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  1. Iconic Semiosis and Representational Efficiency in the London Underground Diagram.Pedro Atã, Breno Bitarello & Joao Queiroz - 2014 - Cognitive Semiotics 7:177-190.
    The icon is the type of sign connected to efficient representational features, and its manipulation reveals more information about its object. The London Underground Diagram (LUD) is an iconic artifact and a well-known example of representational efficiency, having been copied by urban transportation systems worldwide. This paper investigates the efficiency of the LUD in the light of different conceptions of iconicity. We stress that a specialized representation is an icon of the formal structure of the problem for which it has (...)
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  • Multilevel Poetry Translation as a Problem-Solving Task.Pedro Ata & Joao Queiroz - 2016 - Cognitive Semiotics 9 (2):139-147.
    Poems are treated by translators as hierarchical multilevel systems. Here we propose the notion of “multilevel poetry translation” to characterize such cases of poetry translation in terms of selection and rebuilding of a multilevel system of constraints across languages. Different levels of a poem correspond to different sets of components that asymmetrically constrain each other (e. g., grammar, lexicon, syntactic construction, prosody, rhythm, typography, etc.). This perspective allows a poem to be approached as a thinking-tool: an “experimental lab” which submits (...)
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  • The Cost of Concreteness: The Effect of Nonessential Information on Analogical Transfer.Jennifer A. Kaminski, Vladimir M. Sloutsky & Andrew F. Heckler - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19 (1):14.
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  • Epistemic and Social Scripts in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning.Armin Weinberger, Bernhard Ertl, Frank Fischer & Heinz Mandl - unknown
    Collaborative learning in computer-supported learning environments typically means that learners work on tasks together, discussing their individual perspectives via text-based media or videoconferencing, and consequently acquire knowledge. Collaborative learning, however, is often sub-optimal with respect to how learners work on the concepts that are supposed to be learned and how learners interact with each other. Therefore, instructional support needs to be implemented into computer-supported collaborative learning environments. One possibility to improve collaborative learning environments is to conceptualize scripts that structure epistemic (...)
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  • Computer Support for Collaborative Learning Environments.Heinz Mandl, Bernhard Ertl & Birgitta Kopp - unknown
    This paper deals with computer support for collaborative learning environments. Our analysis is based on a moderate constructivist view on learning, which emphasizes the need to support learners instructionally in their collaborative knowledge construction. We will first illustrate the extent to which the computer can provide tools for supporting collaborative knowledge construction. Secondly, we will focus on instruction itself and show the kinds of advanced instructional methods that computer tools may provide for the learners. Furthermore, we will discuss the learners’ (...)
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  • Supporting Collaborative Learning in Videoconferencing Using Collaboration Scripts and Content Schemes.Bernhard Ertl, Birgitta Kopp & Heinz Mandl - unknown
    Studies have shown that videoconferences are an effective medium for facilitating communication between parties who are separated by distance. Furthermore, studies reveal that videoconferences are effective when used for distance learning, particularly due to their ability to facilitate complex collaborative learning tasks. However, as in face-to-face communication, learners benefit when they receive additional support for such learning tasks. This article provides an overview of two empirical studies to illustrate more general insights regarding some effective and less effective ways to support (...)
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  • Manipulative Imagination: How to Move Things Around in Mathematics.Valeria Giardino - 2018 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 33 (2):345-360.
    In the first part of the paper, previous work about embodied mathematics and the practice of topology will be presented. According to the proposed view, in order to become experts, topologists have to learn how to use manipulative imagination: representations are cognitive tools whose functioning depends from pre-existing cognitive abilities and from specific training. In the second part of the paper, the notion of imagination as “make-believe” is discussed to give an account of cognitive tools in mathematics as props; to (...)
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  • Interruption Management in the Intensive Care Unit: Predicting Resumption Times and Assessing Distributed Support.Tobias Grundgeiger, Penelope Sanderson, Hamish G. MacDougall & Balasubramanian Venkatesh - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 16 (4):317-334.
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  • External Support for Collaborative Problem Solving in a Simulated Provider/Patient Medication Scheduling Task.Daniel Morrow, Liza Raquel, Angela Schriver, Seth Redenbo, David Rozovski & Gillian Weiss - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 14 (3):288-297.
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  • Interactivity And Mental Arithmetic: Coupling Mind And World Transforms And Enhances Performance.Lisa G. Guthrie & Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau - 2015 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 41 (1):41-59.
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  • Memory for Goals: An Activation‐Based Model.Erik M. Altmann & J. Gregory Trafton - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (1):39-83.
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  • The Nature of External Representations in Problem Solving.Jiajie Zhang - 1997 - Cognitive Science 21 (2):179-217.
