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  1. Consent to Epistemic Interventions: A Contribution to the Debate on the Right (Not) to Know.Niels Nijsingh - 2016 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 19 (1):103-110.
    The debate on the ‘right to know’ has simmered on for over 30 years. New examples where a right to be informed is contrasted to a right to be kept in ignorance occasionally surface and spark disagreement on the extent to which patients and research subjects have a right to be self-determining concerning the health related information they receive. Up until now, however, this debate has been unsatisfactory with regard to the question what type of rights—if any—are in play here (...)
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  • Ethical Signposts for Clinical Geneticists in Secondary Variant and Incidental Finding Disclosure Discussions.Gabrielle M. Christenhusz, Koenraad Devriendt, Hilde Van Esch & Kris Dierickx - 2015 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 18 (3):361-370.
    While ethical and empirical interest in so-called secondary variants and incidental findings in clinical genetics contexts is growing, critical reflection on the ethical foundations of the various recommendations proposed is thus far largely lacking. We examine and critique the ethical justifications of the three most prominent disclosure positions: briefly, the clinical geneticist decides, a joint decision, and the patient decides. Subsequently, instead of immediately developing a new disclosure option, we explore relevant foundational ethical values and norms, drawing on the normative (...)
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  • Shining a Light Also Casts a Shadow: Neuroimaging Incidental Findings in Neuromarketing Research.Owen M. Bradfield - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-7.
    Rapid growth in structural and functional brain research has led to increasing ethical discussion of what to do about incidental findings within the brains of healthy neuroimaging research participants that have potential health importance, but which are beyond the original aims of the study. This dilemma has been widely debated with respect to general neuroimaging research but has attracted little attention in the context of neuromarketing studies. In this paper, I argue that neuromarketing researchers owe participants the same ethical obligations (...)
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  • Do Solidarity and Reciprocity Obligations Compel African Researchers to Feedback Individual Genetic Results in Genomics Research?Dimpho Ralefala, Mary Kasule, Ambroise Wonkam, Mogomotsi Matshaba & Jantina de Vries - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-11.
    BackgroundA key ethical question in genomics research relates to whether individual genetic research results should be disclosed to research participants and if so, which results are to be disclosed, by whom and when. Whilst this issue has received only scarce attention in African bioethics discourse, the extension of genomics research to the African continent has brought it into sharp focus.MethodsIn this qualitative study, we examined the views of adolescents, parents and caregivers participating in a paediatric and adolescent HIV-TB genomic study (...)
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  • Current Status and Future Challenges of Biobank Research in Malaysia.Latifah Amin, Angelina Olesen, Zurina Mahadi & Maznah Ibrahim - forthcoming - Asian Bioethics Review.
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  • Biobanking and Privacy Law in Brazil.Sueli Gandolfi Dallari, Felipe Angel Bocchi Castellaro & Iara Coelho Zito Guerriero - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):714-725.
    Recent scientific and technological developments have promoted the emergence of biobanks on a population scale. Although the storage of human biological material has taken place for a long time, it is only recently that biobanks have acquired a broader scientific significance, especially for genomic research. The increase in biobanks creates many ethical dilemmas, such as the protection of privacy, and creates the need for a new regulatory framework, which must enable the sustainable development of biobanks while also protecting the rights (...)
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  • Why genomics researchers are sometimes morally required to hunt for secondary findings.Julian J. Koplin, Julian Savulescu & Danya F. Vears - 2020 - BMC Medical Ethics 21 (1):1-11.
    Genomic research can reveal ‘unsolicited’ or ‘incidental’ findings that are of potential health or reproductive significance to participants. It is widely thought that researchers have a moral obligation, grounded in the duty of easy rescue, to return certain kinds of unsolicited findings to research participants. It is less widely thought that researchers have a moral obligation to actively look for health-related findings. This paper examines whether there is a moral obligation, grounded in the duty of easy rescue, to actively hunt (...)
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  • Returning a Research Participant's Genomic Results to Relatives: Perspectives From Managers of Two Distinct Research Biobanks.Gloria M. Petersen & Brian Van Ness - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):523-528.
    Research biobanks are heterogeneous and exist to manage diverse biosample types with the goal of facilitating and serving biomedical discovery. The perspectives of biobank managers are reviewed, and the perspectives of two biobank directors, one with experience in institutional biobanks and the other with national cooperative group banks, are presented. Most research biobanks are not designed, nor do they have the resources, to return research results and incidental findings to participants or their families.
