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  1.  2
    Educating Physicians in Seventeenth-Century England - ADDENDUM.Jonathan Barry - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (3):353-353.
    ArgumentThe tension between theoretical and practical knowledge was particularly problematic for trainee physicians. Unlike civic apprenticeships in surgery and pharmacy, in early modern England there was no standard procedure for obtaining education in the practical aspects of the physician’s role, a very uncertain process of certification, and little regulation to ensure a suitable reward for their educational investment. For all the emphasis on academic learning and international travel, the majority of provincial physicians returned to practice in their home area, because (...)
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  2. Attachment and the Archive: Barriers and Facilitators to the Use of Historical Sociology as Complementary Developmental Science.Robbie Duschinsky - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (3):309-326.
    ArgumentThis article explores historical sociology as a complementary source of knowledge for scientific research, considering barriers and facilitators to this work through reflections on one project. This project began as a study of the emergence and reception of the infant disorganized attachment classification, introduced in the 1980s by Ainsworth’s student Mary Main, working with Judith Solomon. Elsewhere I have reported on the findings of collaborative work with attachment researchers, without giving full details of how this came about. Here, I will (...)
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  3. Blood Purity and Scientific Independence: Blood Science and Postcolonial Struggles in Korea, 1926–1975.Jaehwan Hyun - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (3):239-260.
    ArgumentAfter World War II, blood groups became a symbol of anti-racial science. This paper aims to shed new light on the post-WWII history of blood groups and race, illuminating the postcolonial revitalization of racial serology in South Korea. In the prewar period, Japanese serologists developed a serological anthropology of Koreans in tandem with Japanese colonialism. The pioneering Korean hematologist Yi Samyŏl, inspired by decolonization movements during the 1960s, excavated and appropriated colonial serological anthropology to prove Koreans as biologically independent from (...)
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  4. The Uses of Trauma in Experiment: Traumatic Stress and the History of Experimental Neurosis, C. 1925–1975.Ulrich Koch - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (3):327-351.
    ArgumentThe article retraces the shifting conceptualizations of psychological trauma in experimental psychopathological research in the middle decades of the twentieth century in the United States. Among researchers studying so-called experimental neuroses in animal laboratories, trauma was an often-invoked category used to denote the clash of conflicting forces believed to lead to neurotic suffering. Experimental psychologists, however, soon grew skeptical of the traumatogenic model and ultimately came to reject neurosis as a disease entity. Both theoretical differences and practical circumstances, such as (...)
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  5. “The Disadvantages of a Defective Education”: Identity, Experiment and Persuasion in the Natural History of the Salmon and Parr Controversy, C. 1825–1850.Reuben Message - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (3):261-284.
    ArgumentDuring the second quarter of the nineteenth century, an argument raged about the identity of a small freshwater fish: was the parr a distinct species, or merely the young of the salmon? This “Parr Controversy” concerned both fishermen and ichthyologists. A central protagonist in the controversy was a man of ambiguous social and scientific status: a gamekeeper from Scotland named John Shaw. This paper examines Shaw’s heterogeneous practices and the reception of his claims by naturalists as he struggled to find (...)
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  6.  1
    Hans Egede and the Alchemical Tradition in Denmark-Norway.Hilde Norrgrén - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (3):285-307.
    ArgumentHans Egede, the famous missionary and natural historian in Greenland, was one of very few known Norwegian alchemists. This article seeks to place Egede’s alchemy in the context of the European alchemical tradition by identifying his sources in alchemical literature. Through an analysis of Egede’s account of an alchemical experiment performed by him in 1727, Ole Borch, Johann Joachim Becher, and Michael Sendivogius are identified as his main sources. Egede’s procedure and choice of materials are shown to be based on (...)
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  7.  3
    Educating Physicians in Seventeenth-Century England.Jonathan Barry - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (2):137-154.
    ArgumentThe tension between theoretical and practical knowledge was particularly problematic for trainee physicians. Unlike civic apprenticeships in surgery and pharmacy, in early modern England there was no standard procedure for obtaining education in the practical aspects of the physician’s role, a very uncertain process of certification, and little regulation to ensure a suitable reward for their educational investment. For all the emphasis on academic learning and international travel, the majority of provincial physicians returned to practice in their home area, because (...)
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  8. Mediated Education in Early Modern Travel Stories: How Travel Stories Contribute to Children’s Empirical Learning.Feike Dietz - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (2):193-212.
    ArgumentLinking up with recent studies on the experience of space and place in modern youth literature, this article analyzes how the “journey” as a narrative line and motif transformed Dutch early modern travel books for children from classical teaching instruments into explorative knowledge places. In the popular seventeenth-centuryGlorious and Fortunate Journey to the Holy Land, young readers were invited to travel within the book, which was presented as a place that covers material pages to observe as well as imagined places (...)
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  9.  3
    Youthful Minds and Hands: Learning Practical Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.Feike Dietz & Sven Dupré - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (2):113-118.
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  10.  1
    Apprenticeship in the Renaissance University: Student Authorship and Craft Knowledge.Richard J. Oosterhoff - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (2):119-136.
