Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte

ISSNs: 0170-6233, 1522-2365

20 found

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  1.  18
    Becoming Natural: The Naturalization of Synthetic Flavors in the Twentieth Century and the Introduction of Konsumstoff.Paulina S. Gennermann - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (4):303-319.
    Is it possible that non-natural chemical substances become natural without changing their chemical, physical or physiological characteristics? The history of synthetic flavors with a special emphasis on vanillin suggests that yes, it is possible. This process is called naturalization and means in this case the change of status of a synthetic flavor to something natural. In this article the history of vanillin as a frequently used flavor and its transformation into a natural ingredient in the twentieth century will be presented (...)
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  2.  5
    Bausteine zu einer Oral History der Wissenschaftsgeschichte Interview mit Dieter Hoffmann.Mathias Grote, Anke te Heesen & Dieter Hoffmann - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (4):378-412.
    Wie kann man einen historischen Blick auf das eigene Fach werfen? Diese Frage ist nicht einfach zu beantworten – will man einerseits nicht in einer Nabelschau und Hagiographie enden, andererseits aber auch keinen umfassenden Entwurf einer zukünftigen Historiographie vorlegen. Die hier in loser Folge publizierten Interviews mit bekannten Protagonist:innen der Berliner Wissenschaftsgeschichte von ca. 1970–1990 in West und Ost rücken die Geschichte des Faches deshalb in einem bestimmten Milieu in den Fokus und versuchen, die Historiographie jenseits einer Institutionen- oder Theoriegeschichte (...)
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  3.  6
    Die Lücke als Fund: Über eine Fehlstelle zur Familiengeschichte im Nachlass von Walther Gerlach (1889–1979).Johannes-Geert Hagmann - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (4):320-335.
    The career of the German physicist Walther Gerlach (1889–1979) spanned two world wars and the changing political systems in Germany in the twentieth century. As a physicist involved in the rapid development of atomic physics and the management of scientific research in Germany during World War II as well as in post-war West Germany, several attempts have been made in the past by historians of science to write his full biography. These projects have, among other foci, asked about Gerlach's role (...)
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  4.  5
    Measuring and Manipulating the Rhine River Branches: Interactions of Theory and Embodied Understanding in Eighteenth Century River Hydraulics.Maarten G. Kleinhans - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (4):336-357.
    Eighteenth century river hydraulics used both theory and measurement to address problems of flood safety, navigation and defense related to the rivers. In the late eighteenth century the Dutch overseer of the rivers, Christiaan Brunings, integrated hydraulic theory and meteorological practices, which enabled him to design a unique instrument for measuring river flow. The question is whether the unprecedented detail of measurements fits the putative empirical stance in the eighteenth century. The interactions between theory, instrument, measurement, and other knowledge practices (...)
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  5.  8
    Epistêmê or Technê? A Relationship That Shaped the History of Science. Essay Review of Wolfgang Lefèvre, Minerva Meets Vulcan: Scientific and Technological Literature—1450–1750 (Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2021), ix+198 pp. EUR 108.99 (hard cover). ISBN: 9783030730840. [REVIEW]Doina-Cristina Rusu - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (4):358-372.
    Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, EarlyView.
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  6.  8
    Operation Epsilon.Mark Walker - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (4):373-377.
    Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, EarlyView.
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  7.  78
    “Conducted Properly, Published Incorrectly”: The Evolving Status of Gel Electrophoresis Images Along Instrumental Transformations in Times of Reproducibility Crisis.Nephtali Callaerts, Alexandre Hocquet & Frédéric Wieber - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (2-3):233-258.
    For the last ten years, within molecular life sciences, the reproducibility crisis discourse has been embodied as a crisis of trust in scientific images. Beyond the contentious perception of “questionable research practices” associated with a digital turn in the production of images, this paper highlights the transformations of gel electrophoresis as a family of experimental techniques. Our aim is to analyze the evolving epistemic status of generated images and its connection with a crisis of trust in images within that field.From (...)
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  8.  9
    Visualizing Pollution: Representations of Biological Data in Water Pollution Control in the United States, 1948–1962.Ryan Hearty - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (2-3):206-232.
    After the United States Congress passed the Water Pollution Control Act of 1948, biologists played an increasingly significant role in scientific studies of water pollution. Biologists interacted with other experts, notably engineers, who managed the public agencies devoted to water pollution control. Although biologists were at first marginalized within these agencies, the situation began to change by the early 1960s. Biological data became an integral part of water pollution control. While changing societal values, stimulated by an emerging ecological awareness, may (...)
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  9.  9
    Shaping Public Perception: Polish Illustrated Press and the Image of Polish Naturalists Working in Latin America, 1844–1885.Aleksandra Kaye - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (2-3):158-180.
    This article will investigate the ways in which Polish illustrated press contributed to communicating and reporting the work of Polish émigré naturalists working in Latin America to the Polish general public living in the Prussian, Russian and Austrian partitions of the Polish‐Lithuanian Commonwealth 1844–1885. It examines the ways in which illustrations were used to shape the public's opinion about the significance of these migrants’ scientific achievements. The Polish illustrated press, its authors and editors were instrumental in shaping the public's perceptions (...)
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  10.  13
    Pics or It Didn't Happen: Reading Photographs in the Reef Tank Community.Samantha Muka - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (2-3):181-205.
    In 1961, Lee Chin Eng jumpstarted the reef hobby, a hobby dedicated to the modeling of coral reefs in captivity, with an article in Tropical Fish Hobbyist. He illustrated the article with eight photographs; these images were meaningful to the hobbyists viewing them and they conveyed both information about the tank system and also claims about Lee's expertise. This paper examines three genres of photographs—landscapes, active, and passive portraiture—that appeared in Lee's article and how and why they have proliferated in (...)