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  • Mapping the Ethics of Translational Genomics: Situating Return of Results and Navigating the Research‐Clinical Divide.Susan M. Wolf, Wylie Burke & Barbara A. Koenig - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):486-501.
    Both bioethics and law have governed human genomics by distinguishing research from clinical practice. Yet the rise of translational genomics now makes this traditional dichotomy inadequate. This paper pioneers a new approach to the ethics of translational genomics. It maps the full range of ethical approaches needed, proposes a “layered” approach to determining the ethics framework for projects combining research and clinical care, and clarifies the key role that return of results can play in advancing translation.
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  • Return of Genetic Research Results to Participants and Families: IRB Perspectives and Roles.Laura M. Beskow & P. Pearl O'Rourke - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):502-513.
    We surveyed IRB chairs' perspectives on offering individual genetic research results to participants and families, including family members of deceased participants, and the IRB's role in addressing these issues. Given a particular hypothetical scenario, respondents favored offering results to participants but not family members, giving choices at the time of initial consent, and honoring elicited choices. They felt IRBs should have authority regarding the process issues, but a more limited role in medical and scientific issues.
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  • Considering Actionability at the Participant's Research Setting Level for Anticipatable Incidental Findings From Clinical Research.Alberto Ortiz-Osorno, Linda A. Ehler & Judith Brooks - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):619-632.
    Determining what constitutes an anticipatable incidental finding from clinical research and defining whether, and when, this IF should be returned to the participant have been topics of discussion in the field of human subject protections for the last 10 years. It has been debated that implementing a comprehensive IF-approach that addresses both the responsibility of researchers to return IFs and the expectation of participants to receive them can be logistically challenging. IFs have been debated at different levels, such as the (...)
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  • INTRODUCTION: Return of Research Results: What About the Family?Susan M. Wolf - 2015 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):437-439.
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  • Taking It to the Bank: The Ethical Management of Individual Findings Arising in Secondary Research.Mackenzie Graham, Nina Hallowell, Berge Solberg, Ari Haukkala, Joanne Holliday, Angeliki Kerasidou, Thomas Littlejohns, Elizabeth Ormondroyd, John-Arne Skolbekken & Marleena Vornanen - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2020-106941.
    A rapidly growing proportion of health research uses ‘secondary data’: data used for purposes other than those for which it was originally collected. Do researchers using secondary data have an obligation to disclose individual research findings to participants? While the importance of this question has been duly recognised in the context of primary research, it remains largely unexamined in the context of research using secondary data. In this paper, we critically examine the arguments for a moral obligation to disclose individual (...)
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  • Following the Giant’s Paces-Governance Issues and Bioethical Reflections in China.Zhaochen Wang, Vincent H. di ZhangNg, Reidar K. Lie & Xiaomei Zhai - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):79.
    China has become a global player in the field of biosamples research and analysis of genetic data. The Beijing Genomics Institute is a genetics factory where enormous amounts of biosamples/data from all over the world are being analyzed. Most of the global bioethics discussions focused on research conducted by scientists from industrialized countries with subjects from poorer countries. Today, however, samples from industrialized nations are being analyzed in China on an unprecedented scale. This means that one should not just focus (...)
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  • The Management of Incidental Findings in Neuro-Imaging Research: Framework and Recommendations.Erica K. Rangel - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (1):117-126.
    With improved diagnostic capability and accuracy, the fields of medicine, neuroscience, psychiatry, and psychology have benefitted remarkably from the dramatic advancements in neuroimaging technology. Not only can surface and subsurface structures of the brain be mapped with incredible anatomical detail, now neural activity can be imaged across time as the brain responds to different stimuli. These sophisticated techniques have been a vital element in the recent increase in neuroimaging-based research. This increase, while producing new diagnostic techniques and improved treatment mechanisms (...)
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  • Overseeing Innovative Therapy Without Mistaking It for Research: A Function-Based Model Based on Old Truths, New Capacities, and Lessons From Stem Cells.Patrick L. Taylor - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):286-302.
    Should innovative therapy occur only within a research paradigm and under institutional review board oversight? The health risks from current human embryonic stem cell clinical applications have raised again a fundamental question addressed first in papers submitted to inform the writing of the Belmont Report. Revisiting the thinking underlying the Belmont Report, together with examining changed circumstances since then, leads to a new model for overseeing innovative therapy based on its unique risks and context, important changes since the Belmont Report, (...)
