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The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu

Columbia University Press (1968)

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  1. Four Things and Two Practices: Rethinking Heidegger Ex Oriente Lux.John Maraldo - 2012 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 4 (1):53-74.
    This article re-orients Heidegger's analyses of things to cast light on two distinct ways of relating to things, one at the root of technological use and the other crucial to artistic creation. The first way, which we may call instrumental practice, denotes the activity of using something to accomplish some goal or objective. This practice underlies the analysis of use-things [Zeuge] that Heidegger presents in Being and Time. Heidegger's contribution there is twofold: to show how understanding things as zuhanden, there (...)
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  • Marcelo Dascal and Han-Liang Chang ,Traditions of Controversy.Lily I.-wen Su - 2009 - Pragmatics and Cognition 17 (2):458-463.
  • Unself-Conscious Control: Broadening the Notion of Control Through Experiences of Flow and Wu-Wei.Valérie De Prycker - 2011 - Zygon 46 (1):5-25.
    Abstract. This paper both clarifies and broadens the notion of control and its relation to the self. By discussing instances of skillful absorption from different cultural backgrounds, I argue that the notion of control is not as closely related to self-consciousness as is often suggested. Experiences of flow and wu-wei exemplify a nonself-conscious though personal type of control. The intercultural occurrence of this type of behavioral control demonstrates its robustness, and questions two long-held intuitions about the relation between self-consciousness and (...)
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  • Extension of Family Resemblance Concepts as a Necessary Condition of Interpretation Across Traditions.Jaap van Brakel & Lin Ma - 2015 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 14 (4):475-497.
    In this paper we extend Wittgenstein’s notion of family resemblance to translation, interpretation, and comparison across traditions. There is no need for universals. This holds for everyday concepts such as green and qing 青, philosophical concepts such as emotion and qing 情, as well as philosophical categories such as form of life and dao 道. These notions as well as all other concepts from whatever tradition are family resemblance concepts. We introduce the notion of quasi-universal, which connects family resemblance concepts (...)
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  • What’s in a Dao?: Ontology and Semiotics in Laozi and Zhuangzi.Daniel Fried - 2012 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (4):419-436.
    The present essay examines the conflicting ontological assumptions that one can find behind the word dao in the texts of the Laozi and Zhuangzi and argues that the relative indifference to these texts toward whether or not dao has an ontic reality should not be considered a flaw of early Daoism. Rather, the historical process by which the term dao collects various possible ontological implications can be thought of as a philosophical stance in its own right. That is, if the (...)
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  • Zhuangzi’s Cheng Xin and its Implications for Virtue and Perspectives.Chong Kim-Chong - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (4):427-443.
    The concept of the cheng xin in the Zhuangzi claims that the cognitive function of the heart-mind is not over and above its affective states and in charge of them in developing and controlling virtue, as assumed by the Confucians and others. This joint cognitive and affective nature of the heart-mind denies ethical and epistemic certainty. Individual perspectives are limited given habits of thought, attitudes, personal orientations and particular cognitive/affective experiences. Nevertheless, the heart-mind has a vast imaginative capacity that allows (...)
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  • Dewey’s Link with Daoism: Ideals of Nature, Cultivation Practices, and Applications in Lessons.Wilma J. Maki - 2016 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 48 (2):150-164.
    This article explores the pedagogical implications of John Dewey’s claim that his definition of experience is shared by Daoists. It compares characteristics of experience with those in Daoism, and then considers the similarities and differences between key cultivation practices each proposes, focusing on the roles of the teacher and sage. My main reference to Daoism is the translation of the Daodejing by Roger Ames and David Hall, who use Dewey’s conception of experience to explain the character of Daoism. There are (...)
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  • The Butterfly Dream as ‘Creative Dream:’ Dreaming and Subjectivity in Zhuangzi and María Zambrano.Gabriella Stanchina - 2018 - Asian Philosophy 28 (1):84-95.
