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Some say that rationality only requires us to respond to apparent normative reasons. Given the independence of appearance and reality, why think that apparent normative reasons necessarily provide real normative reasons? And if they do not, why think that mistakes of rationality are necessarily real mistakes? This paper gives a novel answer to these questions. I argue ﬁrst that in the moral domain, there are objective duties of respect that we violate whenever we do what appears to violate our ﬁrst-order (...)