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  • Overseeing Innovative Therapy Without Mistaking It for Research: A Function-Based Model Based on Old Truths, New Capacities, and Lessons From Stem Cells.Patrick L. Taylor - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):286-302.
    Innovative therapy is the name we give to novel medical interventions, radically different from the standard of care, provided in order to benefit a patient, rather than to acquire new knowledge. They are paradigmshifting, not incremental, responses to serious patient problems that standard medical care inadequately addresses. Innovative therapies are often devised by clinicians, not basic science researchers; they do not follow the linear model of basic research, to translation, to clinical research, to application. Instead, they come from thinking backwards (...)
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  • Incidental Findings and Ancillary-Care Obligations.Henry S. Richardson - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):256-270.
    Recent work on incidental fndings, concentrating on the difcult problems posed by the ambiguous results often generated by high-tech medicine, has proceeded largely independently from recent work on medical researchers' ancillary-care obligations, the obligations that researchers have to deal with diseases or conditions besides the one(s) under study. This paper contends that the two topics are morally linked, and specifcally that a sound understanding of ancillary-care obligations will center them on incidental fndings. The paper sets out and defends an understanding (...)
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  • Incidental Findings and Ancillary-Care Obligations.Henry S. Richardson - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):256-270.
    This paper explores the convergence of two recent and growing streams of bioethical work and concern. Each has originated independently, but each arises from the fact that the Common Rule that has shaped medical research ethics, as institutionalized in the United States and also abroad, is largely silent about what needs to be done in response to researchers’ positive obligations. One stream concerns what to do about the sometimes vast range of findings that may arise incidentally to performing research procedures. (...)
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  • Incidental Findings in Human Subjects Research: What Do Investigators Owe Research Participants?Franklin G. Miller, Michelle M. Mello & Steven Joffe - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):271-279.
    The use of brain imaging technology as a common tool of research has spawned concern and debate over how investigators should respond to incidental fndings discovered in the course of research. In this article, we argue that investigators have an obligation to respond to incidental fndings in view of their entering into a professional relationship with research participants in which they are granted privileged access to private information with potential relevance to participants' health. We discuss the scope and limits of (...)
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  • The Future of Incidental Findings: Should They Be Viewed as Benefits?Lisa S. Parker - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):341-351.
    This paper argues against considering incidental fndings as potential benefts of research when assessing the social value of proposed research, determining the appropriateness of a study's risk/beneft ratio, and identifying and disclosing the risks and benefts of participation during informed consent. The possibility of generating IFs should be disclosed during informed consent as neither a risk nor beneft, but as a possible outcome collateral to participation. Whether specifc IFs will be disclosed when identifed is a separate question whose answer is (...)
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  • The Law of Incidental Findings in Human Subjects Research: Establishing Researchers' Duties.Susan M. Wolf, Jordan Paradise & Charlisse Caga-Anan - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):361-383.
    Technology has outpaced the capacity of researchers performing research on human participants to interpret all data generated and handle those data responsibly. This poses a critical challenge to existing rules governing human subjects research. The technologies used in research to generate images, scans, and data can now produce so much information that there is significant potential for incidental findings, findings generated in the course of research but beyond the aims of the study. Neuroimaging scans may visualize the entire brain and (...)
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  • The Future of Incidental Findings: Should They Be Viewed as Benefits?Lisa S. Parker - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):341-351.
    The possibility of generating incidental findings — in both research and clinical contexts — has long been regarded as a risk of these enterprises. Should incidental findings in research also be regarded as potential benefits? At first glance, it would seem they ought to be. After all, in particular circumstances or given a particular set of values, any piece of information can be beneficial. Therefore, it may seem incoherent or unduly paternalistic to regard IFs only as risks. Moreover, developments in (...)
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  • Incidental Findings in CT Colonography: Literature Review and Survey of Current Research Practice.Hassan Siddiki, J. G. Fletcher, Beth McFarland, Nora Dajani, Nicholas Orme, Barbara Koenig, Marguerite Strobel & Susan M. Wolf - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):320-331.
    Incidental fndings of potential medical signifcance are seen in approximately 5-8 percent of asymptomatic subjects and 16 percent of symptomatic subjects participating in large computed tomography colonography studies, with the incidence varying further by CT acquisition technique. While most CTC research programs have a well-defned plan to detect and disclose IFs, such plans are largely communicated only verbally. Written consent documents should also inform subjects of how IFs of potential medical signifcance will be detected and reported in CTC research studies.
