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  1. Modeling complexity: cognitive constraints and computational model-building in integrative systems biology.Miles MacLeod & Nancy J. Nersessian - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (1):17.
    Modern integrative systems biology defines itself by the complexity of the problems it takes on through computational modeling and simulation. However in integrative systems biology computers do not solve problems alone. Problem solving depends as ever on human cognitive resources. Current philosophical accounts hint at their importance, but it remains to be understood what roles human cognition plays in computational modeling. In this paper we focus on practices through which modelers in systems biology use computational simulation and other tools to (...)
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  • Evolutionary Economics, Responsible Innovation and Demand: Making a Case for the Role of Consumers.Michael P. Schlaile, Matthias Mueller, Michael Schramm & Andreas Pyka - 2018 - Philosophy of Management 17 (1):7-39.
    This paper contributes to the conceptualisation of responsible innovation by proposing an evolutionary economic approach that focuses on the role of consumers in the innovation process. After a discussion of the philosophical foundations and ethical implications of this approach, which bears an explanatory potential that has not been adequately considered in previous discussions of responsible innovation, we present a first step towards capturing the important but often neglected role of consumers in innovation processes : We propose an agent-based model that (...)
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  • On the Epistemological Analysis of Modeling and Computational Error in the Mathematical Sciences.Nicolas Fillion & Robert M. Corless - 2014 - Synthese 191 (7):1451-1467.
    Interest in the computational aspects of modeling has been steadily growing in philosophy of science. This paper aims to advance the discussion by articulating the way in which modeling and computational errors are related and by explaining the significance of error management strategies for the rational reconstruction of scientific practice. To this end, we first characterize the role and nature of modeling error in relation to a recipe for model construction known as Euler’s recipe. We then describe a general model (...)
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  • Model Organisms as Simulators: The Context of Cross-Species Research and Emergence.Sim-Hui Tee - 2019 - Axiomathes 29 (4):363-382.
    Model organisms are a living form of scientific models. Despite the widespread use of model organisms in scientific research, the actual representational relationship between model organisms and their target species is often poorly characterized in the context of cross-species research. Many model organisms do not represent the target species adequately, let alone accurately. This is partly due to the complex and emergent life phenomena in the organism, and partly due to the fact that a model organism is always taken to (...)
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  • Computer Simulation and the Features of Novel Empirical Data.Greg Lusk - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 56:145-152.
    In an attempt to determine the epistemic status of computer simulation results, philosophers of science have recently explored the similarities and differences between computer simulations and experiments. One question that arises is whether and, if so, when, simulation results constitute novel empirical data. It is often supposed that computer simulation results could never be empirical or novel because simulations never interact with their targets, and cannot go beyond their programming. This paper argues against this position by examining whether, and under (...)
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  • Practice Oriented Controversies and Borrowed Epistemic Support in Current Evolutionary Biology. The Case of Phylogeography.Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Mark E. Olson & Francisco Vergara-Silva - 2015 - Perspectives on Science 23 (3):310-334.
    Although there is increasing recognition that theory and practice in science are often inseparably intertwined, discussions of scientific controversies often continue to focus on theory, and not practice or methodologies. As a contribution to constructing a framework towards understanding controversies linked to scientific practices, we introduce the notion of borrowed epistemic credibility, to describe the situation in which scientists exploit fallacious similarities between accepted tenets in other fields to garner support for a given position in their own field. Our proposal (...)
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  • Verification and Validation of Simulations Against Holism.Julie Jebeile & Vincent Ardourel - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (1):149-168.
    It has been argued that the Duhem problem is renewed with computational models since model assumptions having a representational aim and computational assumptions cannot be tested in isolation. In particular, while the Verification and Validation methodology is supposed to prevent such holism, Winsberg argues that verification and validation cannot be separated in practice. Morrison replies that Winsberg overstates the entanglement between the steps. The paper aims at arbitrating these two positions, by stressing their respective validity in relation to domains of (...)
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  • Computer Modeling and Simulation: Increasing Reliability by Disentangling Verification and Validation.Vitaly Pronskikh - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (1):169-186.
    Verification and validation of computer codes and models used in simulations are two aspects of the scientific practice of high importance that recently have been discussed widely by philosophers of science. While verification is predominantly associated with the correctness of the way a model is represented by a computer code or algorithm, validation more often refers to the model’s relation to the real world and its intended use. Because complex simulations are generally opaque to a practitioner, the Duhem problem can (...)
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  • Agent-Based Models as Fictive Instantiations of Ecological Processes.Steven L. Peck - 2012 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 4 (20130604).