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  11.  9
    Commentary: Visual Cultures, Publication Technologies, and Legitimation in the Life Sciences.Lynn K. Nyhart - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (2-3):283-293.
    This paper comments on five articles in the special issue “Circulating Images in the Life Sciences.” It sees the papers as unified by two themes. The first is their attention to the processes of legitimation. The second is the embedding of the images in textual cultures, which changed over time from the mid‐nineteenth century to the very recent past, most notably with the recent advent of digital culture.
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  12.  10
    Circulation as a Visual Practice.Katharina Steiner & Lukas Engelmann - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (2-3):143-157.
    This special issue looks at some of the ways that images are adopted, co‐opted, and adapted in the life sciences and beyond. It brings together papers that investigate the role of visualization in scientific knowledge‐production with contributions that focus on the distribution and dissemination of knowledge to a broader audience. A commentary provides a critical perspective. In this editorial we introduce circulation as a practice to better understand scientific images. Along two themes, we highlight connections across the papers. First, the (...)
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  13.  12
    Circulation of Coronavirus Images: Helping Social Distancing?Bettina Bock von Wülfingen - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (2-3):259-282.
    As soon as the SARS‐Cov2 disease was recognized by experts to potentially cause a serious pandemic, a three dimensional diagrammatic image of the virus, colored in strong red, conquered public media globally.This study confronts this iconic virus image with a historic image analysis of 33,000 biomedical articles on coronaviruses published between 1968–2020 and interviews with some of their authors.Only a small fraction of scientific virus publications entail images of the complete virus. Red as an alarm color is not used at (...)
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  14.  8
    The “Greenberg Controversy” and the Interdisciplinary Study of Global Linguistic Relationships.Judith R. H. Kaplan - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (1):114-132.
    This paper examines the controversy that followed the 1987 publication of Joseph Greenberg's book, Language in the Americas, attending to the role of language and linguistic research within overlapping disciplinary traditions. With this text, Greenberg presented a macro‐level tripartite classification that opposed then dominant fine‐grained analyses recognizing anywhere from 150 to 200 distinct language families. His proposal was the subject of a landmark conference, examining strengths and weaknesses, the unpublished proceedings of which are presented here for the first time. For (...)
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  15.  9
    From Cosmopolitan to Vernacular in the Language Sciences: A Global History Perspective.Michiel Leezenberg - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (1):18-37.
    Sheldon Pollock's justly famous work on cosmopolitan orders and processes of vernacularization in the worlds of Latinity and Sanskrit invites questions of a comparative and global‐historical character. I will raise such questions in the context of the Persianate cosmopolitan order, especially as exemplified by the early modern Ottoman Empire, focusing on the wave of vernacularizations this empire witnessed in the seventeenth–eighteenth centuries. In this process of vernacularization, new vernacular forms of philological learning appear to have played a crucial role. Building (...)
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  16.  8
    Yoshio Gonnosuke and His Comparative Dutch‐Japanese Syntax: Glimpses at the Unpublished Second Part of Siebold's “Epitome Linguae Japonicae”.Sven Osterkamp - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (1):54-75.
    After outlining the life and works of interpreter Yoshio Gonnosuke, this paper introduces the manuscript witnesses of his hitherto unstudied comparative Dutch–Japanese syntax written in the mid‐1820s, which was modelled on Pieter Weiland's Nederduitsche spraakkunst (1805). This is followed by a closer look at the process of compilation and publication of Philipp Franz von Siebold's “Epitome linguae japonicae,” of which only the first part was published in 1826. Evidence is provided to confirm Yoshio's involvement in this work and to suggest (...)
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  17.  3
    Language, Science and Globalization in the Eighteenth Century.Rebeca Fernández Rodríguez - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (1):38-53.
    Asia, America, and Europe have been intellectually intertwined for centuries. Several studies have been published revealing European scholars’ interest in the “exotic” languages of Asia and America, as well as in ethnographic and anthropological aspects. Some scholars such as Polymath Leibniz (1646–1716), were interested in these languages in an attempt to construct a universal language, while others tried to establish language families, like the Jesuit Hervás y Panduro (1735–1809). However, all acknowledge the importance of language and the circulation of knowledge. (...)
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  18.  6
    Language as a Specimen.Floris Solleveld - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (1):92-113.
    Language was never studied by linguists (or philologists) alone. The greater part of the languages of the world was first known in the West through the reports of missionaries, explorers, and colonial administrators, and what they documented reflected their specific interests. Missionaries wrote catechisms, primers, dictionaries, and Bible translations (especially Lord's Prayers); for explorers and administrators, language was one aspect among many to cover in their accounts of faraway regions. Peoples were identified by their language; toponyms served for geographic description; (...)
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  19.  8
    Language in the Global History of Knowledge.Floris Solleveld - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (1):7-17.
    Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, EarlyView.
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  20.  4
    James Cowles Prichard and the Linguistic Foundations of Ethnology.Ian Stewart - 2023 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 46 (1):76-91.
    This article examines the English scholar James Cowles Prichard's attention to language and comparative philology within his wider project on the natural history of man. It reveals that linguistic evidence was among the most important elements for Prichard in his overarching scientific aim of investigating human physical diversity, and served as the evidential foundation for his ethnology. His work on Celtic comparative philology made him not only one of the earliest British adopters of German comparative grammar, but a comparative philologist (...)
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