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  • Incidental Findings in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Brain Research.Charles A. Nelson - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):315-319.
    The use of magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain structure and function has become increasingly common among neuroscientists, psychologists, and even economists in recent years. Yet, despite this increase in use, relatively little attention has been paid to the issue of incidental fndings. The current paper discusses these issues, and anticipates the future of incidental fndings in the context of other neuroimaging tools currently being used to investigate the living brain.
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  • Incidental Findings in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Brain Research.Charles A. Nelson - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):315-319.
    Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive imaging tool that utilizes a strong magnetic field and radio frequency waves to visualize in great detail organs, soft tissue, and bone. Unlike conventional x-rays, there is no exposure to ionizing radiation and at most field strengths the procedure is considered safe for nearly every age group. Because it is non-invasive and possesses excellent spatial resolution, the use of MRI as a research tool has increased exponentially over the past decade. Uses have ranged from (...)
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  • Empirical Analysis of Current Approaches to Incidental Findings.Frances Lawrenz & Suzanne Sobotka - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):249-255.
    This paper presents results found through searching publicly available U.S. data sources for information about how to handle incidental fndings (IF) in human subjects research, especially in genetics and genomics research, neuroimaging research, and CT colonography research. We searched the Web sites of 14 federal agencies, 22 professional societies, and 100 universities, as well as used the search engine Google for actual consent forms that had been posted on the Internet. Our analysis of these documents showed that there is very (...)
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  • Empirical Analysis of Current Approaches to Incidental Findings.Frances Lawrenz & Suzanne Sobotka - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):249-255.
    Researchers in the health sciences regularly discover information of potential health importance unrelated to their object of study in the course of their research. However, there appears to be little guidance available on what researchers should do with this information, known in the scientific literature as incidental findings. The study described here was designed to determine the extent of guidance available to researchers from public sources. This empirical study was part of a larger two-year project funded by the National Human (...)
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  • Incidental Findings in Pediatric Research.Benjamin S. Wilfond & Katherine J. Carpenter - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):332-340.
    The approach to incidental research fndings in children emerges by considering the child-parent relationship and balancing divergent interests and preferences. Incidental fndings with clear and proximate clinical importance should be disclosed to both. We recommend that particularly sensitive or private information should be disclosed to the adolescent frst, while particularly serious information should frst be disclosed to the parent. These approaches allow the researcher to form an alliance with one party prior to engaging the other. However, unlike clinical settings, where (...)
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  • Incidental Findings in Pediatric Research.Benjamin S. Wilfond & Katherine J. Carpenter - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):332-340.
    Incidental research findings, as defined in this symposium’s consensus paper, are unexpected findings discovered in the course of research but “beyond the aims of the study.” These include findings generated by research methodology, such as imaging or genetic analysis, findings related to clinical screening for inclusion or exclusion, or direct observations of physical abnormalities or behavior. Decisions about managing incidental research findings involve important ethical considerations regarding a researcher’s obligations to provide care, minimize harms, and respect research participants’ wishes. When (...)
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  • Genomic Research and Incidental Findings.Brian Van Ness - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):292-297.
    The Human Genome Project showed that there is signifcant genetic variation within the population. Current research is accumulating large databases that may reveal genetic variations associated with disease or health risks, even if not intended as part of the study design. These incidental fnd-ings create legal, ethical, and fnancial challenges for researchers. Current federal and international guidelines are not adequate. Plans for dealing with incidental fndings need to be established in the study design and reviewed and approved by the Institutional (...)
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  • Genomic Research and Incidental Findings.Brian Van Ness - 2008 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 36 (2):292-297.
    Medical practice is poised to incorporate genomescale testing into treatment decisions. However, broad genome testing in laboratories may lead to discoveries not anticipated, yet highly significant to the health of the patient. Understanding the complexity of our genome and its relationship to our health is an overwhelming task. Currently, much of the effort to unravel this complexity is in the realm of research. However, researchers are often neither qualified nor prepared to deal with incidental findings of genetic abnormalities that influence (...)
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  • Return of Results in Participant-Driven Research: Learning From Transformative Research Models.Susan M. Wolf - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (S1):159-166.