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  • Physically Distributed Learning: Adapting and Reinterpreting Physical Environments in the Development of Fraction Concepts.Taylor Martin & Daniel L. Schwartz - 2005 - Cognitive Science 29 (4):587-625.
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  • Thinking in Action.Barbara Tversky & Angela Kessell - 2014 - Pragmatics and Cognition 22 (2):206-223.
    When thought overwhelms the mind, the mind uses the body and the world. Several studies reveal ways that people alone or together use gesture and marks on paper to structure and augment their thought for comprehension, inference, and discovery. The studies show that the mapping of thought to gesture or the page is more direct than the arbitrary mapping to language and suggest that these forms of visual/spatial/action representation are used to “translate” language into mental representations. It is argued that (...)
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  • Thinking in Action.Barbara Tversky & Angela Kessell - 2014 - Pragmatics and Cognition 22 (2):206-223.
    When thought overwhelms the mind, the mind uses the body and the world. Several studies reveal ways that people alone or together use gesture and marks on paper to structure and augment their thought for comprehension, inference, and discovery. The studies show that the mapping of thought to gesture or the page is more direct than the arbitrary mapping to language and suggest that these forms of visual/spatial/action representation are used to “translate” language into mental representations. It is argued that (...)
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  • Diagrams, Jars, and Matchsticks: A Systemicist’s Toolkit.Frederic Vallee-Tourangeau & Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau - 2014 - Pragmatics and Cognition 22 (2):187-205.
    Participants in cognitive psychology experiments on reasoning and problem solving are commonly sequestered: Efforts are made to impoverish the physical context in which the problem is presented, decoupling people from the richer and modifiable environment that naturally instantiates it outside the lab. Sense-making activities are constrained, but this conforms to the strong internalist and individualist commitments implicit to these research efforts: Cognition reflects internal computations and the scientists’ toils must focus on the individual and what she is thinking, decoupled from (...)
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  • Diagrams, Jars, and Matchsticks.Frederic Vallee-Tourangeau & Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau - 2014 - Pragmatics and Cognition 22 (2):187-205.
    Participants in cognitive psychology experiments on reasoning and problem solving are commonly sequestered: Efforts are made to impoverish the physical context in which the problem is presented, decoupling people from the richer and modifiable environment that naturally instantiates it outside the lab. Sense-making activities are constrained, but this conforms to the strong internalist and individualist commitments implicit to these research efforts: Cognition reflects internal computations and the scientists’ toils must focus on the individual and what she is thinking, decoupled from (...)
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  • Insight, Interactivity and Materiality.Frederic Vallee-Tourangeau - 2014 - Pragmatics and Cognition 22 (1):27-44.
    The popular iconography of insight casts a thinker as he or she uncoils from a Rodin pose and a bulb that lights a world hitherto hidden. By and large, these features of folk mythology capture and guide how psychologists conduct research on insight: Mental processes — some of which may be unconscious — transform an inceptive abstract representation of the world until it prescribes a fruitful solution to a problem. Yet thinking and problem solving outside the laboratory involve interacting with (...)
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  • The Emulation Theory of Representation: Motor Control, Imagery, and Perception.Rick Grush - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):377-396.
    The emulation theory of representation is developed and explored as a framework that can revealingly synthesize a wide variety of representational functions of the brain. The framework is based on constructs from control theory (forward models) and signal processing (Kalman filters). The idea is that in addition to simply engaging with the body and environment, the brain constructs neural circuits that act as models of the body and environment. During overt sensorimotor engagement, these models are driven by efference copies in (...)
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  • From Wide Cognition to Mechanisms: A Silent Revolution.Marcin Miłkowski, Robert Clowes, Zuzanna Rucińska, Aleksandra Przegalińska, Tadeusz Zawidzki, Joel Krueger, Adam Gies, Marek McGann, Łukasz Afeltowicz, Witold Wachowski, Fredrik Stjernberg, Victor Loughlin & Mateusz Hohol - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
    In this paper, we argue that several recent ‘wide’ perspectives on cognition (embodied, embedded, extended, enactive, and distributed) are only partially relevant to the study of cognition. While these wide accounts override traditional methodological individualism, the study of cognition has already progressed beyond these proposed perspectives towards building integrated explanations of the mechanisms involved, including not only internal submechanisms but also interactions with others, groups, cognitive artifacts, and their environment. The claim is substantiated with reference to recent developments in the (...)
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  • CaMeRa: A Computational Model of Multiple Representations.Hermina J. M. Tabachneck-Schijf, Anthony M. Leonardo & Herbert A. Simon - 1997 - Cognitive Science 21 (3):305-350.
