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  1. Dimensions of Integration in Embedded and Extended Cognitive Systems.Richard Heersmink - 2014 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (3):577-598.
    The complementary properties and functions of cognitive artifacts and other external resources are integrated into the human cognitive system to varying degrees. The goal of this paper is to develop some of the tools to conceptualize this complementary integration between agents and artifacts. It does so by proposing a multidimensional framework, including the dimensions of information flow, reliability, durability, trust, procedural transparency, informational transparency, individualization, and transformation. The proposed dimensions are all matters of degree and jointly they constitute a multidimensional (...)
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  • External Representations Reconsidered: Against the Reification of Cognitive Extensions.Marcin Trybulec - 2017 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 8 (1):229-224.
    Attempts to account for the significance of materiality for cognition should pay special attention to the vehicle in which meaning and information are embedded. Distributed cognition pays surprisingly little attention to conceptualizing the distinction between transitory and durable representations. I use the example of David Kirsh’s research to argue that the bias toward defining cognitive extensions in terms of stable objects existing in space leads to their reification. The aim of this paper is to indicate the sources of reification and (...)
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  • Supporting Collaborative Learning in Videoconferencing Using Collaboration Scripts and Content Schemes.Bernhard Ertl, Birgitta Kopp & Heinz Mandl - unknown
    Studies have shown that videoconferences are an effective medium for facilitating communication between parties who are separated by distance. Furthermore, studies reveal that videoconferences are effective when used for distance learning, particularly due to their ability to facilitate complex collaborative learning tasks. However, as in face-to-face communication, learners benefit when they receive additional support for such learning tasks. This article provides an overview of two empirical studies to illustrate more general insights regarding some effective and less effective ways to support (...)
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  • How Far We Can Go Without Looking Under the Skin: The Bounds of Cognitive Science.Łukasz Afeltowicz & Witold Wachowski - 2015 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 40 (1):91-109.
  • Arbitrariness, Iconicity, and Systematicity in Language.Mark Dingemanse, Damián E. Blasi, Gary Lupyan, Morten H. Christiansen & Padraic Monaghan - 2015 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 19 (10):603-615.
    The notion that the form of a word bears an arbitrary relation to its meaning accounts only partly for the attested relations between form and meaning in the languages of the world. Recent research suggests a more textured view of vocabulary structure, in which arbitrariness is complemented by iconicity (aspects of form resemble aspects of meaning) and systematicity (statistical regularities in forms predict function). Experimental evidence suggests these form-to-meaning correspondences serve different functions in language processing, development, and communication: systematicity facilitates (...)
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  • La moralidad de las tecnologías cotidianas.Emanuele Bardone - 2006 - Isegoría 34:179-192.
    Nuestro propósito en este artículo será mostrar cómo algunas nuevas tecnologías juegan un papel crucial en la cognición moral. Siguiendo la idea de moralidad distribuida de Magnani, ilustraremos las razones por las que las tecnologías cotidianas no son externas al contexto en el que operan, sino que por el contrario modifican nuestra capacidad de hacer frente a las situaciones que implican algún tipo de dilema moral. Sostendremos, por tanto, una visión alternativa de la agencia moral. De acuerdo con esta, los (...)
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  • Interpreting Scientific and Engineering Practices: Integrating the Cognitive, Social, and Cultural Dimensions.N. J. Nersessian - 2005 - In M. Gorman, R. Tweney, D. Gooding & A. Kincannon (eds.), Scientific and Technological Thinking. Erlbaum. pp. 17--56.
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  • Archaic Lists, Writing and Mind.Rita Watson - 2013 - Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (3):484-504.
    Theories of writing and mind have proposed that the uses of literacy give rise to a distinct repertoire of cognitive skills, attitudes, and concepts. This paper reconsiders the earliest lexical lists of the Ancient Near East as one type of evidence on writing and mind. Past and present conceptions of the lists are briefly reviewed. Early views cast the lists as reflecting a Sumerian mentality or a uniquely literate mode of thought, while recent accounts suggest they may simply be routine (...)
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  • The Emulation Theory of Representation: Motor Control, Imagery, and Perception.Rick Grush - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):377-396.