    Participant-driven research is a burgeoning domain of research innovation, often facilitated by mobile technologies. Return of results and data are common hallmarks, grounded in transparency and data democracy. PDR has much to teach traditional research about these practices and successful engagement. Recommendations calling for new state laws governing research with mHealth modalities common in PDR and federal creation of review mechanisms, threaten to stifle valuable participant-driven innovation, including in return of results.
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  • From Genetics to Genomics: Facing the Liability Implications in Clinical Care.Gary Marchant, Mark Barnes, James P. Evans, Bonnie LeRoy & Susan M. Wolf - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (1):11-43.
    Health care is transitioning from genetics to genomics, in which single-gene testing for diagnosis is being replaced by multi-gene panels, genome-wide sequencing, and other multi-genic tests for disease diagnosis, prediction, prognosis, and treatment. This health care transition is spurring a new set of increased or novel liability risks for health care providers and test laboratories. This article describes this transition in both medical care and liability, and addresses 11 areas of potential increased or novel liability risk, offering recommendations to both (...)
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  • How Can Law and Policy Advance Quality in Genomic Analysis and Interpretation for Clinical Care?Barbara J. Evans, Gail Javitt, Ralph Hall, Megan Robertson, Pilar Ossorio, Susan M. Wolf, Thomas Morgan & Ellen Wright Clayton - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (1):44-68.
    Delivering high quality genomics-informed care to patients requires accurate test results whose clinical implications are understood. While other actors, including state agencies, professional organizations, and clinicians, are involved, this article focuses on the extent to which the federal agencies that play the most prominent roles — the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services enforcing CLIA and the FDA — effectively ensure that these elements are met and concludes by suggesting possible ways to improve their oversight of genomic testing.
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  • The Continuing Evolution of Ethical Standards for Genomic Sequencing in Clinical Care: Restoring Patient Choice.Susan M. Wolf - 2017 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 45 (3):333-340.
    Developing ethical standards for clinical use of large-scale genome and exome sequencing has proven challenging, in part due to the inevitability of incidental or secondary findings. Policy of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics has evolved but remains problematic. In 2013, ACMG issued policy recommending mandatory analysis of 56 extra genes whenever sequencing was ordered for any indication, in order to ascertain positive findings in pathogenic and actionable genes. Widespread objection yielded a 2014 amendment allowing patients to opt-out (...)
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  • Ethical Dimensions of Disparities in Depression Research and Treatment in the Pharmacogenomic Era.Lisa S. Parker & Valerie B. Satkoske - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):886-903.
    Disparities in access to, and utilization of, treatment for depression among African-American and Caucasian elderly adults have been well-documented. Less fully explored are the multidimensional factors responsible for these disparities. The intersection of cultural constructs, socioeconomic factors, multiple levels of racism, and stigma attending both mental health issues and older age may help to explain disparities in the treatment of the depressed elderly. Personalized medicine with its promise of developing interventions tailored to an individual's health needs and genetically related response (...)
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  • Ethical Dimensions of Disparities in Depression Research and Treatment in the Pharmacogenomic Era.Lisa S. Parker & Valerie B. Satkoske - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):886-903.
    Personalized medicine with its promise of developing interventions tailored to an individual's health need and genetically related response to treatment might seem a promising antidote to the documented underutilization of standard depression treatments by African Americans. In addition, understanding depression not merely in biochemical terms but also in genetic terms might seem to counter cultural beliefs and stigma that attach to depression when conceived as a mood or behavioral problem under an individual's control. After all, if there is one thing (...)
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  • Recognizing the Right Not to Know: Conceptual, Professional, and Legal Implications.Graeme Laurie - 2014 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (1):53-63.
    This article argues for the importance of conceptual clarity in the debate about the so-called right not to know. This is vital both at the theoretical and the practical level. It is suggested that, unlike many formulations and attempts to give effect to this right, what is at stake is not merely an aspect of personal autonomy and therefore cannot and should not be reduced only to a question of individual choice. Rather, it is argued that the core interests that (...)
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  • Recognizing the Right Not to Know: Conceptual, Professional, and Legal Implications.Graeme Laurie - 2014 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (1):53-63.
    The right not to know is a contested matter. This can be because the inversion of the normal framing of entitlement to information about one's own health is thought to be illogical and inconsistent with self-authorship and/or because the very idea of claiming a right not to know information is an inappropriate appeal to the discourse of rights that places impossible responsibilities on others. Notwithstanding, there has been a sustained increase in this kind of appeal in recent years fueled in (...)