    Frigg and Reiss (2009) argue that philosophical problems in simulation bear enough resemblance to recognized issues in the philosophy of modeling that they only pose challenges analogous to those found in standard analytic models used to represent natural systems. They suggest that there are no new philosophical problems in computer simulation modeling beyond those found in traditional mathematical modeling. Winsberg (2009) has countered that there appear to be genuinely new epistemological problems in simulation modeling because the knowledge obtained from them (...)
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  • Science in the Age of Computer Simulation – By Eric Winsberg.Jesper Jerkert - 2012 - Theoria 78 (2):168-175.
    QC 20120521. Review of 'Science in the Age of Computer Simulation' by Eric Winsberg.
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  • Large-Scale Brain Simulation and Disorders of Consciousness. Mapping Technical and Conceptual Issues.Michele Farisco, Jeanette H. Kotaleski & Kathinka Evers - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    Modelling and simulations have gained a leading position in contemporary attempts to describe, explain, and quantitatively predict the human brain's operations. Computer models are highly sophisticated tools developed to achieve an integrated knowledge of the brain with the aim of overcoming the actual fragmentation resulting from different neuroscientific approaches. In this paper we investigate plausibility of simulation technologies for emulation of consciousness and the potential clinical impact of large-scale brain simulation on the assessment and care of disorders of consciousness, e.g. (...)
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  • The Vernacular Architecture of Household Energy Models.David Shipworth - 2013 - Perspectives on Science 21 (2):250-266.
    There are many theories of the drivers of energy use in buildings and how this evolves over different timescales. Moezzi and Lutzenhiser (2010, p. 4) characterized these perspectives as technology—in which energy use is determined by the characteristics of buildings and technologies; economics—in which the consumer is conceived as an economically rational utility maximizer; psychology—in which individuals' mental processes give rise to consumption choices; and sociology, anthropology, and social studies of technology—in which patterns of consumption are socially-negotiated and larger social (...)
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  • Modeling in the Social Sciences: Interdisciplinary Comparison.Erika Mansnerus - 2013 - Perspectives on Science 21 (2):267-272.
    Building energy models result from interdisciplinary expertise and collaboration. In order to understand this, models are best seen as narrative devices, capable of integrating various ingredients and to address both research questions and policy initiatives. Shipworth's account of models as sausage machines that can potentially mix ingredients challenges us to reevaluate the epistemological consequences of the use of models as interdisciplinary tools. Models tell stories to different audiences, and through stories, they integrate available expertise to highlight the key findings or (...)
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  • Are Computer Simulations Experiments? And If Not, How Are They Related to Each Other?Claus Beisbart - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 8 (2):171-204.
    Computer simulations and experiments share many important features. One way of explaining the similarities is to say that computer simulations just are experiments. This claim is quite popular in the literature. The aim of this paper is to argue against the claim and to develop an alternative explanation of why computer simulations resemble experiments. To this purpose, experiment is characterized in terms of an intervention on a system and of the observation of the reaction. Thus, if computer simulations are experiments, (...)
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  • The Roles of Integration in Molecular Systems Biology.Maureen A. O’Malley & Orkun S. Soyer - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):58-68.
  • The Roles of Integration in Molecular Systems Biology.Maureen A. O’Malley & Orkun S. Soyer - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):58-68.
  • Validation and Variability: Dual Challenges on the Path From Systems Biology to Systems Medicine.Annamaria Carusi - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:28-37.
  • “Practice-Oriented Controversies and Borrowed Epistemic Credibility in Current Evolutionary Biology: Phylogeography as a Case Study.Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Mark E. Olson & Francisco Vergara-Silva - 2017 - Perspectives on Science 25 (3):310-334.
    Philosophical treatments of scientific controversies usually focus on theory, excluding important practice related aspects. However, scientists in conflict often appeal to extra-theoretical and extra-empirical elements. To understand better the role that non-empirical elements play in scientific controversies, we introduce the notion of borrowed epistemic credibility, illustrating our proposal with a recent controversy in a field of evolutionary biology known as phylogeography. Our analysis shows how scientific controversies that spring from disagreements about methodological issues potentially involve deeper debates regarding what constitutes (...)
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  • Modeling Practices in the Social and Human Sciences. An Interdisciplinary Exchange.Mary S. Morgan & Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2013 - Perspectives on Science 21 (2):143-156.
    Philosophers of science studying scientific practice often consider it a methodological requirement that their conceptualization of "model" closely connects with the understanding and use of models by practicing scientists. Occasionally, this connection has been explicitly made (Hutten 1954, Suppes 1961, Morgan and Morrison 1999, Bailer-Jones 2002, Lehtinen and Kuorikoski 2007, Kuorikoski 2007, Morgan 2012a). These studies have been dominated by a focus on the—relatively similar forms of—mathematical models in physics and economics. Yet it has become increasingly evident that the way (...)
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