    ArgumentStudents entered Renaissance universities as apprentices in the craft of books. In the decades around 1500, such university training began to involve not only manuscript circulation, but also the production and the use of books in the new medium of print. Through their role in the crafting of books, I show how a circle of students around Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples gained the experience needed to become bookmen. Students took classroom manuscripts and brought them into print – the new print shop (...)
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  11.  1
    Curiosity, Youth, and Knowledge in the Visual and Textual Culture of the Dutch Republic.Els Stronks - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (2):213-236.
    ArgumentThe imitation of adults was the dominant educational early modern model, as it had been from the classical era. Yet, from 1500 onward, this traditional model clashed with new pedagogical ideals that explored if and how the youthful mind differed from the adult. To investigate this clash, I examine individual and aggregate cases – taken from the Dutch textual culture – representing conceptualizations of what has been labelled “the curiosity family”. As previously established, during the seventeenth century, curiosity turned from (...)
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  12. Between Apprenticeship and Skill: Acquiring Knowledge Outside the Academy in Early Modern England.Patrick Wallis - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (2):155-170.
    ArgumentApprenticeship was probably the largest mode of organized learning in early modern European societies, and artisan practitioners commonly began as apprentices. Yet little is known about how youths actually gained skills. I develop a model of vocational pedagogy that accounts for the characteristics of apprenticeship and use a range of legal and autobiographical sources to examine the contribution of different forms of training in England. Apprenticeship emerges as a relatively narrow channel, in which the master’s contribution to training was weakly (...)
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  13. Maps for a Prince.Lee Palmer Wandel - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (2):171-192.
    ArgumentThis article takes up what and how maps might have taught a Crown Prince in the century before maps became a part of classrooms and Mercator’s system of projection engendered those collective perceptions of space and person that have become a part of a modern shared spatial imagination. The focus of this article is a single codex, utterly unique, which scholars have posited was compiled in 1570 to accompany the Crown Prince of Jülich-Cleves-Berg on his Italian trip. This article argues (...)
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  14. Scientific Medicine and the Politics of Public Health: Minorities in Interwar Eastern Europe.Nadav Davidovitch & Rakefet Zalashik - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (1):1-4.
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  15.  1
    Epidemiological State-Building in Interwar Poland: Discourses and Paper Technologies.Katharina Kreuder-Sonnen - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (1):43-65.
    ArgumentThe paper argues that epidemic surveillance and state-building were closely interconnected in interwar Poland. Starting from the paper technology of weekly epidemiological reporting it discusses how the reporting scheme of Polish epidemics came into being in the context of a typhus epidemic in 1919–20. It then shows how the statistics regarding nation-wide epidemics was put into practice. It is only when we take into account these practices that we can understand the epidemiological order the statistics produced. The preprinted weekly report (...)
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  16.  7
    ARA Relief Campaign in the Volga Region, Jewish Anthropometric Statistics, and the Scientific Promise of Integration.Marina Mogilner - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (1):5-24.
    ArgumentThe article builds a case for the Society for the Protection of the Health of the Jewish Population as a project of medicalized modernity, a mass politics of Jewish self-help that relied on a racialized and medicalized vision of a future Jewish nation. Officially registered in 1912 in St. Petersburg, it created the space for a Jewish politics that focused on the state of the collective Jewish body as a precondition for Jewish participation in any version of modernity. OZE futurism (...)
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  17.  12
    Eugenics and Racial Anthropology in the Ukrainian Radical Nationalist Tradition.Per Anders Rudling - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (1):67-91.
    ArgumentEugenics and race played significant roles in Ukrainian interwar nationalism, yet remain largely unstudied. The Ukrainian nationalists’ understanding of the racial makeup of their imagined community was contradictory as they struggled to reconcile their desire for racial “purity” with the realities of significant variations between the populations inhabiting the enormous territories which they sought to include in their intended state project. The “turn to the right” over the 1930s placed an increased onus on race, and eugenics came to occupy an (...)
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  18.  1
    Giving Tshuve to the Sick: Correspondence Columns of the Yiddish Medical Press in Poland.Marek Tuszewicki - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (1):25-41.
    ArgumentSeveral Yiddish medical publications of various profiles appeared in independent Poland until 1939. These print media were associated with OZE and TOZ organizational structures and aimed to promote modern concepts of health and healthcare among the Jewish population in its native tongue. Some of these magazines offered space for direct consultations, which took the form of a correspondence corner. Questions sent in by readers ranged from apparently neutral topics, such as a healthy diet or hygiene, to controversial matters tormenting individuals (...)
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  19.  4
    The Course of Professionalization: Jewish Nursing in Poland in the Interwar Period.Rakefet Zalashik & Nadav Davidovitch - 2019 - Science in Context 32 (1):93-109.
    ArgumentThis paper focuses on the Jewish nursing profession in Poland during the interwar period. We argue that the integration of Jewish women in medical activity under the AJDC and TOZ emerged in Poland less from the adoption of gender equality and more out of necessity. On the one hand, JDC and TOZ needed Jewish nurses and public health nurses to carry out their health campaigns and build a public health infrastructure. On the other hand, a new generation of Jewish women (...)
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