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  • Integrating, Not Debating, Situated Action and Computational Models: Taking the Environment Seriously.Michael D. Byrne - 1994 - In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. pp. 118--123.
  • A Representational Analysis of Numeration Systems.Jiajie Zhang & Donald A. Norman - 1995 - Cognition 57 (3):271-295.
  • How to Situate Cognition: Letting Nature Take its Course.Robert A. Wilson & Andy Clark - 2009 - In Murat Aydede & P. Robbins (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 55--77.
    1. The Situation in Cognition 2. Situated Cognition: A Potted Recent History 3. Extensions in Biology, Computation, and Cognition 4. Articulating the Idea of Cognitive Extension 5. Are Some Resources Intrinsically Non-Cognitive? 6. Is Cognition Extended or Only Embedded? 7. Letting Nature Take Its Course.
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  • Contributions of Socially Distributed Cognition to Social Epistemology: The Case of Testimony.Anna Estany & David Casacuberta - 2012 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 16:40-68.
    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar y revisar las normas que filosóficamente asociamos al proceso de testimonio, inquiriendo hasta qué puntoson0 consistentes con los conocimientos empíricos de las ciencias cognitivas.Tradicionalmente, el problema del testimonio surgía cuando, desde una epistemología de corte individualista, se suponía, siguiendo el dictum ya marcado en la Modernidad tanto por racionalistas como por empiristas, de que el conocimiento debía ser testado personalmente. Sin embargo, disciplinas y enfoques recientes, como la Cognición Socialmente Distribuida y la Epistemología (...)
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  • A Cognitive Simulator for Learning the Nature of Human Problem Solving.Kazuhisa Miwa - 2008 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 23:374-383.
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  • Electrifying Diagrams for Learning: Principles for Complex Representational Systems.Peter C.-H. Cheng - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (6):685-736.
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  • What’s the Matter with Cognition? A ‘Vygotskian’ Perspective on Material Engagement Theory.Georg Theiner & Chris Drain - 2017 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16 (5):837-862.
    The cross-disciplinary framework of Material Engagement Theory (MET) has emerged as a novel research program that flexibly spans archeology, anthropology, philosophy, and cognitive science. True to its slogan to ‘take material culture seriously’, “MET wants to change our understanding of what minds are and what they are made of by changing what we know about what things are and what they do for the mind” (Malafouris 2013, 141). By tracing out more clearly the conceptual contours of ‘material engagement,’ and firming (...)
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  • How Diagrams Can Support Syllogistic Reasoning: An Experimental Study.Yuri Sato & Koji Mineshima - 2015 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 24 (4):409-455.
    This paper explores the question of what makes diagrammatic representations effective for human logical reasoning, focusing on how Euler diagrams support syllogistic reasoning. It is widely held that diagrammatic representations aid intuitive understanding of logical reasoning. In the psychological literature, however, it is still controversial whether and how Euler diagrams can aid untrained people to successfully conduct logical reasoning such as set-theoretic and syllogistic reasoning. To challenge the negative view, we build on the findings of modern diagrammatic logic and introduce (...)
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  • Learning Problem‐Solving Rules as Search Through a Hypothesis Space.Hee Seung Lee, Shawn Betts & John R. Anderson - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (5):1036-1079.
    Learning to solve a class of problems can be characterized as a search through a space of hypotheses about the rules for solving these problems. A series of four experiments studied how different learning conditions affected the search among hypotheses about the solution rule for a simple computational problem. Experiment 1 showed that a problem property such as computational difficulty of the rules biased the search process and so affected learning. Experiment 2 examined the impact of examples as instructional tools (...)
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  • Distributed Cognition and Memory Research: History and Current Directions.Kourken Michaelian & John Sutton - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (1):1-24.
    According to the hypotheses of distributed and extended cognition, remembering does not always occur entirely inside the brain but is often distributed across heterogeneous systems combining neural, bodily, social, and technological resources. These ideas have been intensely debated in philosophy, but the philosophical debate has often remained at some distance from relevant empirical research, while empirical memory research, in particular, has been somewhat slow to incorporate distributed/extended ideas. This situation, however, appears to be changing, as we witness an increasing level (...)
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  • Social Context in HCl: A New Framework for Mental Models, Cooperation, and Communication.Giuseppe Mantovani - 1996 - Cognitive Science 20 (2):237-269.
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  • The Role of Design and Training in Artifact Expertise: The Case of the Abacus and Visual Attention.Mahesh Srinivasan, Katie Wagner, Michael C. Frank & David Barner - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (S3):757-782.
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  • Semiotic Scaffolding in Mathematics.Mikkel Willum Johansen & Morten Misfeldt - 2015 - Biosemiotics 8 (2):325-340.
