of an Agency Model.Cheng-Li Huang & Ju-Lan Tsai - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 132 (4):795-811.
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  21.  14
    Does Having Women Managers Lead to Increased Gender Equality Practices in Corporate Social Responsibility?Izaskun Larrieta‐Rubín de Celis, Eva Velasco‐Balmaseda, Sara Fernández de Bobadilla, María del Mar Alonso‐Almeida & Gurutze Intxaurburu‐Clemente - 2015 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24 (1):91-110.
    There is increasing interest in determining what impact having women in management positions may have on corporate social responsibility initiatives. Various authors suggest that gender equality practices should be factored into the broader framework of CSR. This paper examines how the presence of women on corporate boards, in top and middle management and as heads of CSR departments, influences gender equality practices in the field of CSR. Using information collected from companies that have signed up to Women's Empowerment Principles in (...)
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  22.  15
    Battling the Devolution in the Research on Corporate Philanthropy.Kellie Liket & Ana Simaens - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 126 (2):1-24.
    The conceptual literature increasingly portrays corporate philanthropy (CP) as an old-fashioned and ineffective operationalization of a firm’s corporate social responsibility. In contrast, empirical research indicates that corporations of all sizes, and both in developed and emerging economies, actively practice CP. This disadvantaged status of the concept, and research, on CP, complicates the advancement of our knowledge about the topic. In a systematic review of the literature containing 122 journal articles on CP, we show that this business practice is loaded with (...)
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  23.  11
    Why Does Board Gender Diversity Matter and How Do We Get There? The Role of Shareholder Activism in Deinstitutionalizing Old Boys’ Networks.Elise Perrault - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 128 (1):149-165.
    This essay bridges together social network and institutional perspectives to examine how women on boards, by breaking up directors’ homophilous networks, contribute to board effectiveness. It proposes that through real and symbolic representations, women enhance perceptions of the board’s instrumental, relational, and moral legitimacy, leading to increased perceptions of the board’s trustworthiness which in turn fosters shareholders’ trust in the firm. Envisioning the gender diversification of boards as an event of institutional change, this article considers the critical role of shareholder (...)
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  24.  3
    Political Connection, Ownership Structure, and Corporate Philanthropy in China: A Strategic-Political Perspective.Huiying Wu, Xianzhong Song & Sihai Li - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 129 (2):399-411.
    This paper investigates whether philanthropic giving decisions and amount of charitable giving are related to firms’ political connections and ownership type. To this end, Chinese firms listed on either the Shenzhen or Shanghai stock exchange between 2004 and 2011 are examined, where government interference in the business sector is prevalent, state ownership structure is dominant, and corporate political connections prevail. Our analyses show a significant and positive relationship between political connections and the likelihood and extent of firm contributions; a significant (...)
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  25.  16
    Board Age and Gender Diversity: A Test of Competing Linear and Curvilinear Predictions. [REVIEW]Muhammad Ali, Yin Lu Ng & Carol T. Kulik - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (3):1-16.
    The inconsistent findings of past board diversity research demand a test of competing linear and curvilinear diversity–performance predictions. This research focuses on board age and gender diversity, and presents a positive linear prediction based on resource dependence theory, a negative linear prediction based on social identity theory, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear prediction based on the integration of resource dependence theory with social identity theory. The predictions were tested using archival data on 288 large organizations listed on the Australian Securities (...)
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  26. Religion, the Nature of Ultimate Owner, and Corporate Philanthropic Giving: Evidence From China.Xingqiang Du, Wei Jian, Yingjie Du, Wentao Feng & Quan Zeng - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 123 (2):1-22.
    Using a sample of Chinese listed firms for the period of 2004–2010, this study examines the impact of religion on corporate philanthropic giving. Based on hand-collected data of religion and corporate philanthropic giving, we provide strong and robust evidence that religion is significantly positively associated with Chinese listed firms’ philanthropic giving. This finding is consistent with the view that religiosity has remarkable effects on individual thinking and behavior, and can serve as social norms to influence corporate philanthropy. Moreover, religion and (...)
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  27.  44
    Hidden Connections: The Link Between Board Gender Diversity and Corporate Social Performance. [REVIEW]Ioanna Boulouta - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 113 (2):185-197.
    This study examines whether and how female board directors may affect corporate social performance (CSP) by drawing on social role theory and feminist ethics literature. The empirical analysis, based on a sample of 126 firms drawn from the S&P500 group of companies over a 5-year period, suggests that board gender diversity (BGD) significantly affects CSP. However, this impact depends on the social performance metric under investigation. In particular, more gender diverse boards exert stronger influence on CSP metrics focusing on ‘negative’ (...)