    ABSTRACTThe ‘dream of the butterfly,’ which seals the second chapter of the Zhuangzi, is often interpreted as undergirded by the bipolarity of dreaming and awakening or by the elusive interchange of identities between Zhuangzi and the butterfly, dreamer and dreamed. In this paper I argue that the underlying structure of the story may be better interpreted as exhibiting not two, but three stages of development, consistently echoing other tripartite parables in the Zhuangzi. In my reinterpretation I rely on the phenomenology (...)
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  • Beyond Sincerity and Pretense: Role-Playing and Unstructured Self in the Zhuangzi.David Machek - 2016 - Asian Philosophy 26 (1):52-65.
    ABSTRACTThis article engages with a recent view that the Daoist Classic Zhuangzi advances an alternative to the Confucian role-ethics. According to this view, Zhuangzi opposes the Confucian idea that we should play our social roles with sincerity and instead argues that we should take the liberty to detach ourselves from the roles we play and ‘pretend’ them. It is argued in this article that Zhuangzi’s ideal of role-playing is based neither on sincerity nor on pretense. Instead, it is akin to (...)
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  • Heidegger’s Thinking on the “Same” of Science and Technology.Lin Ma & Jaap van Brakel - 2014 - Continental Philosophy Review 47 (1):19-43.
    In this article, we trace and elucidate Heidegger’s radical re-thinking on the relation between science and technology from about 1940 until 1976. A range of passages from the Gesamtausgabe seem to articulate a reversal of the primacy of science and technology in claiming that “Science is applied technology.” After delving into Heidegger’s reflection on the being of science and technology and their “coordination,” we show that such a claim is essentially grounded in Heidegger’s idea that “Science and technology are the (...)
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  • Six Groups of Paradoxes in Ancient China From the Perspective of Comparative Philosophy.Chen Bo - 2014 - Asian Philosophy 24 (4):363-392.
    This paper divides the sophisms and paradoxes put forth by Chinese thinkers of the pre-Qin period of China into six groups: paradoxes of motion and infinity, paradoxes of class membership, semantic paradoxes, epistemic paradoxes, paradoxes of relativization, other logical contradictions. It focuses on the comparison between the Chinese items and the counterparts of ancient Greek and even of contemporary Western philosophy, and concludes that there turn out to be many similar elements of philosophy and logic at the beginnings of Chinese (...)
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  • Naming/Power: Linguistic Engineering and the Construction of Discourse in Early China.Ori Tavor - 2014 - Asian Philosophy 24 (4):313-329.
    The interplay between language and politics has been the subject of increased academic interest in the last few decades. The idea that language can be used as a device not only for communication but also for control and manipulation, however, is by no means new. This article traces the emergence of one of the first fully formed Chinese theories of language, Xunzi’s ‘rectification of names’ doctrine, in order to reconstruct a social history of language in early China. In addition to (...)
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  • Zhuangzi, Wuwei, and the Necessity of Living Naturally: A Reply to Xunzi’s Objection.Danesh Singh - 2014 - Asian Philosophy 24 (3):212-226.
    Critical readers can reasonably judge Zhuangzi’s 莊子 notion of wuwei 無爲 to offer a persuasive reply to Xunzi’s objection to Zhuangzi’s emphasis on living naturally, in light of recent theories of action. For Zhuangzi, self-cultivation is possible only when individuals attune themselves to the processes inherent in nature . Daoist wuwei depends crucially on two descriptive claims that Zhuangzi endorses and Xunzi rejects. The first claim, backed by Dreyfus’ theory of skill acquisition, is that views of self-cultivation which rely on (...)
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  • Clearing Up Obstructions: An Image Schema Approach to the Concept of 'Datong'大通 in Chapter 6 of the Zhuangzi.C. Lynne Hong - 2013 - Asian Philosophy 23 (3):275-290.
    In much of modern scholarship, the notion of datong 大通 in Zhuangzi’s famous zuowang 坐忘 passage is often interpreted as either Dao or a mental/spiritual state of an ideal person, a person who has obtained Dao. In either case, however, the association between datong and such interpretation lacks detailed justification resulting from an insufficiently understood relation between datong and its immediately preceding statements. Different from the more common readings, I propose a cognitive approach based on an image schema related to (...)
