Topoi

ISSNs: 0167-7411, 1572-8749

26 found

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  1.  19
    Feeling Emotions for Future People.Tiziana Andina & Giulio Sacco - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):5-15.
    It is more difficult to feel emotions for future generations than for those who currently exist, and this seems to be one of the reasons why we struggle to care for the future. According to a number of authors, who have recently focused on the psychological flaws that prevent us from dealing with transgenerational issues, the main problem is “future discounting”. Challenging this common view, we argue that the main reason we struggle to care about future generations lies in two (...)
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  2.  8
    Introduction: Emotions Towards Future Generations.Tiziana Andina & Giulio Sacco - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):1-3.
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  3.  19
    Ethics of Extinction: Humean Sentimentalism and the Value of the Human Species.Maurizio Balistreri - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):55-63.
    The idea that the phenomenon of morality and, consequently, our ability to distinguish between vice and virtue can be explained by sympathy has been challenged as a highly controversial hypothesis, since sympathy appears to be easily influenced by proximity and selective, and would therefore seem incompatible with the possibility of taking an impartial, objective point of view. We intend to show that even a sentimentalist moral perspective such as the ‘Humean’ one, which places empathy (or ‘sympathy’, as Hume calls it) (...)
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  4.  13
    The Paradox of the Future: Is it Rational to Feel Emotions for Future Generations?Carola Barbero - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):75-84.
    According to some, there is a problem concerning the emotions we feel toward fictional entities such as Anna Karenina, Werther and the like. We feel pity, fear, and sadness toward them, but how is that possible? “We are saddened, but how can we be? What are we sad about? How can we feel genuinely and involuntarily sad, and weep, as we do know that no one has suffered or died?” (Radford, in: Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 1975). This is the (...)
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  5.  21
    Critical Realism and Technocracy – RW Sellars’ Radical Philosophy in its Context.M. Chirimuuta - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):147-160.
    The victory of realism over idealism at the start of the twentieth century, and of scientific realism over logical empiricism and pragmatism in the mid twentieth century, is a striking phenomenon that calls for historical explanation. In this paper I propose an externalist account, looking at the social and political reasons why realism became attractive, rather than considering the internal factors–the merits of the arguments in favour of realism. I look at the agenda of Roy Wood Sellars’ critical realism which (...)
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  6.  6
    Engagement with Future Generations: Unfulfilled Empathy.Igor Cvejić, Tamara Plećaš & Petar Bojanić - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):49-54.
    In this article, our focus is on the topic of engagement and possibility of empathy with future generations. We acknowledge that empathy for future generations is practically unattainable in its strictest sense due to the lack of access to their potential mental states and the absence of direct interaction. Additionally, we will draw upon the arguments presented by Goldie and Slaby to address concerns regarding the potential paternalization that may arise in empathic relations towards future generations. However, despite these limitations, (...)
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  7.  11
    An Inverted Qualia Argument for Direct Realism.Justin Donhauser - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):211-219.
    This essay extends my “invisible disagreement” argument for Color Realism (2017) to formulate an argument for Direct Realism. It uses a variation of an “inverted qualia” thought experiment to show that successes in intersubjectively validating empirical claims about colors is proof that a nuanced version of Direct Realism is correct.
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  8.  4
    Introduction: Direct Realism – Historical and Systematic Perspectives.Alexander Ehmann - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):85-86.
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  9.  89
    Valuing the “Afterlife”.Avram Hiller - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):65-73.
    To what extent do we value future generations? It may seem from our behavior that we don’t value future generations much at all, at least in relation to how much we value present generations. However, in his book _Death and the Afterlife_, Samuel Scheffler argues that we value the future even _more_ than we value the present, even though this is not immediately apparent to us. If Scheffler’s argument is sound, then it has important ramifications: It would give us a (...)
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  10.  25
    The Experience of Affordances in an Intersubjective World.Julian Kiverstein & Giuseppe Flavio Artese - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):187-200.
    Our paper is concerned with theories of direct perception in ecological psychology that first emerged in the second half of the twentieth century. Ecological psychology continues to be influential among philosophers and cognitive scientists today who defend a 4E (embodied, embedded, extended, enactive) approach to the scientific study of cognition. Ecological psychologists have experimentally investigated how animals are able to directly perceive their surrounding environment and what it affords to them. We pursue questions about direct perception through a discussion of (...)
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  11.  6
    Being a Direct Realist – Searle, McDowell, and Travis on ‘seeing things as they are’.Sofia Miguens - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):201-210.