    The emulation theory of representation is developed and explored as a framework that can revealingly synthesize a wide variety of representational functions of the brain. The framework is based on constructs from control theory (forward models) and signal processing (Kalman filters). The idea is that in addition to simply engaging with the body and environment, the brain constructs neural circuits that act as models of the body and environment. During overt sensorimotor engagement, these models are driven by efference copies in (...)
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  • Perceiving the Infinite and the Infinitesimal World: Unveiling and Optical Diagrams in Mathematics. [REVIEW]Lorenzo Magnani & Riccardo Dossena - 2005 - Foundations of Science 10 (1):7-23.
    Many important concepts of the calculus are difficult to grasp, and they may appear epistemologically unjustified. For example, how does a real function appear in “small” neighborhoods of its points? How does it appear at infinity? Diagrams allow us to overcome the difficulty in constructing representations of mathematical critical situations and objects. For example, they actually reveal the behavior of a real function not “close to” a point (as in the standard limit theory) but “in” the point. We are interested (...)
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  • Dimensions of Integration in Embedded and Extended Cognitive Systems.Richard Heersmink - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (3):577-598.
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  • Distributed Cognition, Representation, and Affordance.Jiajie Zhang & Vimla L. Patel - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (2):333-341.
    This article describes a representation-based framework of distributed cognition. This framework considers distributed cognition as a cognitive system whose structures and processes are distributed between internal and external representations, across a group of individuals, and across space and time. The major issue for distributed research, under this framework, are the distribution, transformation, and propagation of information across the components of the distributed cognitive system and how they affect the performance of the system as a whole. To demonstrate the value of (...)
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  • A Representational Analysis of Numeration Systems.Jiajie Zhang & Donald A. Norman - 1995 - Cognition 57 (3):271-295.
  • Contributions of Socially Distributed Cognition to Social Epistemology: The Case of Testimony.Anna Estany & David Casacuberta - 2012 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 16:40-68.
    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar y revisar las normas que filosóficamente asociamos al proceso de testimonio, inquiriendo hasta qué puntoson0 consistentes con los conocimientos empíricos de las ciencias cognitivas.Tradicionalmente, el problema del testimonio surgía cuando, desde una epistemología de corte individualista, se suponía, siguiendo el dictum ya marcado en la Modernidad tanto por racionalistas como por empiristas, de que el conocimiento debía ser testado personalmente. Sin embargo, disciplinas y enfoques recientes, como la Cognición Socialmente Distribuida y la Epistemología (...)
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  • How Do Models Give Us Knowledge? The Case of Carnot’s Ideal Heat Engine.Tarja Knuuttila & Mieke Boon - 2011 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):309-334.
    Our concern is in explaining how and why models give us useful knowledge. We argue that if we are to understand how models function in the actual scientific practice the representational approach to models proves either misleading or too minimal. We propose turning from the representational approach to the artefactual, which implies also a new unit of analysis: the activity of modelling. Modelling, we suggest, could be approached as a specific practice in which concrete artefacts, i.e., models, are constructed with (...)
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  • Formats of Representation in Scientific Theorizing.Marion Vorms - 2009 - In Paul Humphreys & Cyrille Imbert (eds.), Models, Simulations, and Representations. Routledge.
    This paper is intended to sketch the definition of a methodological tool -- the notion of a format of representation -- for the study of scientific theorising. One of its main assumption is that a philosophical study of theorising needs to pay attention to other types of units of analysis than the traditional ones, namely, theories and models approached in a logical and structural way, since scientific reasoning is always led on concrete representational devices and depends upon their specific properties. (...)
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  • “Mapping to Know”: The Effects of Representational Guidance and Reflective Assessment on Scientific Inquiry.Eva Erdosne Toth, Daniel D. Suthers & Alan M. Lesgold - 2002 - Science Education 86 (2):264-286.
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  • Representations at Work.Martin M. Nielsen - 2003 - Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 5 (2):69-77.
    This paper argues that “distributed cognition” facilitates a framework for studying aspects of organizations as socio-technical systems. An approach studying tool use and workflows is laid out and utilized in an analysis of information processing at a post office. Finally, some implications are presented – for organizational as well as cognitive studies. Research on performative representations is called for and, consequently, a widening of the cognition-as-computation framework is suggested.
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  • Multimodal Abduction: External Semiotic Anchors and Hybrid Representations.Lorenzo Magnani - 2006 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 14 (2):107-136.