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  • Psychological Emptiness in the Zhuāngzǐ.Chris Fraser - 2008 - Asian Philosophy 18 (2):123-147.
    Three views of psychological emptiness, or x?, can be found in the Zhu?ngz?. The instrumental view values x? primarily as a means of efficacious action. The moderate view assigns it intrinsic value as an element of one Zhuangist vision of the good life. The radical view also takes it to be an element of the ideal life, but in this case the form of life advocated is that of the Daoist sage, who transcends mundane human concerns to merge with nature (...)
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  • Wittgenstein, Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu: The Art of Circumlocution.Robert Elliott Allinson - 2007 - Asian Philosophy 17 (1):97 – 108.
    Where Western philosophy ends, with the limits of language, marks the beginning of Eastern philosophy. The Tao de jing of Laozi begins with the limitations of language and then proceeds from that as a starting point. On the other hand, the limitation of language marks the end of Wittgenstein's cogitations. In contrast to Wittgenstein, who thought that one should remain silent about that which cannot be put into words, the message of the Zhuangzi is that one can speak about that (...)
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  • Emptiness, Being and Non-Being: Sengzhao’s Reinterpretation of the Laozi and Zhuangzi in a Buddhist Context.Tan Mingran - 2008 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (2):195-209.
  • Knowledge, Virtue, and Joyfulness: Confucian Wisdom Revisited.Yao Xinzhong - 2006 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 5 (2):273-292.
  • Embracing Differences and Many: The Signification of One in Zhuangzi’s Utterance of Dao.Geling Shang - 2002 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 1 (2):229-250.
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  • Zhu Xi’s Spiritual Practice as the Basis of His Central Philosophical Concepts.Joseph A. Adler - 2008 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (1):57-79.
    The argument is that (1) the spiritual crisis that Zhu Xi discussed with Zhang Shi 張栻 (1133–1180) and the other “gentlemen of Hunan” from about 1167 to 1169, which was resolved by an understanding of what we might call the interpenetration of the mind’s stillness and activity (dong-jing 動靜) or equilibrium and harmony (zhong-he 中和), (2) led directly to his realization that Zhou Dunyi’s thought provided a cosmological basis for that resolution, and (3) this in turn led Zhu Xi to (...)
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  • A Butterfly Dream in a Brain in a Vat.Xiaoqiang Han - 2010 - Philosophia 38 (1):157-167.
    Zhuangzi’s Butterfly Dream story can be read as a skeptical response to the Cartesian Cogito, ergo sum solution, for it presents I exist as fundamentally unprovable, on the grounds that the notion about “I” that it is guaranteed to refer to something existing, which Descartes seems to assume, is unwarranted. The modern anti-skepticism of Hilary Putnam employs a different strategy, which seeks to derive the existence of the world not from some “indubitable” truth such as the existence of myself , (...)
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  • The Place of Chinese Logics in Comparative Logics: Chinese Logics Revisited.Walter Benesch - 1991 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 18 (3):309-331.
  • To Be As Not To Be: In Search of an Alternative Humanism in the Light of Early Daoism and Deconstruction.Ruyu Hung - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 49 (3):418-434.
    Humanism and humanistic education have been recognised as an issue of the utmost importance, whether in the East or in the West. Underpinning the Eastern and Western humanism is a common belief that there is an essence or essences of humanness. In the Confucian tradition, the core of humanity lies in the idea of ‘ren’; in the Platonic tradition, ‘rationality’. For some critics, this belief may lead to violence as much as justice. One way to be aware of the danger (...)
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  • Dao and Skepticism.Paul Kjellberg - 2007 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 6 (3):281-299.
    The Zhuangzi raises skeptical problems it does not solve. At best, it asserts that solutions are unnecessary but does not prove it. This is not a fault of the text or its author; it is the logical consequence of the arguments themselves. Philosophically speaking, The Zhuangzi raises doubts, nothing more. Whether this is a good thing or a bad thing, and what we are supposed to do about it, is something we are left to decide for ourselves.