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  28.  16
    Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Impact on Firms' Investment Policy, Organizational Structure, and Performance.Otgontsetseg Erhemjamts, Qian Li & Anand Venkateswaran - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):395-412.
    This study examines the determinants of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and its implications on firms’ investment policy, organizational strategy, and performance. First, we find that firms with better performance, higher R&D intensity, better financial health, and firms in new economy industries are more likely to engage in CSR activities, while riskier firms are less likely to do so. We also find U-shaped relation between firm size and CSR, indicating that either very small or very large firms exhibit high levels of (...)
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  29.  67
    Boardroom Diversity and its Effect on Social Performance: Conceptualization and Empirical Evidence. [REVIEW]Taïeb Hafsi & Gokhan Turgut - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (3):463-479.
    In this paper, we seek to answer two questions: (1) what does boardroom diversity stand for in the strategic management literature? And, (2) is there a significant relationship between boardroom diversity and corporate social performance. We first clarify the boardroom diversity concept, distinguishing between a structural diversity of boards and a demographic diversity in boards, and then we investigate its possible linkage to social performance in a sample of S&P500 firms. We find a significant relationship between diversity in boards and (...)
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  30.  38
    Critical Mass of Women on BODs, Multiple Identities, and Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response: Evidence From Privately Owned Chinese Firms.Ming Jia & Zhe Zhang - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (2):303-317.
    Although previous studies focus on the role of women in the boardroom and corporate response to natural disasters, none evaluate how women directors influence corporate philanthropic disaster response (CPDR). This study collects data on the philanthropic responses of privately owned Chinese firms to the Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008, and the Yushu earthquake of April 14, 2010. We find that when at least three women serve on a board of directors (BOD), their companies’ responses to natural disasters are more (...)
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  31.  14
    The Impact of Operational Diversity on Corporate Philanthropy: An Empirical Study of U.S. Companies. [REVIEW]Jean D. Kabongo, Kiyoung Chang & Ying Li - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (1):49-65.
    This paper investigates the impact of diversity on corporate philanthropy. Compared to previous studies that have considered the influence of board diversity and CEO gender on corporate philanthropy, this study introduces the concept of operational diversity, which is the implementation of diversity programs at management, employee, and supply chain levels, and further, it explains why operational diversity influences corporate philanthropy, by using the premises of resource dependence theory. Second, this study also investigates the influence of board diversity on corporate philanthropy. (...)
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  32.  48
    Board Composition and Corporate Social Responsibility: An Empirical Investigation in the Post Sarbanes-Oxley Era. [REVIEW]Jason Q. Zhang, Hong Zhu & Hung-bin Ding - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 114 (3):381-392.
    Although the composition of the board of directors has important implications for different aspects of firm performance, prior studies tend to focus on financial performance. The effects of board composition on corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance remain an under-researched area, particularly in the period following the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). This article specifically examines two important aspects of board composition (i.e., the presence of outside directors and the presence of women directors) and their relationship with CSR (...)
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  33.  35
    Directors' Roles in Corporate Social Responsibility: A Stakeholder Perspective. [REVIEW]Humphry Hung - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (3):385-402.
    We propose that corporate directors are important in helping organizations deal with two major issues of stakeholders. First, directors can help manage the interests of organizational stakeholders, and second, they assist in protecting the interests of their organizations as stakeholders in society. Their contribution can be conceptualized as the directors’ roles in corporate social responsibility (DR-CSR). We identify two types of DR-CSR, organization-centered and society-centered roles. Based on a study of 120 corporate directors, we observe that the more concern that (...)
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  34. The Impact of Board Diversity and Gender Composition on Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Reputation.Stephen Bear, Noushi Rahman & Corinne Post - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (2):207 - 221.
    This article explores how the diversity of board resources and the number of women on boards affect firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR) ratings, and how, in turn, CSR influences corporate reputation. In addition, this article examines whether CSR ratings mediate the relationships among board resource diversity, gender composition, and corporate reputation. The OLS regression results using lagged data for independent and control variables were statistically significant for the gender composition hypotheses, but not for the resource diversitybased hypotheses. CSR ratings had (...)