    Our brains make up a series of signs and are engaged in making or manifesting or reacting to a series of signs: through this semiotic activity they are at the same time engaged in “being minds” and so in thinking intelligently. An important effect of this semiotic activity of brains is a continuous process of “externalization of the mind” that exhibits a new cognitive perspective on the mechanisms underling the semiotic emergence of abductive processes of meaning formation. To illustrate this (...)
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  • Electrifying Diagrams for Learning: Principles for Complex Representational Systems.Peter C.-H. Cheng - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (6):685-736.
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  • Models as Relational Categories.Tommi Kokkonen - 2017 - Science & Education 26 (7-9):777-798.
    Model-based learning has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, (...)
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  • Imagination Extended and Embedded: Artifactual Versus Fictional Accounts of Models.Tarja Knuuttila - forthcoming - Synthese:1-21.
    This paper presents an artifactual approach to models that also addresses their fictional features. It discusses first the imaginary accounts of models and fiction that set model descriptions apart from imagined-objects, concentrating on the latter :251–268, 2010; Frigg and Nguyen in The Monist 99:225–242, 2016; Godfrey-Smith in Biol Philos 21:725–740, 2006; Philos Stud 143:101–116, 2009). While the imaginary approaches accommodate surrogative reasoning as an important characteristic of scientific modeling, they simultaneously raise difficult questions concerning how the imagined entities are related (...)
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  • External Diagrammatization and Iconic Brain Co-Evolution.Lorenzo Magnani - 2011 - Semiotica 2011 (186):213-238.
    Our brains make up a series of signs and are engaged in making or manifesting or reacting to a series of signs: through this semiotic activity they are at the same time engaged in “being minds.” An important effect of this semiotic activity of brains is a continuous process of “externalization of the mind” that exhibits a new cognitive perspective on the mechanisms underlying the semiotic emergence of abductive processes of meaning formation. I consider this process of externalization interplay critical (...)
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  • Soccer Science and the Bayes Community: Exploring the Cognitive Implications of Modern Scientific Communication.Jeff Shrager, Dorrit Billman, Gregorio Convertino, J. P. Massar & Peter Pirolli - 2010 - Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (1):53-72.
  • Economic Exchange as an Evolutionary Transmission Channel in Human Societies.Bertin Martens - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (4):366-376.
    This article argues that the (epi)genetic, cultural, symbolic, and environmental transmission channels are insufficient to explain the structure of modern human societies. Economic exchange of knowledge embodied in goods and services constitutes an additional transmission channel that makes more efficient use of limited human cognitive capacity. Economic exchange results in a gradual shift in societies from task-based division of labor to cognitive specialization. This shifts scarce cognitive resources away from production and into learning. It accelerates learning and reinforces the drive (...)
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  • Distributed Morality: Externalizing Ethical Knowledge in Technological Artifacts. [REVIEW]Lorenzo Magnani & Emanuele Bardone - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (1):99-108.
    Technology moves us to a better world. We contend that through technology people can simplify and solve moral tasks when they are in presence of incomplete information and possess a diminished capacity to act morally. Many external things, usually inert from the moral point of view, can be transformed into the so-called moral mediators. Hence, not all of the moral tools are inside the head, many of them are shared and distributed in “external” objects and structures which function as ethical (...)
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  • Modelling and Representing: An Artefactual Approach to Model-Based Representation.Tarja Knuuttila - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (2):262-271.
    The recent discussion on scientific representation has focused on models and their relationship to the real world. It has been assumed that models give us knowledge because they represent their supposed real target systems. However, here agreement among philosophers of science has tended to end as they have presented widely different views on how representation should be understood. I will argue that the traditional representational approach is too limiting as regards the epistemic value of modelling given the focus on the (...)
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  • Building Common Ground in Global Teamwork Through Re-Representation.Renate Fruchter & Rodolphe Courtier - 2011 - AI and Society 26 (3):233-245.
    We explore in this paper the relation between activities, communication channels and media, and common ground building in global teams. We define re-representation as a sequence of representations of the same concept using different communication channels and media. We identified the re - representation technique to build common ground that is used by team members during multimodal and multimedia communicative events in cross-disciplinary, geographically distributed settings. Our hypotheses are as follows: (1) Significant sources of information behind decisions and request for (...)