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  • The Euclidean Egg, the Three Legged Chinese Chicken.Walter Benesch - 1993 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 20 (2):109-131.
  • Instruction Dialogues in the Zhuangzi: An “Anthropological” Reading.Carine Defoort - 2012 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (4):459-478.
  • Indeterminacy and Moral Action in Laozi.Kenneth Dorter - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (1):63-81.
    There is an apparent tension in Laozi 老子 between his denial of the adequacy of positive theoretical formulations and his concomitant endorsement of certain kinds of practical action over others. Laozi writes, for example, “Where they all know the good as good, there is evil, Therefore Being and non-being produce each other” (Laozi 2.3–5), which suggests that good and evil produce each other the way being and non-being produce each other; in which case to do good will lead to evil (...)
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  • A Different Type of Individualism in Zhuangzi.Xu Keqian 徐克謙 - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (4):445-462.
    Individualism is not only a Western tradition. In the Zhuangzi we can also identify some elements which may be appropriately attributed to “individualism.” However, due to its particular cultural and philosophical background, Zhuangzian individualism has unique characteristics, which distinguish it from the variety of other individualist thoughts that have emerged in the West. Zhuangzi has a dynamic and open view on individual “self,” considering individuals as changing and unique beings rather than fixed and interchangeable “atoms”; he sets the unlimited Dao (...)
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  • The Significance of Shendu in the Interpretation of Classical Learning and Zhu Xi’s Misreading.Tao Liang - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (3):305-321.
    According to recently excavated bamboo and silk material, the idea of du 獨 in the concept shendu 慎獨 does not refer to a spatial notion of dwelling in solitude or a solitary dwelling; rather it is the state before having made contact with external things, or the state “before feelings are aroused” (weifa 未發) of the inner heart/mind. It refers to internal thoughts and volitions, or “casting aside external sensations” (sheti 舍體). Shen 慎 should be glossed in accordance with the (...)
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  • Zhuangzi the Poet: Re-Reading the Peng Bird Image.Lian Xinda - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (3):233-254.
    The image of the Peng bird, which opens the Zhuangzi text, is not the product of metaphysical reasoning. An inspiring example of soaring up and going beyond, the image is used to broaden the outlook of the small mind; its function is thus more therapeutic than instructional. With its rich poetic and experiential content, the image of the Peng refuses to be reduced to an abstract concept, or a mere signifier of certain philosophical position. Misreading of the image results from (...)
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  • Knowledge, Virtue, and Joyfulness: Confucian Wisdom Revisited.Yao Xinzhong - 2006 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 5 (2):273-292.
  • Daoist Presentation and Persuasion: Wandering Among Zhuangzi's Kinds of Language.Lee H. Yearley - 2005 - Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (3):503 - 535.
    A concern central to virtually all full-blooded instances of religious ethics is how persuasively to represent a world central to our fulfillment that far exceeds our normal understanding. The treatment of three kinds of language in an early Daoist text, the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu), contains an especially profound discussion and expression of such persuasive presentations in religious ethics. This study examines it and concludes by viewing Dante's Commedia through the perspectives Zhuangzi's ideas and practices present.
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  • The Zhuangzi and You 遊: Defining an Ideal Without Contradiction.Alan Levinovitz - 2012 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (4):479-496.
    You 遊 is a crucial term for understanding the Zhuangzi . Translated as “play,” “free play,” and “wandering,” it is usually defined as an ideal, playful Zhuangzian way of being. There are two problems with this definition. The first is logical: the Zhuangzi cannot consistently recommend playfulness as an ideal, since doing so vitiates the essence of you —it becomes an ethical imperative instead of an activity freely undertaken for its own sake. The second problem is performative: arguments for playful (...)
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  • Sleeping Beauty and the Dreaming Butterfly: What Did Zhuangzi Doubt About?Thomas Ming - 2012 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (4):497-512.
