Studia Humana

ISSNs: 2299-0518, 2007-0518

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  1.  3
    How Law’s Nature Influences Law’s Logic.Jaap Hage - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (3):4-17.
    Classical logic is based on an underlying view of the world, according to which there are elementary facts and compound facts, which are logical combinations of these elementary facts. Sentences are true if they correspond to, in last instance, the elementary facts in the world. This world view has no place for rules, which exist as individuals in the world, and which create relations between the most elementary facts. As a result, classical logic is not suitable to deal with rules, (...)
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  2.  3
    Logic and Law: A Matter of Values Behind Content and Form.Fabien Schang - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (3):1-3.
    This special issue on Logic and Law consists of four research papers and one interview focusing on epistemological reflections on relationships between logic and law, whether in a reductionist or complementary approach. Logic aims to elucidate through formal frameworks, yet it often grapples with the intricate nuances of everyday legal discourse. While law endeavors to delineate permissible conduct within defined jurisdictions, it often encounters challenges stemming from the ambiguity of terms, leading to frequent judicial interpretations and the perception that proliferating (...)
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  3.  7
    Legal Gaps and their Logical Forms.Fabien Schang & Matheus Gabriel Barbosa - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (3):23-40.
    The concept of legal gap is tackled from a number of logical perspectives and semantic methods. After presenting our own goal (Section 1), a first introduction into legal logic refers to Bobbio’s works and his formalization of legal statements (Sections 2 and 3). Then Woleński’s contribution to the area is taken into account through his reference to the distinction between two juridical systems (viz. Common Law vs Civil Law) and the notion of conditional norms (Section 4). The notion of reason (...)
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  4.  3
    Neural Networks in Legal Theory.Vadim Verenich - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (3):41-51.
    This article explores the domain of legal analysis and its methodologies, emphasising the significance of generalisation in legal systems. It discusses the process of generalisation in relation to legal concepts and the development of ideal concepts that form the foundation of law. The article examines the role of logical induction and its similarities with semantic generalisation, highlighting their importance in legal decision-making. It also critiques the formal-deductive approach in legal practice and advocates for more adaptable models, incorporating fuzzy logic, non-monotonic (...)
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  5.  1
    Legal Reasoning and Logic.Jan Woleński - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (3):18-22.
    This paper investigates the basis arguments of so-called legal logic and their relation to logic in its standard meaning. There is no doubt that legal arguments belong to logic in the wide sense (sensu largo), but their reduction to schemes of formal logic (logica sensu stricto) is a controversial issue. It can be demonstrated that only some legal arguments fall under explicit rules of formal logic, that is, having a deductive character. Most such reasoning is fallible, and its correctness depends (...)
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  6.  3
    Jan Łukasiewicz and His German Ally. A History of Łukasiewicz-Scholz Cooperation and Friendship.Anna Brożek - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (2):9-22.
    The article presents interpersonal relations and mutual influences between German logician Heinrich Scholz and Polish scholars, first of all Jan Łukasiewicz. The background for presenting these relationships consists of reflections on the development of logic in Poland and various conceptions of how to apply logic to philosophical issues. Firstly, Jan Łukasiewicz’s program of logicisation of philosophy and his search for allies is presented. Secondly, the forms of cooperation between Łukasiewicz and Scholz, as well as contacts between the latter and other (...)
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  7.  1
    Characterising Context-Independent Quantifiers and Inferences.Stanisław Krajewski - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (2):1-8.
    Context is essential in virtually all human activities. Yet some logical notions seem to be context-free. For example, the nature of the universal quantifier, the very meaning of “all”, seems to be independent of the context. At the same time, there are many quantifier expressions, and some are context-independent, while others are not. Similarly, purely logical consequence seems to be context-independent. Yet often we encounter strong inferences, good enough for practical purposes, but not valid. The two types of examples suggest (...)
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  8. Book Review: Libertarian Autobiographies: Moving Toward Freedom in Today’s World. Edited by Jo Ann Cavallo and Walter E. Block. Palgrave Macmillan, 2023. [REVIEW]Robert W. McGee - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (2):56-56.
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  9.  3
    The Nature of the Anti-Psychologistic Turn in Kazimierz Twardowski’s Philosophy.Krzysztof Nowicki - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (2):23-40.
    In this paper, I analyze the shift in Twardowski’s views between his early psychologistic theory of logic and his later anti-psychologistic theory. In particular, I point out that the interpretation suggesting that this change merely involves Twardowski enriching his ontology with products encounters a certain problem in light of his earlier views. To present this problem more precisely, I discuss the foundations of Twardowski’s theory of products, focusing on aspects relevant to the issue of psychologism. Based on this, I reconstruct (...)
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  10.  2
    100 Years of Logical Investigations at the University of Poznań.Roman Murawski - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (1):28-38.
    The aim of this paper is to describe the history of logical investigations at the University of Poznań. The organisational structures within the discipline as well as the outstanding logicians and their achievements are presented. Connections with the Lviv–Warsaw School are indicated.
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  11.  3
    From the History of Leśniewski’s Mereology.Andrzej Pietruszczak - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (1):5-16.
    In this paper, we want to present the genesis of Stanisław Leśniewski’s mereology. Although ‘mereology’ comes from theword ‘part’, mereology arose as a theory of collective classes. That is why we present the differences between the concepts of being a distributive class and being a collective class. Next, we present Leśniewski’s original mereology from 1927, but with a modern approach. Leśniewski was inspired to create his concept of classes and their elements by Russell’s antinomy. To face it, Leśniewski had to (...)
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  12.  3
    Logic in Poland in the 20th Century.Andrew Schumann & Jan Woleński - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (1):1-4.
    After Poland gained independence in 1918, logic developed very quickly both as a scientific direction and as a taught discipline. This introduction to the special issue “Logic in Poland in the 20th Century,” published in Volume 13:1 (2024) and Volume 13:2 (2024), provides the historical context for the development of logic in the interwar period.
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  13.  6
    Logic and Metalogic: a Historical Sketch.Jan Woleński - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (1):39-44.
    This paper briefly discusses the relations between logic and metalogic in history. Metalogic is understood as a reflection on logic in its various senses, particularly sensu stricto (formal, mathematical) and sensu largo (formal logic plus semantic plus methodology of science). It is shown that metalogic in its contemporary understanding arose after mathematical logic had become a mature discipline. Special passage is devoted to metalogic in Poland. The last part of the paper discussed so-called logocentric predicament.
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  14.  3
    The Warsaw School of Logic: Main Pillars, Ideas, Significance.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (1):17-27.
    The Warsaw School of Logic (WSL) was the famous branch of the Lviv-Warsaw School (LWS) – the most important movement in the history of Polish philosophy. Logic made the most important field in the activities of the WSL. The aim of this work is to highlight the role and significance of the WSL in the history of logic in the 20th century.
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  15.  2
    Proof of the Existence of Hell: An Extension of the Stone Paradox.Piotr Łukowski - 2024 - Studia Humana 13 (1):45-50.
    As shown in (Łukowski, Gensler, 2013), the paradox of the stone is a failed attempt to show that “omnipotence” is a contradictory concept. An element of the argument presented there is that God, while unable to lift the stone, can nevertheless annihilate it. This work considers the amplification of the paradox of the stone to the form generated by the question: can God create a stone which He will not be able to lift, nor, once created, will He be able (...)
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