    This paper investigates the notion of semiotic scaffolding in relation to mathematics by considering its influence on mathematical activities, and on the evolution of mathematics as a research field. We will do this by analyzing the role different representational forms play in mathematical cognition, and more broadly on mathematical activities. In the main part of the paper, we will present and analyze three different cases. For the first case, we investigate the semiotic scaffolding involved in pencil and paper multiplication. For (...)
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  • Strategy Analysis of Non-Consequence Inference with Euler Diagrams.Yuri Sato, Yuichiro Wajima & Kazuhiro Ueda - 2018 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 27 (1):61-77.
    How can Euler diagrams support non-consequence inferences? Although an inference to non-consequence, in which people are asked to judge whether no valid conclusion can be drawn from the given premises, is one of the two sides of logical inference, it has received remarkably little attention in research on human diagrammatic reasoning; how diagrams are really manipulated for such inferences remains unclear. We hypothesized that people naturally make these inferences by enumerating possible diagrams, based on the logical notion of self-consistency, in (...)
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  • Distributed Cognition in Scientific Contexts.Hyundeuk Cheon - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (1):23-33.
    Even though it has been argued that scientific cognition is distributed, there is no consensus on the exact nature of distributed cognition. This paper aims to characterize distributed cognition as appropriate for philosophical studies of science. I first classify competing characterizations into three types: the property approach, the task approach, and the system approach. It turns out that the property approach and the task approach are subject to criticism. I then argue that the most preferable way to understand distributed cognition (...)
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  • Storing Information in-the-World: Metacognition and Cognitive Offloading in a Short-Term Memory Task.Evan F. Risko & Timothy L. Dunn - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:61-74.
  • The Effects of Self‐Explaining When Learning with Text or Diagrams.Shaaron Ainsworth & Andrea Th Loizou - 2003 - Cognitive Science 27 (4):669-681.
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  • Cognitively Active Externalization for Situated Reflection.Hajime Shirouzu, Naomi Miyake & Hiroyuki Masukawa - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (4):469-501.
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  • The Effect of Semantics on Problem Solving is to Reduce Relational Complexity.Olga Megalakaki, Charles Tijus, Romain Baiche & Sébastien Poitrenaud - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (2):159 - 182.
    This article reports a study carried out in order to measure how semantic factors affect reductions in the difficulty of the Chinese Ring Puzzle (CRP) that involves removing five objects according to a recursive rule. We hypothesised that semantics would guide inferences about action decision making. The study involved a comparison of problem solving for two semantic isomorphic variants of the CRP ( fish and fleas ) with problem solving for the puzzle's classic variant (the Balls and Boxes problem; Kotovsky (...)
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  • Real Objects Can Impede Conditional Reasoning but Augmented Objects Do Not.Yuri Sato, Yutaro Sugimoto & Kazuhiro Ueda - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):691-707.
    In this study, Knauff and Johnson-Laird's visual impedance hypothesis is applied to the domain of external representations and diagrammatic reasoning. We show that the use of real objects and augmented real objects can control human interpretation and reasoning about conditionals. As participants made inferences, they also moved objects corresponding to premises. Participants who moved real objects made more invalid inferences than those who moved AR objects and those who did not manipulate objects. Our results showed that real objects impeded conditional (...)
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  • Conjectures and Manipulations: External Representations in Scientific Reasoning.Lorenzo Magnani - 2002 - Mind and Society 3 (1):9-31.
    What I call theoretical abduction (sentential and model-based) certainly illustrates much of what is important in abductive reasoning, especially the objective of selecting and creating a set of hypotheses that are able to dispense good (preferred) explanations of data, but fails to account for many cases of explanations occurring in science or in everyday reasoning when the exploitation of the environment is crucial. The concept of manipulative abduction is devoted to capture the role of action in many interesting situations: action (...)
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  • Cognitive Conditions of Diagrammatic Reasoning.Michael Hg Hoffmann - 2011 - Semiotica 2011 (186):189-212.
    In the first part of this paper, I delineate Peirce's general concept of diagrammatic reasoning from other usages of the term that focus either on diagrammatic systems as developed in logic and AI or on reasoning with mental models. The main function of Peirce's form of diagrammatic reasoning is to facilitate individual or social thinking processes in situations that are too complex to be coped with exclusively by internal cognitive means. I provide a diagrammatic definition of diagrammatic reasoning that emphasizes (...)
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  • Interactive Insight Problem Solving.Anna Weller, Gaëlle Villejoubert & Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 17 (4):424 - 439.
    Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In a second group, participants interacted with a three-dimensional representation of the false equation. Success rates in the static group for different (...)
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