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  • Distributed Cognition in Scientific Contexts.Hyundeuk Cheon - 2014 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 45 (1):23-33.
    Even though it has been argued that scientific cognition is distributed, there is no consensus on the exact nature of distributed cognition. This paper aims to characterize distributed cognition as appropriate for philosophical studies of science. I first classify competing characterizations into three types: the property approach, the task approach, and the system approach. It turns out that the property approach and the task approach are subject to criticism. I then argue that the most preferable way to understand distributed cognition (...)
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  • A Sketch is Not Enough: Dynamic External Support Increases Creative Insight on a Guided Synthesis Task.David G. Pearson & Robert H. Logie - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (1):97-112.
    Although external representations, such as sketches, are regarded as facilitating insight during creative synthesis and design tasks, previous empirical studies have provided conflicting evidence in support of this role. Here, we argue sketches are static representations that fail to fully externalise mental imagery processes involved during creative synthesis tasks. An experiment is reported in which participants manipulate simple alpha-numeric and geometric shapes into patterns depicting familiar objects or symbols. Trials were performed using either mental imagery alone, drawing manipulations in the (...)
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  • S-Conart: An Interaction Method That Facilitates Concept Articulation in Shopping Online. [REVIEW]Hiroko Shoji & Koichi Hori - 2005 - AI and Society 19 (1):65-83.
    This study addresses building an interactive system that effectively prompts customers to make their decision while shopping online. It is especially targeted at purchasing as concept articulation where customers initially have a vague concept of what they want and then gradually clarify it in the course of interaction, which has not been covered by traditional online shopping systems. This paper proposes information presentation methods to effectively facilitate customers in their concept articulation process, and the framework for interaction design to enable (...)
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  • Cognitively Active Externalization for Situated Reflection.Hajime Shirouzu, Naomi Miyake & Hiroyuki Masukawa - 2002 - Cognitive Science 26 (4):469-501.
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  • The Effect of Semantics on Problem Solving is to Reduce Relational Complexity.Olga Megalakaki, Charles Tijus, Romain Baiche & Sébastien Poitrenaud - 2012 - Thinking and Reasoning 18 (2):159 - 182.
    This article reports a study carried out in order to measure how semantic factors affect reductions in the difficulty of the Chinese Ring Puzzle (CRP) that involves removing five objects according to a recursive rule. We hypothesised that semantics would guide inferences about action decision making. The study involved a comparison of problem solving for two semantic isomorphic variants of the CRP ( fish and fleas ) with problem solving for the puzzle's classic variant (the Balls and Boxes problem; Kotovsky (...)
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  • Conjectures and Manipulations: External Representations in Scientific Reasoning.Lorenzo Magnani - 2002 - Mind and Society 3 (1):9-31.
    What I call theoretical abduction (sentential and model-based) certainly illustrates much of what is important in abductive reasoning, especially the objective of selecting and creating a set of hypotheses that are able to dispense good (preferred) explanations of data, but fails to account for many cases of explanations occurring in science or in everyday reasoning when the exploitation of the environment is crucial. The concept of manipulative abduction is devoted to capture the role of action in many interesting situations: action (...)
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  • Cognitive Conditions of Diagrammatic Reasoning.Michael Hg Hoffmann - 2011 - Semiotica 2011 (186):189-212.
    In the first part of this paper, I delineate Peirce's general concept of diagrammatic reasoning from other usages of the term that focus either on diagrammatic systems as developed in logic and AI or on reasoning with mental models. The main function of Peirce's form of diagrammatic reasoning is to facilitate individual or social thinking processes in situations that are too complex to be coped with exclusively by internal cognitive means. I provide a diagrammatic definition of diagrammatic reasoning that emphasizes (...)
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  • Archaic Lists, Writing and Mind.Rita Watson - 2013 - Pragmatics and Cognition 21 (3):484-504.
    Theories of writing and mind have proposed that the uses of literacy give rise to a distinct repertoire of cognitive skills, attitudes, and concepts. This paper reconsiders the earliest lexical lists of the Ancient Near East as one type of evidence on writing and mind. Past and present conceptions of the lists are briefly reviewed. Early views cast the lists as reflecting a Sumerian mentality or a uniquely literate mode of thought, while recent accounts suggest they may simply be routine (...)
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