From PhilPapers forum PhilPapers Surveys:

2009-12-13
Effects of specialization
It's interesting to compare answers to a question between the whole target faculty population and those who work in the AOS associated with the question.  The biggest differences by far, unsurprisingly, concern theism and the philosophy of religion.  The next biggest differences are in decision theory (two boxing), philosophy of physical science (B-theory), philosophy of mathematics (Platonism).  Then epistemology (invariantism and to a lesser extent internalism), general philosophy of science (Humeanism), social and politlcal philosophy (egalitarianism), metaphysics (non-Humeanism).  And smaller differences in many other areas.

Of course those differences could be due to (i) specialists making better-grounded judgments, (ii) selection effects in entering the speciality, (iii) specialists' judgments corrupted by an insider literature, and various other sources.  I suspect that most philosophers will agree that each of these sources are at play in some cases, while they'll disagree about which are most at play in which cases!

Aesthetics: Specialists more likely to favor objective aesthetic value (44:15 vs 41:34).

Decision theory: Specialists more likely to favor two-boxing (61:26 vs 31:21).

Epistemology: Specialists more likely to favor a priori knowledge (78:14 vs 71:18), epistemic internalism (37:35 vs 26:43), skepticism (9:84:2 vs 5:82:4), invariantism (49:29:5 vs 31:40:3), rationalism (33:26 vs 28:35).

General Philosophy of Science: Specialists more likely to favor scientific anti-realism (16:60 vs 12:75), Humeanism about laws (41:49 vs 25:57).

Logic: Similar proportions on classical logic (57:24 vs 52:15).

Meta-ethics: Specialists more likely to favor cognitivism (75:14 vs 68:17).  Similar proportions on moral realism (56:26 vs 56:28) and moral internalism (44:36 vs 35:30).

Metaphilosophy: Specialists more likely to favor non-naturalism (38:38 vs 26:50).

Metaphysics: Specialists more likely to favor Platonism (51:32 vs 39:38), non-Humeanism (72:19 vs 57:25).  Fairly similar proportions on personal identity (33:18:17 vs 34:17:12),  teletransporter (39:38 vs 36:31), time (42:24 vs 26:15).

Normative ethics: Specialists more likely to favor deontology and less likely to favor virtue ethics (35:23:12 vs 26:24:18).  Similar proportions on trolley problem (80:10 vs 68:8).

Philosophy of action: Specialists more likely to be libertarians (19:53:12 vs 14:59:12).

Philosophy of language: Specialists more likely to favor invariantism (41:36:4 vs 31:40:3) and somewhat more likely to favor Millianism (42:33 vs 34:29). Similar on analytic-synthetic (65:29 vs 65:27), truth (52:25:3 vs 51:25:7).

Philosophy of mathematics: Specialists more likely to favor Platonism (60:20 vs 39:38).

Philosophy of mind: Specialists more likely to favor physicalism (61:22 vs 56:27), content externalism (57:18 vs 51:20), conceivability/impossibility and inconceivability of zombies (48:25:18 vs. 36:16:23) Similar on perception (43:17:17:4 vs 31:12:11:3).

Philosophy of physical science: Specialists more likely to favor B-theory (49:11 vs 26:15).

Philosophy of religion: Specialists more likely to favor theism (72:19 vs 15:73).

Social and political philosophy: Specialists more likely to favor egalitarianism (51:9:6 vs 35:14:10).

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