29 found

Year:

  1.  36
    Scholar Entangled: The Unattainable Detachment in Social Inquiry.Juozas Kasputis - 2021 - Problemos 100:87 - 99.
    The practice of social studies continues to be a complicated scientific endeavor. From an epistemological point of view, the social sciences, unlike the natural sciences, do not conform to the predominant definition of science. The existing differences among expositions of “science,” “inquiry,” and “studies” lie with the contested role of the intellectual who is embarked on understanding the social realm. The “maturity” of the social sciences is usually discussed in the context of objectivity and rationality. But continuing epistemological debates would (...)
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  2.  70
    Kantian Moral Agency and the Ethics of Artificial Intelligence.Riya Manna & Rajakishore Nath - 2021 - Problemos 100:139-151.
    This paper discusses the philosophical issues pertaining to Kantian moral agency and artificial intelligence. Here, our objective is to offer a comprehensive analysis of Kantian ethics to elucidate the non-feasibility of Kantian machines. Meanwhile, the possibility of Kantian machines seems to contend with the genuine human Kantian agency. We argue that in machine morality, ‘duty’ should be performed with ‘freedom of will’ and ‘happiness’ because Kant narrated the human tendency of evaluating our ‘natural necessity’ through ‘happiness’ as the end. Lastly, (...)
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  3. The Dialogue Between Believers and Atheists: The Platonic Model in the Laws.Simonas Baliukonis - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    This paper examines the question concerning the right model of epistemically rational dialogue. First of all, the main, though not undisputed, principles of rational dialogue are defined according to the contemporary field of the epistemology of disagreement. It then explains why even these principles are not sufficient for making the disagreement between believers and atheists not only a rational discourse but also a fruitful dialogue. This paper defends a thesis that the latter aim can be achieved with a proper model (...)
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  4.  5
    Heraclitus and Hippocrates: The Paradigm of the Elements.Jonas Čiurlionis - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    The article analyses the remaining fragments and testimonies of Heraclitean philosophy and their connection with Hippocratic medicine. It is claimed that both schools belong to the same philosophical-scientific paradigm of the elements. Therefore, theoretical insights of the school of Cos might well serve explaining complicated and often difficult to interpret Heraclitean thoughts. Moreover, it is plausible that parts of Corpus Hippocraticum were written under the influence of the Heraclitean philosophy and therefore its analysis and interpretative application allows us to partially (...)
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  5.  1
    Deleuze and Guattari’s Logic of Sensation in the Context of Contemporary Art.Sigita Dackevičiūtė - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of art has been interpreted in the context of the opposition between modernism and contemporary art, and then it is either attributed only to modernism, which gives priority to the aesthetic dimension of art, or it is argued that we must see its potential to create “new connections.” These opposing views are expressed by Stephen Zepke and Simon O’Sullivan. However, Deleuze and Guattari’s artistic sensation is not a sensory perception, it is the main concept of their (...)
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  6. Artistic Research: A Cuckoo’s Egg in Other Bird’s Nest or an Epistemologically Justified Strategy of Research?Aldis Gedutis & Vytautas Michelkevičius - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    In the broader context of other types of research, the authors of this article seek to analyse the epistemological status of artistic research. Because of its transdisciplinary character, artistic research is interpreted ambiguously: on the one hand, it might be treated as an unjustified and illicit intervention into the scientific field, on the other hand, despite its peculiarities artistic research still might be capable of creating knowledge commensurable with the knowledge produced in other disciplines. The major question the article seeks (...)
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  7. Immanuel Kant and the Question of Certainty in Politics.Alvydas Jokubaitis - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    Researchers of Kant’s political philosophy have not paid enough attention to the problem of certainty in politics which is inseparable from the distinction between phenomenon and noumenon. The primacy of practical reason means that morality has a higher value than knowledge. This is a fundamental presupposition of Kant’s philosophy. However, this emphasis on the importance of morality leads to the problematic question of certainty in politics. The recognition of the primacy of morality seems to lead to a situation where politics (...)
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  8.  1
    The Problem of Consciousness and its Origin in Vasily Sesemann’s Manuscripts.Dalius Jonkus - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    The purpose of this article is to analyse the concept of consciousness in Vasily Sesemann’s manuscripts. Sesemann studied consciousness, describing it as an intentional experience and rejecting its naturalistic explanations. Sesemann revealed the irreducibility of life to physiological or chemical processes and at the same time rejected the dualistic opposition of spirit and matter, soul and body. In the manuscript text “Self-knowledge, self-consciousness and objectification” the philosopher explores the relationship of consciousness with self-consciousness and the subconscious, as well as various (...)
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  9. On Reason and the Power of Life.Svetlana Klimova - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    In his search for the meaning of life, Tolstoy turned to Spinoza’s rationalist teaching about freedom, reason, morality, and religious faith. Spinoza created a philosophy where beliefs are in union with deeds, logic unites with ethics, and knowledge joins faith. According to Tolstoy, it is art that makes a synthesis of all the best attempts of the real, true philosophy. I argue that Tolstoy’s artistic method of linkage was probably borrowed from Spinoza. Inspired by Spinoza’s “theorems of reason,” Tolstoy created (...)