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  • Daoist Presentation and Persuasion Wandering Among Zhuangzi's Kinds of Language.Lee H. Yearley - 2005 - Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (3):503-535.
    A concern central to virtually all full-blooded instances of religious ethics is how persuasively to represent a world central to our fulfillment that far exceeds our normal understanding. The treatment of three kinds of language in an early Daoist text, the Zhuangzi, contains an especially profound discussion and expression of such persuasive presentations in religious ethics. This study examines it and concludes by viewing Dante's Commedia through the perspectives Zhuangzi's ideas and practices present.
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  • Wandering the Way: A Eudaimonistic Approach to the Zhuāngzǐ.Chris Fraser - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (4):541-565.
    The paper develops a eudaimonistic reading of the Zhuāngzǐ 莊子 on which the characteristic feature of a well-lived life is the exercise of dé 德 in a general mode of activity labeled yóu 遊 . I argue that the Zhuāngzǐ presents a second-order conception of agents’ flourishing in which the life of dé is not devoted to predetermined substantive ends or activities with a specific substantive content. Rather, it is marked by a distinctive manner of activity and certain characteristic attitudes. (...)
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  • Perspectivism as a Way of Knowing in the Zhuangzi.Tim Connolly - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (4):487-505.
    A perspectivist theory is usually taken to mean that (1) our knowledge of the world is inevitably shaped by our particular perspectives, (2) any one of these perspectives is as good as any other, and (3) any claims to objective or authoritative knowledge are consequently without ground. Recent scholarship on Nietzsche, however, has challenged the prevalent view that the philosopher holds (2) and (3), arguing instead that his perspectivism aims at attaining a greater level of objectivity. In this essay, I (...)
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  • The Problem of Moral Spontaneity in the Guodian Corpus.Edward Slingerland - 2008 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (3):237-256.
    This paper discusses certain conceptual tensions in a set of archeological texts from the Warring States period, the Guodian corpus. One of the central themes of the Guodian corpus is the disanalogy between spontaneous, natural familial relationships and artificial political relationships. This is problematic because, like many early Chinese texts, the Guodian corpus believes that political relationships must come to be characterized by unselfconsciousness and spontaneity if social order is to prevail. This tension will be compared to my earlier work (...)
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  • The Warring States Concept of Xing.Dan Robins - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (1):31-51.
    This essay defends a novel interpretation of the term xìng 性 as it occurs in Chinese texts of the late Warring States period (roughly 320–221 BCE). The term played an important role both in the famous controversy over the goodness or badness of people’s xìng and elsewhere in the intellectual discourse of the period. Extending especially the work of A.C. Graham, the essay stresses the importance for understanding xìng of early Chinese assumptions about spontaneity, continuity, health, and (in the human (...)
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  • Paradoxicality of Institution, De-Institutionalization and the Counter-Institutional: A Case Study in Classical Chinese Chan Buddhist Thought.Wang Youru - 2012 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (1):21-37.
    This article examines the issue of the paradoxicality of institution, de-institutionalization, or the counter-institutionalization in classical Chan thought by focusing on the texts of Hongzhou School. It first analyzes the problem of 20th century scholars in characterizing the Chan attitude toward institution as iconoclasts, and the problem of the recent tendency to return to images of the Chan masters as traditionalists, as opposed to iconoclasts. Both problems are examples of imposing an oppositional way of thinking on the Chan masters. The (...)
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  • The Word and the Way in Mozi.Hui-Chieh Loy - 2011 - Philosophy Compass 6 (10):652-662.
    According to A. C. Graham, ‘the crucial question’ for the early Chinese thinkers was ‘Where is the Way [dao]?’–‘the way to order the state and conduct personal life’ rather than ‘What is the Truth?’1 This observation is most apt when applied to the thinking of Mozi and his followers as it is exemplified in the ethical and political chapters of the eponymously named text .2 A striking feature of the Mohists’ thinking, however, is the concern they have with yan , (...)
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