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  1. The Purloined Philosopher: Youzi on Learning by Virtue.William A. Haines - 2008 - Philosophy East and West 58 (4):pp. 470-491.
    This essay is the first general study of the work of You Ruo or Youzi (fl. 470 B.C.E. ). It also defends his views and argues that he was an important independent figure in the origins of Confucianism. Youzi is thought to have been a disciple of Confucius, and his work is studied mainly for its insight into Confucius. Hence, his work is seriously misunderstood. In fact Youzi's main views were not shared by Confucius, and the evidence suggests that Youzi (...)
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  • Ethics of Learning and Self-Knowledge: Two Cases in the Socratic and Confucian Teachings.Duck-Joo Kwak - 2016 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 48 (1):7-22.
    This paper attempts to do a comparative study on two traditions of humanistic pedagogies, West and East, represented by the Socratic and the Confucian teachings. It is intended to put into question our common misunderstanding reflected in the stereotyped contrasts between the Socratic self and the Confucian self: an intellectualist vs. a moralist, an active vs. a passive learner, and a political progressive vs. a political conservative. In this attempt, I will focus on the clarification of the idea of ‘self-knowledge’ (...)
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  • Socrates and Confucius: The Cultural Foundations and Ethics of Learning.Michael A. Peters - 2015 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 47 (5):423-427.
  • Emotionales Versus Rationales: A Comparison Between Confucius’ and Socrates’ Ethics.Qingping Liu - 2013 - Asian Philosophy 23 (1):86-99.
    Socrates regards rational knowledge as the decisive factor of human life and even ascribes all virtues and moral actions to it, thereby stressing the ‘rationales’ of ethics. In contrast, Confucius regards kinship love as the decisive factor of human life and even grounds all virtues and moral actions on it, thereby stressing the ‘emotionales’ of ethics. Therefore, we should not lump them together by conceiving Confucius’ ethics also as based on ‘moral reason’.
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  • Commentary on Michael A. Peters’ Short Essay, ‘Socrates and Confucius: The Cultural Foundations and Ethics of Learning’.Duck-Joo Kwak - 2015 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 47 (8):755-757.