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  10.  1
    Jacques Lacan’s Theory of Rupture: The Perspective of the Real.Kasparas Pocius - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    The article analyses Jacques Lacan’s theory of rupture that encompasses the three planes – the imaginary, the Symbolic and the Real – that comprise his topology. It is named the theory of rupture because it allows grasping the unfinished Lacanian subject as it encounters Other in all of those planes. The main question is whether this lack could be considered as positive. The attention is paid to the phallic signifier; the hypothesis is that this signifier, by linking the symbolic and (...)
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  11.  1
    An Alternative to Individualism: Relational Concept of Human in Confucian Role Ethics.Vytis Silius - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    The article proposes to see Confucian role ethics as a philosophical project that puts forward metaethical and metaphilosophical arguments regarding the nature of ethics and the concept of human beings, instead of concentrating on its interpretational work in explicating the nature of early Confucian ethics. Thus, a more fitting context for evaluating the core claims of role ethics is suggested, one that is comprised of different positions, coming from a wide range of philosophical and cultural backgrounds, as well as different (...)
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  12.  1
    From Habermas to Derrida: A Weak Form of Secular Universalism.Giorgi Tskhadaia - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    In this article, I argue that a universalistic thrust of secularism should not be located in a Habermasian deontological liberal principle of the priority of universal morality over particularistic ethical doctrines. I show that Habermas cannot plausibly demonstrate that this principle can be invariably applied across different cases. However, in order not to succumb to parochialism, the failure of the deontological model should not prompt us to give up on the search for a universalistic drive behind secularism. To this end, (...)
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  13.  1
    Forgotten Theorists of Lithuanian Romanticism: Priest Ignotas Dembinsky.Dalius Viliūnas - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    The sluggish development of romantic philosophy research suggests looking back at new sources that have been ignored so far. Priest Ignacy Dembinsky is a forgotten romantic theorist. He is not only Wilhelm Schlegel’s translator, but also his promoter, commentator, who formulated authentic insights of romantic philosophy. The article focuses on the circumstances of Schlegel’s two-dimensional publication of “Philosophy of Life”, which remained on the subscriber list, raises the hypothesis that the subscription of the work was a large-scale quasi-political patriotic campaign. (...)
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  14.  8
    Aristotle and Johnston on Hylomorphism and the Character of Objects.Christos Y. Panayides - 2021 - Problemos 100.
    As M. Loux has recently reminded us, there are two basic strategies for explaining the character of particular objects, the ‘relational approach’ and the ‘constituent approach’. The prime example of a constituent approach would be Aristotelian hylomorphism. This article reveals three things. First, it gives a roadmap towards what the author considers to be the exegetically correct reconstruction of Aristotle’s hylomorphic theory. Second, it provides a presentation of the basic claims of a neo-Aristotelian hylomorphic theory, the one argued for by (...)
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  15.  4
    Creative Emotion and Understanding of Democracy in the Philosophy of H. Bergson.Povilas Aleksandravičius - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    In this paper, the concept of creative emotion and the understanding of democracy, which arises out of it, in the philosophy of Bergson is analysed. This specific emotion does not depend on an object’s intellectual representation; therefore, Bergson refers to it as “supra-intellectual.” Contrary to the usual “infra-intellectual” emotions, it is primary in regard of the mind and the will, and it comprises the fundamental matrix of creative acts of the human being. Creative emotion is one of the forms of (...)
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  16.  2
    Ressentiment in Egalitarian Movements: Slavoj Žižek’s Response to Peter Sloterdijk.Jokūbas Andrijauskas - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    I discuss Peter Sloterdijk’s critique of egalitarian projects presented in his book Zorn und Zeit and Slavoj Žižek’s response to it. My claim is that both of these thinkers show an oscillation between polemical and analytical aspects when using the concept of ressentiment. By using the concept of ressentiment, Sloterdijk explains the transformation of anger in Western societies. He holds that the atemporal anger, which characterized ancient greeks assumes a temporal form and becomes the project of revenge and ressentiment under (...)
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  17.  2
    The Problem of Experience in E. Voegelin’s Philosophy.Dovydas Caturianas - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    The paper deals with the problem of E. Voegelin’s notion of experience: the positive meaning of this concept is not specified in any of the author’s works. Based on W. James’s ‘‘Essay on Radical Empiricism” and Voegelin’s late works, it is shown that Voegelin’s theory of consciousness is rooted in James‘s concept of “pure experience”, which essentially sought to close the epistemological chasm between subject and object, phenomena and noumena. According to this notion, mental and physical, subjective and objective realities (...)
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  18.  1
    The Problem of Transworld Identity: In Defence of Essentialism.Pranciškus Gricius - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    In this article, the problem of transworld identity – that is the question, if and how it is possible to ground the intuition that the same individual exists in more than one possible world – is solved by arguing that individuals have essences. First of all, it is claimed that the concept of transworld identity is desirable since it betters both global pan-essentialism and counterpart theory. Then, necessary terminology for successful understanding of the transworld identity problem is introduced. Afterwards, it (...)