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  • A Framework for Analyzing the Ethics of Disclosing Genetic Research Findings.Lisa Eckstein, Jeremy R. Garrett & Benjamin E. Berkman - 2014 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (2):190-207.
    Over the past decade, there has been an extensive debate about whether researchers have an obligation to disclose genetic research findings, including primary and secondary findings. There appears to be an emerging (but disputed) view that researchers have some obligation to disclose some genetic findings to some research participants. The contours of this obligation, however, remain unclear. -/- As this paper will explore, much of this confusion is definitional or conceptual in nature. The extent of a researcher’s obligation to return (...)
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  • Teaching Health Law: Teaching Law Students to Be Policymakers: The Health and Science Policy Workshop on Genomic Research.Benjamin E. Berkman & Karen H. Rothenberg - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (1):147-153.
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  • Biobanks and the Return of Research Results: Out with the Old and In with the New?Ma'N. H. Zawati & Amélie Rioux - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (4):614-620.
    This article examines the complex and contemporary issue of the return of research results in biobanks. After suggesting the exclusion of some adjacent issues usually flanking the debate, this article reviews the current practices of biobanks on the disclosure of research results to participants. It then focuses more specifically on the debate in the literature before turning to a review of the typology of recent reforms being put forward.
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  • Biobanks and the Return of Research Results: Out with the Old and in with the New?Ma'N. H. Zawati & Amélie Rioux - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (4):614-620.
    In 2009, Time magazine named “biobanks” as one of the 10 ideas changing the world. These organized collections of human biological material and associated data have been identified as “vital research tools in the drive to uncover the consequences of human health and disease.” Since their inception, however, biobanks have faced ethical and legal challenges. Whether these pertain to informed consent, access by researchers, commercialization, confidentiality, or governance, biobanks must continue to address jurisdictional matters, operational difficulties, and normative frameworks that (...)
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  • Return of Research Results: General Principles and International Perspectives.Emmanuelle Lévesque, Yann Joly & Jacques Simard - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (4):583-592.
    Five years ago, an article co-written by two of us (Joly and Simard) presented an emerging trend to disclose certain individual genetic results to research participants. Since then, both technologies and research practices have evolved significantly. Given this rapid evolution, our goal is to provide updated and thorough guidance on this issue. Our paper begins by identifying the ethical principles that support the return of results: justice, beneficence, and respect for persons. Then, it presents the results of an analysis of (...)
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  • Return of Research Results: General Principles and International Perspectives.Emmanuelle Lévesque, Yann Joly & Jacques Simard - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (4):583-592.
    Five years ago, an article co-written by some of us presented an emerging trend to disclose some individual genetic results to research participants within the international research community. At the time, ethical norms and scholarly publications on the return of results often did not distinguish between the return of research results in general and the return of unexpected results. Both technologies and research practices have evolved significantly. Today whole genome and exome sequencing are increasingly affordable and frequently used in genetic (...)
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  • Return of Research Results: How Should Research Results Be Handled?Bartha Maria Knoppers & Emmanuelle Lévesque - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (4):574-576.
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  • The Management of Incidental Findings in Neuro-Imaging Research: Framework and Recommendations.Erica K. Rangel - 2010 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (1):117-126.
    This paper addresses the question of how incidental findings in clinical research should be managed by researchers, focusing in detail on IFs discovered in neuroimaging research. It begins by engaging the larger research ethics issue of whether researchers have any obligations of clinical care to participants, and assesses the content and merits of one particular framework for answering this question, Richardson and Belsky's ancillary care model. From here the paper develops an organizational structure for integrating the ancillary care model with (...)
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  • Should Researchers Offer Results to Family Members of Cancer Biobank Participants? A Mixed-Methods Study of Proband and Family Preferences.Deborah R. Gordon, Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Marguerite Robinson, Wesley O. Petersen, Jason S. Egginton, Kari G. Chaffee, Gloria M. Petersen, Susan M. Wolf & Barbara A. Koenig - 2019 - AJOB Empirical Bioethics 10 (1):1-22.
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  • Narrative Devices: Neurotechnologies, Information, and Self-Constitution.Emily Postan - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-21.
    This article provides a conceptual and normative framework through which we may understand the potentially ethically significant roles that information generated by neurotechnologies about our brains and minds may play in our construction of our identities. Neuroethics debates currently focus disproportionately on the ways that third parties may use these kinds of information. These debates occlude interests we may have in whether and how we ourselves encounter information about our own brains and minds. This gap is not yet adequately addressed (...)
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