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  1. Can False Memory for Critical Lures Occur Without Conscious Awareness of List Words?Daniel D. Sadler, Sharon M. Sodmont & Lucas A. Keefer - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 58:136-157.
  • Evaluating the Evidence for Nonconscious Processes in Producing False Memories.Jeroen G. W. Raaijmakers & René Zeelenberg - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):169-172.
    In response to the failure of Zeelenberg, Plomp, and Raaijmakers to replicate the results of Seamon, Luo, and Gallo regarding their purported finding of a reliable false memory effect in the absence of memory for the list items, Gallo and Seamon report a new experiment that they claim shows that conscious activation of a related lure during study is not necessary for its subsequent recognition. We critically evaluate their conclusion and argue that the evidence clearly shows that false recognition is (...)
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  • Are Nonconscious Processes Sufficient to Produce False Memories?David A. Gallo & John G. Seamon - 2004 - Consciousness and Cognition 13 (1):158-168.
    Seamon, Luo, and Gallo reported evidence that nonconscious processes could produce false recognition in a converging-associates task, whereby subjects falsely remember a nonstudied lure after studying a list of related words . Zeelenberg, Plomp, and Raaijmakers failed to observe this false recognition effect when list word recognition was at chance. We critically evaluate the evidence for nonsconscious processing and report the results of a new experiment designed to overcome previous methodological limitations. Consistent with Seamon et al., we found that conscious (...)
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  • Presentation Duration and False Recall for Semantic and Phonological Associates.Nicole Ballardini, Jill A. Yamashita & William P. Wallace - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):64-71.
    Two experiments examined false recall for lists of semantically and phonologically associated words as a function of presentation duration. Veridical recall increased with long exposure durations for all lists. For semantically associated lists, false recall increased from 20–250 ms, then decreased. There was a high level of false recall with 20 ms durations for phonologically associated lists , which declined as duration increased. In Experiment 2, for lists presented at 20 and 50 ms rates, false recall given zero correct recall (...)
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  • Evidence That Nonconscious Processes Are Sufficient to Produce False Memories.Sivan C. Cotel, David A. Gallo & John G. Seamon - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):210-218.
    Are nonconscious processes sufficient to cause false memories of a nonstudied event? To investigate this issue, we controlled and measured conscious processing in the DRM task, in which studying associates causes false memories of nonstudied associates . During the study phase, subjects studied visually masked associates at extremely rapid rates, followed by immediate recall. After this initial phase, nonstudied test words were rapidly presented for perceptual identification, followed by recognition memory judgments. On the perceptual identification task, we found significant priming (...)
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  • Activating the Critical Lure During Study is Unnecessary for False Recognition.René Zeelenberg, Inge Boot & Diane Pecher - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (2):316-326.
    Participants studied lists of nonwords that were orthographic-phonologically similar to a nonpresented critical lure, which was also a nonword . Experiment 1 showed a high level of false recognition for the critical lure. Experiment 2 showed that the false recognition effect was also present for forewarned participants who were informed about the nature of the false recognition effect and told to avoid making false recognition judgments. The present results show that false recognition effects can be obtained even when the critical (...)
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