19 found

Year:

  1.  1
    Leon Petrażycki on Norms and Their Logical Study.Evelina Barbashina & Elena Lisanyuk - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (4):30-38.
    In this paper we discuss L. Petrażycki’s idea of norm as a normative relation and show its repercussions in two perspectives connected to each other, in the legal theory in the framework of which it was originally introduced and where its role was straightforward, and in logic where it played a shadowy role of a fresh idea which in his expectation would have been the core of the novel logical theories capable of modelling reasoning in law and morals. We pay (...)
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  2.  35
    The Emotivism of Law. Systematic Irrationality, Imagined Orders, and the Spirit of Decision Making.Adrian Mróz - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (4):16-29.
    The process of decision making is predictable and irrational according to Daniel Ariely and other economic behaviorists, historians, and philosophers such as Daniel Kahneman or Yuval Noah Harari. Decisions made anteriorly can be, but don’t have to be, present in the actions of a person. Stories and shared belief in myths, especially those that arise from a system of human norms and values and are based on a belief in a “supernatural” order (religion) are important. Because of this, mass cooperation (...)
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  3.  1
    The Knobe Effect From the Perspective of Normative Orders.Julia Rejewska, Michał Obidziński & Andrzej Waleszczyński - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (4):9-15.
    The characteristic asymmetry in the attribution of intentionality in causing side effects, known as the Knobe effect, is considered to be a stable model of human cognition. This article looks at whether the way of thinking and analysing one scenario may affect the other and whether the mutual relationship between the ways in which both scenarios are analysed may affect the stability of the Knobe effect. The theoretical analyses and empirical studies performed are based on a distinction between moral and (...)
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  4. Creative Reasoning and Content-Genetic Logic.Andrew Schumann - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (4):39-47.
    In decision making quite often we face permanently changeable and potentially infinite databases when we cannot apply conventional algorithms for choosing a solution. A decision process on infinite databases is called troubleshooting. A decision on these databases is called creative reasoning. One of the first heuristic semi-logical means for creative decision making were proposed in the theory of inventive problem solving by Genrich Altshuller. In this paper, I show that his approach corresponds to the so-called content-generic logic established by Soviet (...)
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  5.  1
    Truth and Adequacy. Remarks on Petrażycki’s Methodology.Jan Woleński - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (4):3-8.
    The paper discusses the concept of adequacy central for Pertażycki’s methodology. According to Petrażycki any valuable scientific theory should be adequate, that is, neither limping nor jumping. Consequently, adequacy of a theory is a stronger condition than its truth. Every adequacy theory is true, but not conversely. However, there is problem, because scientific laws are conditionals. This suggests that adequacy is too strong conditions, because the consequence of an implication has a wider scope than its antecedent. Thus, laws should have (...)
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  6.  2
    Genesis and Nature of Moral and Legal Norms. Leon Petrażycki’s Naturalistic Solution.Andrzej Dąbrowski - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (3):39-52.
    The aim of the paper is to examine the nature of moral and legal norms in a broader context: first, taking into account logical and methodological assumptions, second, in the perspective of psychology of emotions and legal policy. The basic subject of the research carried out by Leon Petrażycki was represented by law. Originally, it had a psychological character, not an objective, eternal, and unchanging one. To fully understand the genesis and nature of morality and law, Petrażycki addressed the study (...)
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  7. Expert Knowledge: Its Structure, Functions and Limits.Marek Hetmański - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (3):11-20.
    Expert knowledge - a concept associated with Ryle’s distinction of knowledgethat and knowledge-how - functions in distinct areas of knowledge and social expertise. Consisting of both propositional and procedural knowledge, expertise is performative in its essence. It depends not only on expert’s experience and cognitive competences, but also on his or her social and institutional position. The paper considers the role of heuristic and intuitional abilities, including particular experts’ cognitive biases, as the vital and indispensable part of expertise. On the (...)
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  8.  1
    Falsification of the Theory of Legal Rules and Legal Standards of Ronald Dworkin Using the Methodological Foundations of the Theory of Law and Morality of Leon Petrażycki.Krzysztof Majczyk - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (3):31-38.
    Efficient thinking is the foundation of efficient operation. The correct definition of concepts, especially the basic ones for a given field, in order to reach the truth, is a condition for the development of science and its social utility. The Petrażycki’s research methodology of law is a thoroughly modern method, as it enables effective examination of the accuracy of contemporary legal theories created after Petrażycki’s input. A model contemporary theory susceptible to an examination through the research methodology of law by (...)
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  9. Intuitive Law in the Light of Independent Ethics.Małgorzata Obrycka - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (3):21-30.
    The conception of the paper is connected with bringing forward the reflection of Leon Petrażycki on intuitive law. For this purpose I analyze the genesis and dynamics of this phenomenon on the cultural-historical level, as well as with reference to issues belonging to the scope of positive law. In addition, I broaden the research field with the range of problems touching on intuitionism, morality, and also independent ethics of Janusz Kotarbinski. The starting point of the methodological optics I assume is (...)