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  19.  3
    Ambivalence in the Kierkegaardian Conception of Angest.Justinas Grigas - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    The paper considers two problems related to the interpretation of S. Kierkegaard’s conception of Angest. Firstly, a tendency to interpret Kierkegaard’s Angest as a “fear without an object” and to posit its similarity to Heidegger’s Angst is put in question. Questioning this interpretation, an analysis of The Concept of Anxiety is undertaken, in order to reveal ambivalence as the primary feature of Kierkegaard’s conception of Angest. Secondly, the question of translating Angest into Lithuanian is addressed, criticizing the established tradition of (...)
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  20.  2
    Max van Manen’s Phenomenology of Practice: Relation with Education Sciences and Philosophy.Sandra Kairė - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    This paper investigates the method of the phenomenology of practice developed by the Canadian scholar Max van Manen. The paper describes the development and the main aspects of the phenomenology of practice as well as its importance and relevance to education sciences. However, in line with the critical remarks of the philosopher Dan Zahavi, the paper argues that there are fundamental problems with the phenomenology of practice in regard to phenomenology as philosophy. It is suggested that a researcher who applies (...)
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  21.  6
    On the Paradigmatic Conception of the Physical.Tufan Kıymaz - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    What “physical” means is sometimes clarified by appealing to paradigmatically physical objects, properties, or phenomena. This move is not entirely unmotivated. The most basic intuition behind physicalism can be identified as that we, as conscious beings, are not ontologically special: we are, ultimately, like all these inanimate and unconscious things; we do not exemplify any mysterious properties that are categorically over and above all the properties that are exemplified by ordinary things like chairs or rocks or their constituents. And, according (...)
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  22.  3
    The Phenomenon of Death and the Possibility of Immortality.Erika Lujza Nagy - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    This paper is about death and about immortality. It explores the experience and philosophical implications of death from different perspectives. Firstly, in the light of Mamardashvili’s philosophy, it deals with the interconnection and interdependence of death and thinking. Secondly, through Jankélévitch’s philosophy, it changes the perspective on the interdependence of death and thinking from the general to the personal perspective, when death becomes an intimate part of life. Further, thanks to Aries’ research, the paper introduces historical details about what people (...)
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  23.  2
    Mandelstam – Planck Polemics and its Representation in the Soviet Scientific Literature: Ideological Metamorphoses.Alexander Pechenkin - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    The L. I. Mandelstam - M. Planck polemics concerning the theory of dispersion are taken under consideration. Mandelstam attacked Planck’s theory published in 1904. Planck reacted by publishing a short reply in 1907. Mandelstam was not satisfied and published a paper where he provided a more detailed calculation. Planck criticized his approach again. Mandelstam published two more papers, but Planck did not react to these publications. From a historical point of view it is interesting that in the Soviet scientific literature, (...)
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  24.  3
    Philosophy as a Vocation and Personal Commitment: The Young Heidegger and the Question of Philosophy.Juan José Garrido Periñán - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    Determining what philosophy is for the young Heidegger is a complex task. It is also an ambiguous task in that it is considered unresolved and intricate due to its subsidiary link to factical life. This paper will try to show that from the approach of worried concern and from a critique of the theoretical attitude and worldviews, Heidegger conceives that philosophizing is committing oneself to the possibility of carrying out a personal transformation lived as a commitment of a personal nature. (...)
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  25.  2
    Our Peer Reviewers 2020.Nijolė Radavičienė - 2021 - Problemos 99.
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  26.  2
    Author Guidelines and Bibliographic Data.Nijolė Radavičienė - 2021 - Problemos 99.
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  27.  1
    Editorial Board and Table of Contents.Nijolė Radavičienė - 2021 - Problemos 99.
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  28.  1
    Beyond Function: Imagination as Semi-Determination.Kristupas Sabolius - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    The article raises the hypothesis that the activity of imagination cannot be fully described by a functional description. To this end, two positions are analyzed: the philosophy of Cornelius Castoriadis, who emphasizes social imaginary and radical imagination, is juxtaposed with Gilbert Simondon’s theory of cyclic and genetic images. Castoriadis’s consideration reveals the specific character of indeterminacy, found in the work of imagination, which enables the coexistence of contradictions in psyche. Based on this reading I propose to perceive imagination through a (...)
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  29.  4
    Anti-Metaphysical Readings of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.Ashoka Kumar Tarai - 2021 - Problemos 99.
    This paper discusses certain anti-metaphysical readings of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. The metaphysical and anti-metaphysical readings can be divided on the interpretations of textual fidelity. The anti-metaphysical readings can be differentiated in taking into account two different understandings with regard to Wittgenstein’s pronouncement of nonsense in Tractatus. One is the logical positivists’ understanding of nonsense and the other is the resolute reading of the text that emerged as an opposite to the orthodox or standard reading. The aim of discussing these anti-metaphysical readings (...)
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