    The aim of the present article is to identify and analyze three particular disputes among current proponents of perceptual realism which may throw light on tensions present in the history of direct realism and current discussions. Starting from John Searle’s conception of direct realism, I first set McDowell and Travis’s approaches in contrast with it. I then further compare Travis’ view with McDowell’s. I claim that differences among the three philosophers are traceable first to methodological conceptions of the approach to (...)
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  12.  50
    Russell and American Realism.Matthias Neuber - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):127-133.
    American philosophical realism developed in two forms: “new” and “critical” realism. While the new realists sought to ‘emancipate’ ontology from epistemology and defended a direct theory of perception, the critical realists promoted a representationalist account of perception and thus argued for an epistemological dualism. Bertrand Russell’s early philosophical writings figured prominently in both of these American realist camps. However, while the new realists quite enthusiastically embraced the Russellian analytic style of reasoning (and Russell himself appreciated the American new realists as (...)
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  13.  14
    Critical Direct Realism? New Realism, Roy Wood Sellars, and Wilfrid Sellars.James R. O’Shea - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):135-145.
    The overall contention of this paper, conducted through an examination of the idea of a ‘critical direct realism’ as this was developed across the twentieth century first in the thought of Roy Wood Sellars (1880–1973) and then in a different form by his son Wilfrid Sellars (1912–1989), is that such a view, in both its conceptual and sensory representational dimensions, is plausible as a form of direct realism. However, to the extent that the mediating sensory or qualitative dimension was itself (...)
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  14.  4
    Compassion for Possible Beings.Ingmar Persson - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):17-27.
    This paper argues that causing beings to exist can benefit them. It is sketched how this view avoids Derek Parfit’s repugnant conclusion by rejecting the transitivity of the relation better/worse than. It handles Jeff McMahan’s asymmetry consisting in that reasons against letting beings with bad lives exist are significantly stronger than reasons for letting beings with good lives exist by putting it down to the conditions making lives bad being more potent than those making them good. The latter asymmetry is (...)
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  15.  12
    Explication in the Space of Reasons: What Sellars and Carnap Could Offer to Each Other.Krisztián Pete & Adam Tamas Tuboly - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):171-185.
    In this paper, we reconsider the highly underrated Carnap–Sellars relationship, arguing that Sellars might be able to provide an interesting resolution to some of Carnap’s finest problems around explication by offering a grand-scale picture of science/common-sense or manifest interactions. The narrative developed here points toward the need for some stratification and re-evaluation of a field of scholarship that all too often still engages in challenging and contradictory dichotomies, undermining the genuine intentions of scholars who were collaborating with, as well as (...)
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  16.  4
    A Historical Perspective in Support of Direct Realism.K. S. Sangeetha - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):115-125.
    In this paper I argue that Direct realism is less prone to internal incoherence as a theory of knowledge than alternative theories. The theory of Direct realism best grounds our capacity for cognition of the external world, whereas other epistemological theories claim to ground our capacity for cognition, but end in skepticism in the final analysis. I propose to show this contrast by bringing in different theories of a well-known Indirect realist, Bertrand Russell. Illustrating this point mainly through Russell makes (...)
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  17.  7
    Empathy with Future Generations?Thomas Schramme - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):29-37.
    In this paper, I analyse whether empathy with future generations is feasible and whether it is a potentially useful instrument in effectively providing resources for future generations. I argue that empathy with future generations is possible, that it likely leads to a form of minimal concern, and that it can help in solving the relevant motivational problem. The most significant hurdle is not so much to do with achieving the required normative recognition of future generations, but with epistemic problems regarding (...)
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  18.  4
    Inductive Metaphysics Versus Logical Construction—Russell’s Methods and Realisms in 1912 and 1914.Ansgar Seide - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):101-113.
    In his 1912 book _The Problems of Philosophy_, Bertrand Russell advocates an indirect realism with regard to physical objects. Only two years later, in his book _Our Knowledge of the External World_ and the paper “The Relation of Sense-Data to Physics”, he changes his method in philosophy. Instead of inferring the existence of physical objects, he now sets out to construct them out of sense-data. As I will argue in this article, the main argument from _The Problems of Philosophy_ can (...)
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  19.  9
    Having a Cake and Eating It Too? Direct Realism and Objective Identity in Descartes.Jani Sinokki - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):87-99.
