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  1.  3
    From Logic in Islam to Islamic Logic.Musa Akrami - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (1):61-83.
    Speaking of relations between logic and religion in Islamic world may refer to logic in two respects: logic in religious texts, from doctrinal sacred texts such as Qur’ān and sayings of the Prophet to the Qur’ānic commentaries and the texts related to the principles and fundamentals of jurisprudence, all of which make use of some reasoning to persuade the audiences or to infer the rules and prescripts for religious behavior of the members of religious community; and logic as a discipline (...)
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  2.  4
    Monotonic and Non-Monotonic Embeddings of Anselm’s Proof.Archambault Jacob - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (1):121-138.
    A consequence relation \ is monotonic iff for premise sets \ and conclusion \, if \, \, then \; and non-monotonic if this fails in some instance. More plainly, a consequence relation is monotonic when whatever is entailed by a premise set remains entailed by any of its supersets. From the High Middle Ages through the Early Modern period, consequence in theology is assumed to be monotonic. Concomitantly, to the degree the argument formulated by Anselm at Proslogion 2–4 is taken (...)
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  3.  2
    Computer-Assisted Analysis of the Anderson–Hájek Ontological Controversy.C. Benzmüller, L. Weber & Paleo B. Woltzenlogel - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (1):139-151.
    A universal reasoning approach based on shallow semantical embeddings of higher-order modal logics into classical higher-order logic is exemplarily employed to analyze several modern variants of the ontological argument on the computer. Several novel findings are reported which contribute to the clarification of a long-standing dispute between Anderson and Hájek. The technology employed in this work, which to some degree realizes Leibniz’s dream of a characteristica universalis and a calculus ratiocinator for solving philosophical controversies, is ready to be fruitfully adopted (...)
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  4.  7
    Logic and Religion.Jean-Yves Beziau & Ricardo Silvestre - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (1):1-12.
    We first start by describing the happening of the 1st World Congress on Logic and Religion. We then explain the motivation for developing the interaction between logic and religion. In a third part we discuss some papers presented at this event published in the present special issue.
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  5.  1
    Thinking Negation in Early Hinduism and Classical Indian Philosophy.Purushottama Bilimoria - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (1):13-33.
    A number of different kinds of negation and negation of negation are developed in Indian thought, from ancient religious texts to classical philosophy. The paper explores the Mīmāṃsā, Nyāya, Jaina and Buddhist theorizing on the various forms and permutations of negation, denial, nullity, nothing and nothingness, or emptiness. The main thesis argued for is that in the broad Indic tradition, negation cannot be viewed as a mere classical operator turning the true into the false, nor reduced to the mainstream Boolean (...)
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  6.  2
    A Logical Analysis of the Anselm’s Unum Argumentum.Jean-Pierre Desclés - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (1):105-119.
    Anselm of Cantorbery wrote Proslogion, where is formulated the famous ‘Unum argumentum’ about the existence of God. This argument was been disputed and criticized by numerous logicians from an extensional view point. The classical predicate logic is not able to give a formal frame to develop an adequate analysis of this argument. According to us, this argument is not an ontological proof; it analyses the meaning of the “quo nihil maius cogitari posit”, a characterization of God, and establish, by absurd, (...)
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  7.  8
    Leibniz’s Ontological Proof of the Existence of God and the Problem of »Impossible Objects«.Wolfgang Lenzen - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (1):85-104.
    The core idea of the ontological proof is to show that the concept of existence is somehow contained in the concept of God, and that therefore God’s existence can be logically derived—without any further assumptions about the external world—from the very idea, or definition, of God. Now, G.W. Leibniz has argued repeatedly that the traditional versions of the ontological proof are not fully conclusive, because they rest on the tacit assumption that the concept of God is possible, i.e. free from (...)
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  8.  4
    Karma Theory, Determinism, Fatalism and Freedom of Will.Ricardo Sousa Silvestre - 2017 - Logica Universalis 11 (1):35-60.
    The so-called theory of karma is one of the distinguishing aspects of Hinduism and other non-Hindu south-Asian traditions. At the same time that the theory can be seen as closely connected with the freedom of will and action that we humans supposedly have, it has many times been said to be determinist and fatalist. The purpose of this paper is to analyze in some deepness the relations that are between the theory of karma on one side and determinism, fatalism and (...)
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