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  35.  69
    Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response and Ownership Type: Evidence From Chinese Firms' Response to the Sichuan Earthquake. [REVIEW]Ran Zhang, Zabihollah Rezaee & Jigao Zhu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (1):51 - 63.
    This article examines whether the charitable giving amount and likelihood of firm response to catastrophic events relate to firms' ownership type using a unique dataset of listed firms in China, where state ownership is still prevalent. Based on the data of Chinese firms' response to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, we find that the extent of corporate contributions for state-owned firms following this disaster is less than that for private firms. State-owned firms are also less likely to respond in this disaster (...)
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  36.  8
    Corporate Philanthropic Disaster Response and Ownership Type: Evidence From Chinese Firms’ Response to the Sichuan Earthquake.Ran Zhang, Zabihollah Rezaee & Jigao Zhu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 91 (1):51-63.
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  37.  61
    Corporate Philanthropic Giving, Advertising Intensity, and Industry Competition Level.Ran Zhang, Jigao Zhu, Heng Yue & Chunyan Zhu - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 94 (1):39-52.
    This article examines whether the likelihood and amount of firm charitable giving in response to catastrophic events are related to firm advertising intensity, and whether industry competition level moderates this relationship. Using data on Chinese firms’ philanthropic response to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, we find that firm advertising intensity is positively associated with both the probability and the amount of corporate giving. The results also indicate that this positive advertising intensity-philanthropic giving relationship is stronger in competitive industries, and firms in (...)
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  38.  39
    Corporate Governance and Codes of Ethics.Luis Rodriguez-Dominguez, Isabel Gallego-Alvarez & Isabel Maria Garcia-Sanchez - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):187-202.
    As a result of recent corporate scandals, several rules have focused on the role played by Boards of Directors on the planning and monitoring of corporate codes of ethics. In theory, outside directors are in a better position than insiders to protect and further the interests of all stakeholders because of their experience and their sense of moral and legal obligations. Female directors also tend to be more sensitive to ethics according to several past studies which explain this affirmation by (...)
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  39.  20
    The Strategic Use of Corporate Philanthropy: Building Societies and Demutualisation Defences.David Campbell & Richard Slack - 2007 - Business Ethics 16 (4):326–343.
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  40.  10
    The Strategic Use of Corporate Philanthropy: Building Societies and Demutualisation Defences.David Campbell & Richard Slack - 2007 - Business Ethics: A European Review 16 (4):326-343.
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  41.  19
    The Promise of a Managerial Values Approach to Corporate Philanthropy.Jaepil Choi & Heli Wang - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 75 (4):345-359.
    This article presents an alternative rationale for corporate philanthropy based on managerial values of benevolence and integrity. On the one hand, top managers with benevolence and integrity values are more likely to spread their intrinsic concern for others into the wider society in the form of corporate philanthropy. On the other hand, top managers high in benevolence and integrity are likely to contribute to improved managerial credibility and trusting firm-stakeholder relationships, thereby improving corporate financial performance. Therefore, the article makes the (...)
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  42.  15
    Firm Size, Organizational Visibility and Corporate Philanthropy: An Empirical Analysis.Stephen Brammer & Andrew Millington - 2006 - Business Ethics 15 (1):6–18.
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  43.  2
    Firm Size, Organizational Visibility and Corporate Philanthropy: An Empirical Analysis.Stephen Brammer & Andrew Millington - 2006 - Business Ethics: A European Review 15 (1):6-18.
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  44. Public Visibility as a Determinant of the Rate of Corporate Charitable Donations.David Campbell & Richard Slack - 2006 - Business Ethics: A European Review 15 (1):19-28.
  45.  36
    The Construct Validity of the Kinder, Lydenberg & Domini Social Performance Ratings Data.Mark Sharfman - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (3):287 - 296.
    Carroll (1991) encouraged researchers in Social Issues Management (SIM) to continue to measure Corporate Social Performance (CSP) from a variety of different perspectives utilizing a variety of different measures. In addition, Wolfe and Aupperle (1991) (and others) have asserted that there is no, single best way to measure CSP and that multiple measures and perspectives help develop the field. However, Pfeffer (1993) suggest that a lack of consistent measurement has constrained organization studies (and by implication, the field of social issues (...)
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  46.  31
    Problems of Stakeholder Theory.Tim Ambler & Andrea Wilson - 1995 - Business Ethics 4 (1):30–35.
  47.  17
    Problems of Stakeholder Theory.Tim Ambler & Andrea Wilson - 1995 - Business Ethics: A European Review 4 (1):30-35.
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