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  10. Preface: Ideas and Society on the 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Leon Petrażycki.Andrew Schumann - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (3):3-4.
    It is a Preface to Volumes 7:3 and 7:4 consisting of articles presented at the International Interdisciplinary Conference Ideas and Society on the 150th anniversary of the birth of Leon Petrażycki, held on November 24, 2017, in Rzeszów, Poland.
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  11. What is Offered to the Modern Science by Leon Petrażycki?Sławomir Tkacz - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (3):5-10.
    The aim of this paper is to outline the general oversight of the concept of law in Leon Petrażycki’s legal theory. On the example of the principles of law, an attempt was made to answer the question, what Petrażycki’s theory proposes to modern science. In the first part of the presentation, the Author presented the current state of theoretical knowledge in the field of principles of law. The attention was paid to the problem of various characteristics of legal principles. In (...)
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  12. Oeconomia Suffocato: The Origins of Antipathy Toward Free Enterprise Among Catholic Intelligentsia.Walter E. Block & Joseph J. Hyde - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (2):3-14.
    What is the source of the antipathy of Catholic intellectuals toward free markets? That is the issue addressed in the present paper. We see the antecedents of this viewpoint of theirs in terms of secular humanism, Marxism and mistaken views of morality and economics. One of the explanations for this phenomenon are the teachings of St Augustine. He greatly distrusted the City of Man, seeing it as anarchic and chaotic. In contrast, his City of God is more orderly, but far (...)
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  13. Marketing Communication of the Catholic Church – a Sign of the Times or Profanation of the Sacred?Ilona Majkowska & Sławomir Gawroński - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (2):15-23.
    The Catholic Church – though in popular opinion it is sometimes treated as a stronghold of conservatism, traditionalism, suspicion of progress and novelty, it changed significantly in the second half of the 20th century and continues to change its attitudes, especially in terms of the use of social communication and attitude to the media mass. The Church’s growing openness to media relations and the use of a rich instrumentation of social communication has become one of the reasons for the growing (...)
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  14.  1
    Does First Class Make Sense for Airlines?Karthikeyan Parameswaran - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (2):31-44.
    This topic reflects the behavioral characteristics and the measurement of first class air travel worldwide. Airlines in the East are pushing the boundaries and investing heavily on their first class cabins and potentially competes for their premium passenger. On the other hand, first class market in the western part of the world has been disappearing for decades and rather replaced with improved business class cabins. The worldwide shock of most recent economic crisis had a downward impact on the premium air (...)
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  15.  3
    Multi-Level Challenges in a Long-Term Human Space Program. The Case of Manned Mission to Mars.Bartłomiej Tkacz & Konrad Szocik - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (2):24-30.
    Yuri Gagarin has started the first time in human history the manned mission in space when his Vostok aircraft successfully achieved Earth orbit in 1961. Since his times, human space programs did not develop too much, and the biggest achievement still remain landing on the Moon. Despite this stagnation, there are serious plans to launch manned mission to Mars including human space settlement. In out paper, we are going to identify and discuss a couple of challenges that – in our (...)
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  16. Role of Logic in Cognitive Science.Paweł Balcerak - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (1):21-30.
    In their work McCulloch and Pitts describe an idea of representing all of nervous activity in terms of propositional logic. This idea was quickly challenged. One of reasons for this challenge was rising believe that logic is unable to describe most of human cognitive processes. In this paper we will analyse premises of original McCulloch and Pitts proposition. Following that, we will ask about ability of symbolic systems to represent human cognition. We will finish by analysing relation between symbolic and (...)
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  17.  4
    Dynamic Essences: Absolute, Prospective, Retrospective, and Relative Modalities.Paweł Rojek & Błażej Skrzypulec - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (1):3-20.
    Essential properties are usually thought as properties that things must always possess, whereas accidental properties are considered as changeable. In this paper, we challenge this traditional view. We argue that in some important cases, such as social or biological development, we face not only the change of accidents, but also the change of essences. To analyze this kind of change we propose an alternative view on the relations between the modalities and time. Some properties might be necessary or possible for (...)
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  18. Reflexive Games in Management.Andrew Schumann - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (1):44-52.
    In this paper reflexive games are defined as a way to act beyond equilibria to control our opponents by our hiding motives. The task of a reflexive game is to have the opponent’s actions become transparent for us, while our actions remain obscure for the competitor. In case a reflexive game is carried out between agents belonging to the same organisation, success in a reflexive game can be reached by a purposeful modification of some components of a controlled system. Such (...)
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  19.  2
    On Logics of Transitive Verbs With and Without Intersective Adjectives.Selçuk Topal - 2018 - Studia Humana 7 (1):31-43.
    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the natural logic program which invents logics in natural language. This study presents two logics: a logical system called d R containing transitive verbs and a more expressive logical system R containing both transitive verbs and intersective adjectives. The paper offers three different set-theoretic semantics which are equivalent for the logics.
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