    Descartes holds that ideas have or contain _objective reality_ of their objects, so that the idea of the sun is the sun itself existing in the intellect. In this paper, I examine this obscure thesis which grounds the disagreement about Descartes’ commitment to direct or indirect realism. I suggest that, importantly, both readings are correct to a certain extent. I argue that the view of objective reality Descartes develops bears the earmarks of both direct and indirect realist views but must (...)
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  20.  6
    Critical and Pragmatic Naturalisms: Some Consequences of Direct Realism in John Dewey and Roy Wood Sellars.Tibor Solymosi - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):161-170.
    Some consequences of direct realism and William James’s philosophy of mind are considered in terms of American naturalism as seen in the debate between John Dewey and Roy Wood Sellars. Sellars’s critical realism and evolutionary naturalism is compared and contrasted with Dewey’s pragmatic realism and emphatically evolutionary naturalism. Though these naturalisms are similar, there are significant differences between methodology, their critiques of James’s reflex arc concept in his Principles of Psychology, and the mind-body problem. Sellars’s critical realism and naturalism retains (...)
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  21.  3
    Regulated Empathy and Future Generations.Sarah Songhorian - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):39-48.
    After introducing some of the many issues raised by intergenerational justice, the paper will focus in particular on the motivational problem: Why should we be motivated to act in favor of others when sacrifices on our behalf are required? And more specifically, how can such sacrifices be justified when those we act for are neither born nor easily unidentifiable? While many accounts of moral motivation exist, most scholars will grant that emotional engagement is a strong motivational drive. Hence, the paper (...)
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  22.  2
    The Myth of Interiority (Le Psychologue Malgré Lui).Charles Travis - 2024 - Topoi 43 (1):233-242.
    Non-factive representing is what makes room for truth and falsehood. In the ontologically central aspect of the verb it comes in two forms: allorepresenting (saying-that), and autorepresenting (taking-that). Each form relates thinkers to thinkables in its proprietary way. Autorepresenting invites a certain sort of misunderstanding. It may seem to call for enabling in a particular determinate way. Just here psychologism despite oneself may strike. Allorepresenting rests on capacities of a different sort. It relates itself, and thereby its author, to a (...)
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  23. Practice for Wisdom: On the Neglected Role of Case-Based Critical Reflection.Jason D. Swartwood - 2024 - Topoi 43:1-13.
    Despite increased philosophical and psychological work on practical wisdom, contemporary interdisciplinary wisdom research provides few specifics about how to develop wisdom (Kristjánsson 2022). This lack of practically useful guidance is due in part to the difficulty of determining how to combine the tools of philosophy and psychology to develop a plausible account of wisdom as a prescriptive ideal. Modeling wisdom on more ordinary forms of expertise is promising, but skill models of wisdom (Annas 2011; De Caro et al. 2018; Swartwood (...)
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  24.  11
    Why Aristotle Isn’t a Virtue Ethicist. Living Well and Virtuously in Aristotelian and Contemporary Aretaic Ethics.Deniz A. Kaya - 2024 - Topoi 1:1-12.
    Drawing on Anscombe, in this essay I argue that we should not take Aristotle to be a moral philosopher, nor a virtue ethicist. This is because contemporary virtue ethics has little to do with Aristotelian ethics. While contemporary virtue ethics (or aretaic moral theory, as one may call it) operates on the level of moral and thus categorical norms, Aristotelian ethics—an aretaic life ethics—is primarily concerned with pragmatic norms. The main question for Aristotle is what a good general conduct of (...)
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  25. Social Media Experiences of LGBTQ+ People: Enabling Feelings of Belonging.Gen Eickers - 2024 - Topoi.
    This paper explores how the social and affective lives of people with marginalized social identities are particularly affected by digital influences. Specifically, the paper examines whether and how social media enables LGBTQ+ people to experience feelings of belonging. It does so by drawing on literature from digital epistemology and phenomenology of the digital, and by presenting and analyzing the results of a qualitative study consisting of 25 interviews with LGBTQ+ people. The interviews were conducted to explore the social media experiences (...)
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  26.  22
    Not So Blue to be Sad: Affective Affordances and Expressive Properties in Affective Regulation.Marta Caravà & Marta Benenti - 2024 - Topoi:1-12.
    In our everyday interaction with the environment, we often perceive objects and spaces as opportunities to feel, maintain, enhance, and change our affective states and processes. The concept of affective affordance was coined to accommodate this aspect of ordinary perception and the many ways in which we rely on the material environment to regulate our emo- tions. One natural way to think of affective affordances in emotion regulation is to interpret them as tools for regulating felt affective states. We argue (...)
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