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  1. The Conditions Favoring Between-Community Raiding in Chimpanzees, Bonobos, and Human Foragers.Sagar A. Pandit, Gauri R. Pradhan, Hennadii Balashov & Carel P. Van Schaik - 2016 - Human Nature 27 (2):141-159.
  • The Two Sides of Warfare: An Extended Model of Altruistic Behavior in Ancestral Human Intergroup Conflict.Hannes Rusch - 2014 - Human Nature 25 (3):359-377.
    Building on and partially refining previous theoretical work, this paper presents an extended simulation model of ancestral warfare. This model (1) disentangles attack and defense, (2) tries to differentiate more strictly between selfish and altruistic efforts during war, (3) incorporates risk aversion and deterrence, and (4) pays special attention to the role of brutality. Modeling refinements and simulation results yield a differentiated picture of possible evolutionary dynamics. The main observations are: (i) Altruism in this model is more likely to evolve (...)
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  • The Impacts of Conservation and Militarization on Indigenous Peoples.Robert K. Hitchcock - 2019 - Human Nature 30 (2):217-241.
    There has been a long-standing debate about the roles of San in the militaries of southern Africa and the prevalence of violence among the Ju/'hoansi and other San people. The evolutionary anthropology and social anthropological debates over the contexts in which violence and warfare occurs among hunters and gatherers are considered, as is the “tribal zone theory” of warfare between states and indigenous people. This paper assesses the issues that arise from these discussions, drawing on data from San in Angola, (...)
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  • Pacifying Hunter-Gatherers.Raymond Hames - 2019 - Human Nature 30 (2):155-175.
    There is a well-entrenched schism on the frequency, intensity, and evolutionary significance of warfare among hunter-gatherers compared with large-scale societies. To simplify, Rousseauians argue that warfare among prehistoric and contemporary hunter-gatherers was nearly absent and, if present, was a late cultural invention. In contrast, so-called Hobbesians argue that violence was relatively common but variable among hunter-gatherers. To defend their views, Rousseauians resort to a variety of tactics to diminish the apparent frequency and intensity of hunter-gatherer warfare. These tactics include redefining (...)
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  • Review of Nam C. Kim and Marc Kissel’s Emergent Warfare in Our Evolutionary Past. [REVIEW]William Buckner - 2019 - Human Nature 30 (2):242-246.
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  • Complexity in Individual Trajectories Toward Online Extremism.Z. Cao, M. Zheng, Y. Vorobyeva, C. Song & N. F. Johnson - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-9.
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  • Human Identity and the Evolution of Societies.Mark W. Moffett - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (3):219-267.
    Human societies are examined as distinct and coherent groups. This trait is most parsimoniously considered a deeply rooted part of our ancestry rather than a recent cultural invention. Our species is the only vertebrate with society memberships of significantly more than 200. We accomplish this by using society-specific labels to identify members, in what I call an anonymous society. I propose that the human brain has evolved to permit not only the close relationships described by the social brain hypothesis, but (...)
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  • Food Sharing across Borders.Barbara Fruth & Gottfried Hohmann - 2018 - Human Nature 29 (2):91-103.
    Evolutionary models consider hunting and food sharing to be milestones that paved the way from primate to human societies. Because fossil evidence is scarce, hominoid primates serve as referential models to assess our common ancestors’ capacity in terms of communal use of resources, food sharing, and other forms of cooperation. Whereas chimpanzees form male-male bonds exhibiting resource-defense polygyny with intolerance and aggression toward nonresidents, bonobos form male-female and female-female bonds resulting in relaxed relations with neighboring groups. Here we report the (...)
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  • The Role of Rewards in Motivating Participation in Simple Warfare.Luke Glowacki & Richard W. Wrangham - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (4):444-460.
    In the absence of explicit punitive sanctions, why do individuals voluntarily participate in intergroup warfare when doing so incurs a mortality risk? Here we consider the motivation of individuals for participating in warfare. We hypothesize that in addition to other considerations, individuals are incentivized by the possibility of rewards. We test a prediction of this “cultural rewards war-risk hypothesis” with ethnographic literature on warfare in small-scale societies. We find that a greater number of benefits from warfare is associated with a (...)
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  • Of Meat and Men: Sex Differences in Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Meat.Hamish J. Love & Danielle Sulikowski - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  • Risk, Uncertainty, and Violence in Eastern Africa.Carol R. Ember, Teferi Abate Adem & Ian Skoggard - 2013 - Human Nature 24 (1):33-58.
    Previous research on warfare in a worldwide sample of societies by Ember and Ember (Journal of Conflict Resolution, 36, 242–262, 1992a) found a strong relationship between resource unpredictability (particularly food scarcity caused by natural disasters) in nonstate, nonpacified societies and overall warfare frequency. Focusing on eastern Africa, a region frequently plagued with subsistence uncertainty as well as violence, this paper explores the relationships between resource problems, including resource unpredictability, chronic scarcity, and warfare frequencies. It also examines whether resource scarcity predicts (...)
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  • Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Aggression.Elizabeth Cashdan & Stephen M. Downes - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (1):1-4.
    The papers in this volume present varying approaches to human aggression, each from an evolutionary perspective. The evolutionary studies of aggression collected here all pursue aspects of patterns of response to environmental circumstances and consider explicitly how those circumstances shape the costs and benefits of behaving aggressively. All the authors understand various aspects of aggression as evolved adaptations but none believe that this implies we are doomed to continued violence, but rather that variation in aggression has evolutionary roots. These papers (...)
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  • Hormonal Mechanisms for Regulation of Aggression in Human Coalitions.Mark V. Flinn, Davide Ponzi & Michael P. Muehlenbein - 2012 - Human Nature 23 (1):68-88.
    Coalitions and alliances are core aspects of human behavior. All societies recognize alliances among communities, usually based in part on kinship and marriage. Aggression between groups is ubiquitous, often deadly, fueled by revenge, and can have devastating effects on general human welfare. Given its significance, it is surprising how little we know about the neurobiological and hormonal mechanisms that underpin human coalitionary behavior. Here we first briefly review a model of human coalitionary behavior based on a process of runaway social (...)
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  • Why We Should Care About Evolution and Natural History.C. Kjaergaard Peter - 2016 - Zygon 51 (3):684-697.
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